RAD6

Summary

Gene Symbol: RAD6
Description: E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein RAD6
Alias: PSO8, UBC2, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein RAD6
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Giannattasio M, Lazzaro F, Plevani P, Muzi Falconi M. The DNA damage checkpoint response requires histone H2B ubiquitination by Rad6-Bre1 and H3 methylation by Dot1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9879-86 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that ubiquitination of histone H2B on lysine 123 by the Rad6-Bre1 complex, is necessary for activation of Rad53 kinase and cell cycle arrest...
  2. Odagiri N, Seki M, Onoda F, Yoshimura A, Watanabe S, Enomoto T. Budding yeast mms4 is epistatic with rad52 and the function of Mms4 can be replaced by a bacterial Holliday junction resolvase. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:347-58 pubmed
  3. Nillegoda N, Theodoraki M, Mandal A, Mayo K, Ren H, Sultana R, et al. Ubr1 and Ubr2 function in a quality control pathway for degradation of unfolded cytosolic proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2102-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubr1 and Ubr2 therefore represent E3 components of a novel quality control pathway for proteins synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes. ..
  4. Kupiec M, Simchen G. DNA-repair characterization of cdc40-1, a cell-cycle mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat Res. 1986;162:33-40 pubmed
    ..cdc40-1 mutants shown only slight sensitivity to UV irradiation. Double mutant studies shown that rad6-l is epistatic to cdc40-1 with respect to sensitivity to UV irradiation and MMS...
  5. Kats E, Enserink J, Martinez S, Kolodner R. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad6 postreplication repair and Siz1/Srs2 homologous recombination-inhibiting pathways process DNA damage that arises in asf1 mutants. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5226-37 pubmed publisher
    The Asf1 and Rad6 pathways have been implicated in a number of common processes such as suppression of gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs), DNA repair, modification of chromatin, and proper checkpoint functions...
  6. Hoege C, Pfander B, Moldovan G, Pyrowolakis G, Jentsch S. RAD6-dependent DNA repair is linked to modification of PCNA by ubiquitin and SUMO. Nature. 2002;419:135-41 pubmed
    The RAD6 pathway is central to post-replicative DNA repair in eukaryotic cells; however, the machinery and its regulation remain poorly understood...
  7. Johnson E, Blobel G. Ubc9p is the conjugating enzyme for the ubiquitin-like protein Smt3p. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:26799-802 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae. These results suggest that, like ubiquitination, Smt3p conjugation may be a critical modification in cell cycle regulation. ..
  8. Ulrich H. The srs2 suppressor of UV sensitivity acts specifically on the RAD5- and MMS2-dependent branch of the RAD6 pathway. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:3487-94 pubmed
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in srs2 suppress the extreme sensitivity towards UV radiation of rad6 and rad18 mutants, both of which are impaired in post-replication DNA repair and damage-induced mutagenesis...
  9. Cejka P, Vondrejs V, Storchova Z. Dissection of the functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD6 postreplicative repair group in mutagenesis and UV sensitivity. Genetics. 2001;159:953-63 pubmed
    The RAD6 postreplicative repair group participates in various processes of DNA metabolism...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Byrd C, Turner G, Varshavsky A. The N-end rule pathway controls the import of peptides through degradation of a transcriptional repressor. EMBO J. 1998;17:269-77 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae. Thus, one physiological substrate of the N-end rule pathway functions as both a repressor of peptide import and a regulator of copper homeostasis. ..
  2. Zhang H, Lawrence C. The error-free component of the RAD6/RAD18 DNA damage tolerance pathway of budding yeast employs sister-strand recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15954-9 pubmed
    ..We have investigated this mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which it is the major component of the RAD6/RAD18 pathway, by transforming an isogenic set of rad1Delta excision-defective strains with plasmids that carry a ..
  3. Broomfield S, Xiao W. Suppression of genetic defects within the RAD6 pathway by srs2 is specific for error-free post-replication repair but not for damage-induced mutagenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:732-9 pubmed
    srs2 was isolated during a screen for mutants that could suppress the UV-sensitive phenotype of rad6 and rad18 cells...
  4. Bailly V, Lauder S, Prakash S, Prakash L. Yeast DNA repair proteins Rad6 and Rad18 form a heterodimer that has ubiquitin conjugating, DNA binding, and ATP hydrolytic activities. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:23360-5 pubmed
    The RAD6 and RAD18 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are required for postreplicative bypass of ultraviolet (UV)-damaged DNA and for UV mutagenesis...
  5. Dohmen R, Madura K, Bartel B, Varshavsky A. The N-end rule is mediated by the UBC2(RAD6) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:7351-5 pubmed
    ..Distinct versions of the N-end rule operate in all organisms examined, from mammals to bacteria. We show that UBC2(RAD6), one of at least seven ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for ..
  6. Fu Y, Zhu Y, Zhang K, Yeung M, Durocher D, Xiao W. Rad6-Rad18 mediates a eukaryotic SOS response by ubiquitinating the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp. Cell. 2008;133:601-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitination complex Rad6-Rad18 is required for the increased transcription of a large number of yeast genes in response to DNA damage...
  7. Schiestl R, Prakash S, Prakash L. The SRS2 suppressor of rad6 mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts by channeling DNA lesions into the RAD52 DNA repair pathway. Genetics. 1990;124:817-31 pubmed
    b>rad6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are defective in the repair of damaged DNA, DNA damage induced mutagenesis, and sporulation...
  8. O Neill B, Hanway D, Winzeler E, Romesberg F. Coordinated functions of WSS1, PSY2 and TOF1 in the DNA damage response. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:6519-30 pubmed
    ..Tof1 is known to be involved in stabilizing stalled replication forks and our data suggest that Wss1 and Psy2 similarly function to stabilize or process stalled or collapsed replication forks. ..
  9. Pfander B, Moldovan G, Sacher M, Hoege C, Jentsch S. SUMO-modified PCNA recruits Srs2 to prevent recombination during S phase. Nature. 2005;436:428-33 pubmed
    ..Our finding suggests a model in which SUMO-modified PCNA recruits Srs2 in S phase in order to prevent unwanted recombination events of replicating chromosomes. ..
  10. Minesinger B, Jinks Robertson S. Roles of RAD6 epistasis group members in spontaneous polzeta-dependent translesion synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;169:1939-55 pubmed
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, members of the RAD6 epistasis group are key players in the regulation of lesion bypass by the translesion DNA polymerase Polzeta...
  11. Zhuang Z, Johnson R, Haracska L, Prakash L, Prakash S, Benkovic S. Regulation of polymerase exchange between Poleta and Poldelta by monoubiquitination of PCNA and the movement of DNA polymerase holoenzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the removal of the ubiquitin moiety from PCNA is likely required for the reverse exchange step after the lesion bypass synthesis by Poleta. ..
  12. Northam M, Garg P, Baitin D, Burgers P, Shcherbakova P. A novel function of DNA polymerase zeta regulated by PCNA. EMBO J. 2006;25:4316-25 pubmed
    ..studies of a PCNA mutant defective for functional interactions with Polzeta, but not for monoubiquitination by the Rad6/Rad18 complex demonstrate a role for PCNA in regulating the mutagenic activity of Polzeta separate from its ..
  13. Haracska L, Torres Ramos C, Johnson R, Prakash S, Prakash L. Opposing effects of ubiquitin conjugation and SUMO modification of PCNA on replicational bypass of DNA lesions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4267-74 pubmed
    The Rad6-Rad18 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae promotes replication through DNA lesions via three separate pathways that include translesion synthesis (TLS) by DNA polymerases zeta (Polzeta) and Poleta and ..
  14. Iraqui I, Faye G, Ragu S, Masurel Heneman A, Kolodner R, Huang M. Human peroxiredoxin PrxI is an orthologue of yeast Tsa1, capable of suppressing genome instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1055-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of TSA1 is synthetically lethal with mutations in RAD6 and several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair...
  15. Wang L, Mao X, Ju D, Xie Y. Rpn4 is a physiological substrate of the Ubr2 ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55218-23 pubmed
    ..The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Rad6, which directly interacts with Ubr2, is also required for the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Rpn4...
  16. Wood A, Schneider J, Dover J, Johnston M, Shilatifard A. The Paf1 complex is essential for histone monoubiquitination by the Rad6-Bre1 complex, which signals for histone methylation by COMPASS and Dot1p. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34739-42 pubmed
    Monoubiquitination of histone H2B, catalyzed by Rad6-Bre1, is required for methylation of histone H3 on lysines 4 and 79, catalyzed by the Set1-containing complex COMPASS and Dot1p, respectively...
  17. Du F, Navarro Garcia F, Xia Z, Tasaki T, Varshavsky A. Pairs of dipeptides synergistically activate the binding of substrate by ubiquitin ligase through dissociation of its autoinhibitory domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14110-5 pubmed
    ..The discovery of autoinhibition in Ub ligases of the UBR family indicates that this regulatory mechanism may also control the activity of other Ub ligases. ..
  18. Hwang W, Venkatasubrahmanyam S, Ianculescu A, Tong A, Boone C, Madhani H. A conserved RING finger protein required for histone H2B monoubiquitination and cell size control. Mol Cell. 2003;11:261-6 pubmed
    ..In cells lacking the euchromatin-associated histone variant H2A.Z, BRE1, RAD6, and LGE1 are each essential for cell viability, supporting redundant functions for H2B ubiquitination and H2A ..
  19. Robzyk K, Recht J, Osley M. Rad6-dependent ubiquitination of histone H2B in yeast. Science. 2000;287:501-4 pubmed
    ..uH2B was not detected in rad6 mutants, which are defective for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc2, thus identifying Rad6 as the major cellular activity that ubiquitinates H2B in yeast.
  20. Xie Y, Varshavsky A. The E2-E3 interaction in the N-end rule pathway: the RING-H2 finger of E3 is required for the synthesis of multiubiquitin chain. EMBO J. 1999;18:6832-44 pubmed
    ..These results defined the topography of the Ubc2p-Ubr1p interaction and revealed the essential function of the RING-H2 finger, a domain that is present in many otherwise dissimilar E3 proteins of the ubiquitin system. ..
  21. Erlich R, Fry R, Begley T, Daee D, Lahue R, Samson L. Anc1, a protein associated with multiple transcription complexes, is involved in postreplication repair pathway in S. cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3717 pubmed publisher
    ..Anc1's role in the PRR pathway, as well as its role in suppressing triplet repeats, point to a possible mechanism for a protein of potential medical interest. ..
  22. Turner G, Du F, Varshavsky A. Peptides accelerate their uptake by activating a ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Nature. 2000;405:579-83 pubmed
    ..These findings identify the physiological rationale for the targeting of Cup9 by Ubr1, and indicate that small compounds may regulate other ubiquitin-dependent pathways. ..
  23. Bailly V, Lamb J, Sung P, Prakash S, Prakash L. Specific complex formation between yeast RAD6 and RAD18 proteins: a potential mechanism for targeting RAD6 ubiquitin-conjugating activity to DNA damage sites. Genes Dev. 1994;8:811-20 pubmed
    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that is required for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA, DNA damage induced mutagenesis, sporulation, and amino-end rule protein degradation...
  24. Broomfield S, Chow B, Xiao W. MMS2, encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-like protein, is a member of the yeast error-free postreplication repair pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5678-83 pubmed
    Among the three Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair epistasis groups, the RAD6 group is the most complicated and least characterized, primarily because it consists of two separate repair pathways: an error-free postreplication repair ..
  25. Parker J, Ulrich H. Mechanistic analysis of PCNA poly-ubiquitylation by the ubiquitin protein ligases Rad18 and Rad5. EMBO J. 2009;28:3657-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analysed the mechanism of poly-ubiquitylation of the replication clamp PCNA by two cooperating E2-E3 pairs, Rad6-Rad18 and Ubc13-Mms2-Rad5...
  26. Jentsch S, McGrath J, Varshavsky A. The yeast DNA repair gene RAD6 encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Nature. 1987;329:131-4 pubmed
    The RAD6 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for a variety of cellular functions including DNA repair...
  27. Ulrich H, Jentsch S. Two RING finger proteins mediate cooperation between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in DNA repair. EMBO J. 2000;19:3388-97 pubmed
    Two ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, RAD6 and the heteromeric UBC13-MMS2 complex, have been implicated in post-replicative DNA damage repair in yeast. Here we provide a mechanistic basis for cooperation between the two enzymes...
  28. Ragu S, Faye G, Iraqui I, Masurel Heneman A, Kolodner R, Huang M. Oxygen metabolism and reactive oxygen species cause chromosomal rearrangements and cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9747-52 pubmed
    ..Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD6 and several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair...
  29. Paulovich A, Armour C, Hartwell L. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD9, RAD17, RAD24 and MEC3 genes are required for tolerating irreparable, ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. Genetics. 1998;150:75-93 pubmed
    ..Therefore, checkpoint genes not only control cell cycle progression in response to damage, but also play a role in accommodating DNA damage during replication. ..
  30. Kao C, Hillyer C, Tsukuda T, Henry K, Berger S, Osley M. Rad6 plays a role in transcriptional activation through ubiquitylation of histone H2B. Genes Dev. 2004;18:184-95 pubmed
    ..We now show that the Rad6 protein, which catalyzes monoubiquitylation of H2B, is transiently associated with the GAL1 promoter upon gene ..
  31. Turco E, Gallego L, Schneider M, Köhler A. Monoubiquitination of histone H2B is intrinsic to the Bre1 RING domain-Rad6 interaction and augmented by a second Rad6-binding site on Bre1. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:5298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..The yeast RING E3 ligase Bre1 combines with the E2 Rad6 to monoubiquitinate histone H2B during transcription...
  32. Tongaonkar P, Chen L, Lambertson D, Ko B, Madura K. Evidence for an interaction between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and the 26S proteasome. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4691-8 pubmed
    ..We have discovered that E2 proteins, including Ubc1, Ubc2, Ubc4, and Ubc5, can interact with the 26S proteasome...
  33. Gaillard H, Tous C, Botet J, González Aguilera C, Quintero M, Viladevall L, et al. Genome-wide analysis of factors affecting transcription elongation and DNA repair: a new role for PAF and Ccr4-not in transcription-coupled repair. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000364 pubmed publisher
  34. Martin D, Baetz K, Shi X, Walter K, MacDonald V, Wlodarski M, et al. The Yng1p plant homeodomain finger is a methyl-histone binding module that recognizes lysine 4-methylated histone H3. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7871-9 pubmed
    ..These results identify a novel function for the Yng1p PHD finger in promoting stabilization of the NuA3 complex at chromatin through recognition of histone H3 lysine 4 methylation. ..
  35. Game J, Williamson M, Spicakova T, Brown J. The RAD6/BRE1 histone modification pathway in Saccharomyces confers radiation resistance through a RAD51-dependent process that is independent of RAD18. Genetics. 2006;173:1951-68 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IR resistance conferred by BRE1 and DOT1 is mediated through homologous recombinational repair, not postreplication repair, and confirm findings of a G1 checkpoint role for the RAD6/BRE1/DOT1 pathway.
  36. Hiraishi H, Mochizuki M, Takagi H. Enhancement of stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 and ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:2762-5 pubmed
    ..Co-overexpression of Rsp5 and Ubc1, Ubc2, Ubc3, Ubc5, Ubc6, Ubc9, Ubc10, Ubc11, Ubc12, or Ubc13 further enhanced stress tolerance...
  37. Braun M, Costa P, Crisucci E, Arndt K. Identification of Rkr1, a nuclear RING domain protein with functional connections to chromatin modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2800-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify a new participant in a protein ubiquitylation pathway within the nucleus that acts to modulate chromatin function and transcription. ..
  38. Daraba A, Gali V, Halmai M, Haracska L, Unk I. Def1 promotes the degradation of Pol3 for polymerase exchange to occur during DNA-damage--induced mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001771 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that TLS polymerases carry out DNA lesion bypass only after the Def1-assisted removal of Pol3 from the stalled replication fork...
  39. Tomson B, Crisucci E, Heisler L, Gebbia M, Nislow C, Arndt K. Effects of the Paf1 complex and histone modifications on snoRNA 3'-end formation reveal broad and locus-specific regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:170-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discovered roles for the transcriptional regulators Bur1-Bur2, Rad6, and Set2 in snoRNA 3'-end formation...
  40. Vitaliano Prunier A, Menant A, Hobeika M, Geli V, Gwizdek C, Dargemont C. Ubiquitylation of the COMPASS component Swd2 links H2B ubiquitylation to H3K4 trimethylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Rad6/Bre1 ubiquitylation enzymes responsible for H2B ubiquitylation also participate directly in Swd2 modification...
  41. Wysocki R, Javaheri A, Allard S, Sha F, Cote J, Kron S. Role of Dot1-dependent histone H3 methylation in G1 and S phase DNA damage checkpoint functions of Rad9. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8430-43 pubmed
    ..Mutations that affect Dot1 function such as Rad6-Bre1/Paf1 pathway gene deletions or mutation of H2B Lys 123 or H3 Lys 79 share dot1Delta checkpoint defects...
  42. Huang R, Kowalski D, Minderman H, Gandhi N, Johnson E. Small ubiquitin-related modifier pathway is a major determinant of doxorubicin cytotoxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cancer Res. 2007;67:765-72 pubmed
    ..Cumulatively, these results reveal that SUMO modification of proteins mediates the doxorubicin cytotoxicity in yeast, at least partially, by modification of septins and of proteins that control the intracellular drug concentration. ..
  43. Gallego L, Ghodgaonkar Steger M, Polyansky A, Schubert T, Zagrovic B, Zheng N, et al. Structural mechanism for the recognition and ubiquitination of a single nucleosome residue by Rad6-Bre1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:10553-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The yeast E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1 (human RNF20/40) pairs with the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Rad6 to monoubiquitinate H2B at Lys123...
  44. Parker J, Ulrich H. A SUMO-interacting motif activates budding yeast ubiquitin ligase Rad18 towards SUMO-modified PCNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:11380-8 pubmed publisher
  45. Madura K, Dohmen R, Varshavsky A. N-recognin/Ubc2 interactions in the N-end rule pathway. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:12046-54 pubmed
    ..that includes the 225-kDa N-recognin, encoded by UBR1, and the 20-kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme encoded by UBC2. We report that both physical stability and functional activity of the N-recognin...
  46. Song Y, Ahn S. A Bre1-associated protein, large 1 (Lge1), promotes H2B ubiquitylation during the early stages of transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Lge1 (Large 1) is found in a complex containing Rad6.Bre1 and that it controls the recruitment of Bre1, a ubiquitin ligase, and Ubp8, a deubiquitylase, to promote ..
  47. Huang H, Kahana A, Gottschling D, Prakash L, Liebman S. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Rad6 (Ubc2) is required for silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6693-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that a null mutation of the DNA repair gene RAD6 reduces silencing of the HM loci and lowers the mating efficiency of MATa strains...
  48. Kim J, Roeder R. Direct Bre1-Paf1 complex interactions and RING finger-independent Bre1-Rad6 interactions mediate histone H2B ubiquitylation in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20582-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a more detailed mechanistic basis for H2B ubiquitylation in yeast. ..
  49. Oh J, Hyun J, Varshavsky A. Control of Hsp90 chaperone and its clients by N-terminal acetylation and the N-end rule pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E4370-E4379 pubmed publisher
  50. McDonald J, Levine A, Woodgate R. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD30 gene, a homologue of Escherichia coli dinB and umuC, is DNA damage inducible and functions in a novel error-free postreplication repair mechanism. Genetics. 1997;147:1557-68 pubmed
    ..Like many S. cerevisiae genes involved in error-prone DNA repair, epistasis analysis clearly places RAD30 in the RAD6 group and rad30 mutants display moderate UV sensitivity reminiscent of rev mutants...
  51. Li X, Tye B. Ploidy dictates repair pathway choice under DNA replication stress. Genetics. 2011;187:1031-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Haploid mutants use the Rad6-dependent pathways that resume stalled forks, whereas the diploid mutants use the Rad52- and MRX-dependent pathways ..
  52. Koltovaya N, Arman I, Devin A. Mutations of the CDC28 gene and the radiation sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1998;14:133-46 pubmed
    ..has revealed additive or even synergistic interactions between the cdc28-srm mutation and every one of the rad6-1 and rad52-1 mutations. The rad9 delta allele was found to be epistatic to cdc28-srm...
  53. Huang M, Rio A, Galibert M, Galibert F. Pol32, a subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase delta, suppresses genomic deletions and is involved in the mutagenic bypass pathway. Genetics. 2002;160:1409-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations indicate that Pol32 is important in ensuring genome stability and in mutagenesis. ..
  54. Karras G, Jentsch S. The RAD6 DNA damage tolerance pathway operates uncoupled from the replication fork and is functional beyond S phase. Cell. 2010;141:255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In eukaryotes, tolerance to damaged DNA is mediated largely by the RAD6 pathway involving ubiquitylation of the DNA polymerase processivity factor PCNA...
  55. Kornitzer D, Raboy B, Kulka R, Fink G. Regulated degradation of the transcription factor Gcn4. EMBO J. 1994;13:6021-30 pubmed
    ..system for cytoplasmic proteins, and is dependent on two specific ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, Cdc34 (Ubc3) and Rad6 (Ubc2)...
  56. Brown C, Hung G, Dunton D, Chiang H. The TOR complex 1 is distributed in endosomes and in retrograde vesicles that form from the vacuole membrane and plays an important role in the vacuole import and degradation pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23359-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that TORC1 interacts with multiple cargo proteins destined for the Vid pathway and plays an important role in the degradation of FBPase in the vacuole. ..
  57. Dor Y, Raboy B, Kulka R. Role of the conserved carboxy-terminal alpha-helix of Rad6p in ubiquitination and DNA repair. Mol Microbiol. 1996;21:1197-206 pubmed
    b>RAD6 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme essential for DNA repair as well as for a number of other biological processes...
  58. Rolla H, Grey M, Schmidt C, Niegemann E, Brendel M, Henriques J. Mutant pso8-1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sensitive to photoactivated psoralens, UV radiation, and chemical mutagens, contains a rad6 missense mutant allele. Curr Genet. 2002;41:217-23 pubmed
    ..via complementation of the pso8 mutant's sensitivity phenotype and genetic studies revealed that pso8 is allelic to RAD6. While a pso8-1 mutant had low mutagen-induced mutability, homoallelic diploids showed nearly wild-type sporulation...
  59. Ju D, Wang X, Xu H, Xie Y. Genome-wide analysis identifies MYND-domain protein Mub1 as an essential factor for Rpn4 ubiquitylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1404-12 pubmed
    ..Previous work has identified Ubr2 and Rad6 as the cognate E3 and E2 enzymes for Rpn4 ubiquitylation...
  60. Ju D, Xie Y. Identification of the preferential ubiquitination site and ubiquitin-dependent degradation signal of Rpn4. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10657-62 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrated that lysine 187 and a proximal acidic domain constitute a portable degradation signal. The implications of our data are discussed. ..
  61. Wan Y, Chiang J, Lin C, Arens C, Saleem R, Smith J, et al. Histone chaperone Chz1p regulates H2B ubiquitination and subtelomeric anti-silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1431-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results demonstrate a novel role for Chz1p in epigenetic regulation, through H2B de-ubiquitination by Ubp10p. ..
  62. Singer T, Haefner S, Hoffmann M, Fischer M, Ilyina J, Hilt W. Sit4 phosphatase is functionally linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Genetics. 2003;164:1305-21 pubmed
    ..Nearly identical synthetic effects were found when sit4 mutations were combined with defects of the Rad6/Ubc2- and Cdc34/Ubc3-dependent ubiquitination pathways...
  63. Ptak C, Gwozd C, Huzil J, Gwozd T, Garen G, Ellison M. Creation of a pluripotent ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6537-48 pubmed
    ..ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) generated through a single amino acid substitution within the catalytic domain of RAD6 (UBC2)...
  64. Hill K, Cooper A. Degradation of unassembled Vph1p reveals novel aspects of the yeast ER quality control system. EMBO J. 2000;19:550-61 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that other ERQC components must exist to effect the degradation of Vph1p, perhaps comprising an alternative pathway. ..
  65. Scheller J, Schürer A, Rudolph C, Hettwer S, Kramer W. MPH1, a yeast gene encoding a DEAH protein, plays a role in protection of the genome from spontaneous and chemically induced damage. Genetics. 2000;155:1069-81 pubmed
    ..The mutator phenotype was dependent on REV3 and RAD6. The mutant was sensitive to MMS, EMS, 4-NQO, and camptothecin, but not to UV light and X rays...
  66. Pijuan J, María C, Herrero E, Bellí G. Impaired mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biogenesis activates the DNA damage response through different signaling mediators. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:4653-65 pubmed publisher
  67. de Padula M, Slezak G, Auffret van Der Kemp P, Boiteux S. The post-replication repair RAD18 and RAD6 genes are involved in the prevention of spontaneous mutations caused by 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5003-10 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we show the RAD18 and RAD6 genes that are required to initiate post-replication repair (PRR) are also involved in the prevention of mutations ..
  68. Armstrong A, Mohideen F, Lima C. Recognition of SUMO-modified PCNA requires tandem receptor motifs in Srs2. Nature. 2012;483:59-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism presented is pertinent to understanding how other receptors specifically recognize Ub- and Ubl-modified substrates to facilitate signal transduction. ..
  69. Tsui C, Raguraj A, Pickart C. Ubiquitin binding site of the ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) protein Mms2 is required for DNA damage tolerance in the yeast RAD6 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19829-35 pubmed
    ..ubiquitin modifications to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) signal distinct modes of lesion bypass in the RAD6 pathway of DNA damage tolerance...
  70. Wood A, Krogan N, Dover J, Schneider J, Heidt J, Boateng M, et al. Bre1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase required for recruitment and substrate selection of Rad6 at a promoter. Mol Cell. 2003;11:267-74 pubmed
    Ubiquitination of histone H2B catalyzed by Rad6 is required for methylation of histone H3 by COMPASS. We identified Bre1 as the probable E3 for Rad6's role in transcription...
  71. Keszenman D, Candreva E, Sánchez A, Nunes E. RAD6 gene is involved in heat shock induction of bleomycin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005;45:36-43 pubmed
    ..in the ubiquitin system and DNA repair, we analyzed the effects of HS on the lethality of BLM in a rad6Delta (ubc2) mutant strain of S. cerevisiae...