RAD51

Summary

Gene Symbol: RAD51
Description: recombinase RAD51
Alias: MUT5, recombinase RAD51
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     RAD51

Top Publications

  1. Johnson R, Symington L. Functional differences and interactions among the putative RecA homologs Rad51, Rad55, and Rad57. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4843-50 pubmed
    ..Three of these genes, RAD51, RAD55, and RAD57, have been identified as putative RecA homologs...
  2. Ashton T, Mankouri H, Heidenblut A, McHugh P, Hickson I. Pathways for Holliday junction processing during homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1921-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 complex constitutes the main pathway for the processing of HJ-containing HRR intermediates but that Mus81-Mms4 can also resolve these intermediates. ..
  3. Milne G, Ho T, Weaver D. Modulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA double-strand break repair by SRS2 and RAD51. Genetics. 1995;139:1189-99 pubmed
    ..phenotypic null allele of SRS2 that suppressed multiple alleles of RAD52 (rad52B, rad52D, rad52-1 and KlRAD52) and RAD51 (KlRAD51) but failed to suppress either a rad52 delta or a rad51 delta...
  4. Chanet R, Heude M, Adjiri A, Maloisel L, Fabre F. Semidominant mutations in the yeast Rad51 protein and their relationships with the Srs2 helicase. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4782-9 pubmed
    ..negative semidominant for radiation sensitivity; presumably the mutant proteins are coassembled with wild-type Rad51 and poison the resulting nucleofilaments or recombination complexes...
  5. Petukhova G, Van Komen S, Vergano S, Klein H, Sung P. Yeast Rad54 promotes Rad51-dependent homologous DNA pairing via ATP hydrolysis-driven change in DNA double helix conformation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29453-62 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, the Rad54 ATPase activity is shown to be required for biological function in vivo and for promoting Rad51-mediated homologous DNA pairing in vitro...
  6. Bustard D, Menolfi D, Jeppsson K, Ball L, Dewey S, Shirahige K, et al. During replication stress, non-SMC element 5 (NSE5) is required for Smc5/6 protein complex functionality at stalled forks. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data support the premise that Nse5 is important for vital interactions between components within the Smc5/6 complex, and for its functionality during replication stress. ..
  7. Godin S, Wier A, Kabbinavar F, Bratton Palmer D, Ghodke H, Van Houten B, et al. The Shu complex interacts with Rad51 through the Rad51 paralogues Rad55-Rad57 to mediate error-free recombination. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:4525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent structural analysis of two Shu proteins, Csm2 and Psy3, has revealed that these proteins are Rad51 paralogues and mediate DNA binding of this complex...
  8. Solinger J, Lutz G, Sugiyama T, Kowalczykowski S, Heyer W. Rad54 protein stimulates heteroduplex DNA formation in the synaptic phase of DNA strand exchange via specific interactions with the presynaptic Rad51 nucleoprotein filament. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:1207-21 pubmed
    ..In vitro, GST-Rad54 protein exhibited dsDNA-specific ATPase activity. Rad54 protein stimulated Rad51/Rpa-mediated DNA strand exchange by specifically increasing the kinetics of joint molecule formation...
  9. Schramke V, Neecke H, Brevet V, Corda Y, Lucchini G, Longhese M, et al. The set1Delta mutation unveils a novel signaling pathway relayed by the Rad53-dependent hyperphosphorylation of replication protein A that leads to transcriptional activation of repair genes. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1845-58 pubmed
  10. Seong C, Colavito S, Kwon Y, Sung P, Krejci L. Regulation of Rad51 recombinase presynaptic filament assembly via interactions with the Rad52 mediator and the Srs2 anti-recombinase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rad51 recombinase, a member of the RAD52 group of recombination proteins, catalyzes the homologous recombination ..

Detail Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Johnson R, Symington L. Functional differences and interactions among the putative RecA homologs Rad51, Rad55, and Rad57. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4843-50 pubmed
    ..Three of these genes, RAD51, RAD55, and RAD57, have been identified as putative RecA homologs...
  2. Ashton T, Mankouri H, Heidenblut A, McHugh P, Hickson I. Pathways for Holliday junction processing during homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1921-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 complex constitutes the main pathway for the processing of HJ-containing HRR intermediates but that Mus81-Mms4 can also resolve these intermediates. ..
  3. Milne G, Ho T, Weaver D. Modulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA double-strand break repair by SRS2 and RAD51. Genetics. 1995;139:1189-99 pubmed
    ..phenotypic null allele of SRS2 that suppressed multiple alleles of RAD52 (rad52B, rad52D, rad52-1 and KlRAD52) and RAD51 (KlRAD51) but failed to suppress either a rad52 delta or a rad51 delta...
  4. Chanet R, Heude M, Adjiri A, Maloisel L, Fabre F. Semidominant mutations in the yeast Rad51 protein and their relationships with the Srs2 helicase. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4782-9 pubmed
    ..negative semidominant for radiation sensitivity; presumably the mutant proteins are coassembled with wild-type Rad51 and poison the resulting nucleofilaments or recombination complexes...
  5. Petukhova G, Van Komen S, Vergano S, Klein H, Sung P. Yeast Rad54 promotes Rad51-dependent homologous DNA pairing via ATP hydrolysis-driven change in DNA double helix conformation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29453-62 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, the Rad54 ATPase activity is shown to be required for biological function in vivo and for promoting Rad51-mediated homologous DNA pairing in vitro...
  6. Bustard D, Menolfi D, Jeppsson K, Ball L, Dewey S, Shirahige K, et al. During replication stress, non-SMC element 5 (NSE5) is required for Smc5/6 protein complex functionality at stalled forks. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data support the premise that Nse5 is important for vital interactions between components within the Smc5/6 complex, and for its functionality during replication stress. ..
  7. Godin S, Wier A, Kabbinavar F, Bratton Palmer D, Ghodke H, Van Houten B, et al. The Shu complex interacts with Rad51 through the Rad51 paralogues Rad55-Rad57 to mediate error-free recombination. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:4525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent structural analysis of two Shu proteins, Csm2 and Psy3, has revealed that these proteins are Rad51 paralogues and mediate DNA binding of this complex...
  8. Solinger J, Lutz G, Sugiyama T, Kowalczykowski S, Heyer W. Rad54 protein stimulates heteroduplex DNA formation in the synaptic phase of DNA strand exchange via specific interactions with the presynaptic Rad51 nucleoprotein filament. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:1207-21 pubmed
    ..In vitro, GST-Rad54 protein exhibited dsDNA-specific ATPase activity. Rad54 protein stimulated Rad51/Rpa-mediated DNA strand exchange by specifically increasing the kinetics of joint molecule formation...
  9. Schramke V, Neecke H, Brevet V, Corda Y, Lucchini G, Longhese M, et al. The set1Delta mutation unveils a novel signaling pathway relayed by the Rad53-dependent hyperphosphorylation of replication protein A that leads to transcriptional activation of repair genes. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1845-58 pubmed
  10. Seong C, Colavito S, Kwon Y, Sung P, Krejci L. Regulation of Rad51 recombinase presynaptic filament assembly via interactions with the Rad52 mediator and the Srs2 anti-recombinase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rad51 recombinase, a member of the RAD52 group of recombination proteins, catalyzes the homologous recombination ..
  11. Yeung M, Durocher D. Srs2 enables checkpoint recovery by promoting disassembly of DNA damage foci from chromatin. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:1213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This situation occurs in cells that are deficient in the Srs2 helicase, a protein that antagonizes Rad51. We report that srs2? cells fail to eliminate Ddc2 and RPA subnuclear foci following bulk chromosome repair due to ..
  12. Liu J, Renault L, Veaute X, Fabre F, Stahlberg H, Heyer W. Rad51 paralogues Rad55-Rad57 balance the antirecombinase Srs2 in Rad51 filament formation. Nature. 2011;479:245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The RecA/UvsX/RadA/Rad51 family of proteins catalyses the signature reactions of recombination, homology search and DNA strand invasion...
  13. Argunhan B, Farmer S, Leung W, Terentyev Y, Humphryes N, Tsubouchi T, et al. Direct and indirect control of the initiation of meiotic recombination by DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in budding yeast. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65875 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the Mec1 (ATR) pathway is primarily used when DSB ends are resected, thus the rad51 dmc1 double mutant background was employed in which highly resected DSBs accumulate...
  14. Chen Q, Ijpma A, Greider C. Two survivor pathways that allow growth in the absence of telomerase are generated by distinct telomere recombination events. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1819-27 pubmed
    ..RAD52 is essential for the generation of both types of survivors. Deletion of both RAD50 and RAD51 produces a phenotype similar to that produced by deletion of RAD52...
  15. Myung K, Chen C, Kolodner R. Multiple pathways cooperate in the suppression of genome instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature. 2001;411:1073-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations that inactivate these pathways cause high rates of GCRs and show synergistic interactions, indicating that the pathways that suppress GCRs all compete for the same DNA substrates. ..
  16. Krejci L, Van Komen S, Li Y, Villemain J, Reddy M, Klein H, et al. DNA helicase Srs2 disrupts the Rad51 presynaptic filament. Nature. 2003;423:305-9 pubmed
    ..role of SRS2 in recombination modulation by purifying its encoded product and examining its interactions with the Rad51 recombinase...
  17. Kanellis P, Agyei R, Durocher D. Elg1 forms an alternative PCNA-interacting RFC complex required to maintain genome stability. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1583-95 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results reveal that Elg1 forms a novel and conserved alternative RFC complex. Furthermore, we propose that genome instability arises at high frequency in elg1 mutants due to a defect in Okazaki fragment maturation. ..
  18. Ira G, Pellicioli A, Balijja A, Wang X, Fiorani S, Carotenuto W, et al. DNA end resection, homologous recombination and DNA damage checkpoint activation require CDK1. Nature. 2004;431:1011-7 pubmed
    ..to 3' resection of DSB ends and for the recruitment of both the single-stranded DNA-binding complex, RPA, and the Rad51 recombination protein. In contrast, Mre11 protein, part of the MRX complex, accumulates at unresected DSB ends...
  19. Mimitou E, Symington L. Ku prevents Exo1 and Sgs1-dependent resection of DNA ends in the absence of a functional MRX complex or Sae2. EMBO J. 2010;29:3358-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the presence of Ku exacerbates DNA end-processing defects established in the sae2? sgs1? mutant, leading to its lethality. ..
  20. Brocas C, Charbonnier J, Dherin C, Gangloff S, Maloisel L. Stable interactions between DNA polymerase ? catalytic and structural subunits are essential for efficient DNA repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:1098-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data highlight a stringent dependence on Pol ? complex stability in DNA repair. ..
  21. Hays S, Firmenich A, Berg P. Complex formation in yeast double-strand break repair: participation of Rad51, Rad52, Rad55, and Rad57 proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:6925-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the x-ray sensitivity of rad55 and rad57 mutant strains is suppressible by overexpression of RAD51 or RAD52. Virtually complete suppression is provided by the simultaneous overexpression of RAD51 and RAD52...
  22. Bai Y, Symington L. A Rad52 homolog is required for RAD51-independent mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2025-37 pubmed
    ..However, recombination was found to be reduced only 4-fold by mutation of RAD51, which encodes a homolog of bacterial RecA proteins...
  23. Signon L, Malkova A, Naylor M, Klein H, Haber J. Genetic requirements for RAD51- and RAD54-independent break-induced replication repair of a chromosomal double-strand break. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2048-56 pubmed
    ..absence of RAD52, repair is nearly absent and diploid cells lose the broken chromosome; however, in cells lacking RAD51, gene conversion is absent but cells can repair the DSB by BIR...
  24. Krejci L, Song B, Bussen W, Rothstein R, Mortensen U, Sung P. Interaction with Rad51 is indispensable for recombination mediator function of Rad52. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40132-41 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Rad52 physically interacts with the Rad51 recombinase and serves as a mediator in the Rad51-catalyzed DNA strand exchange reaction...
  25. Chen S, Davies A, Sagan D, Ulrich H. The RING finger ATPase Rad5p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contributes to DNA double-strand break repair in a ubiquitin-independent manner. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5878-86 pubmed
  26. Plate I, Hallwyl S, Shi I, Krejci L, Muller C, Albertsen L, et al. Interaction with RPA is necessary for Rad52 repair center formation and for its mediator activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29077-85 pubmed publisher
    ..HR is catalyzed by proteins encoded by genes of the RAD52 epistasis group, including the recombinase Rad51 and its mediator Rad52...
  27. Xiong L, Chen X, Silver H, Ahmed N, Johnson E. Deficient SUMO attachment to Flp recombinase leads to homologous recombination-dependent hyperamplification of the yeast 2 microm circle plasmid. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This work also illustrates the importance of using cir(o) strains when studying mutants that affect the yeast SUMO pathway, to avoid confusing direct functions of the SUMO pathway with secondary effects of 2 microm amplification. ..
  28. Smith C, Lam A, Symington L. Aberrant double-strand break repair resulting in half crossovers in mutants defective for Rad51 or the DNA polymerase delta complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the BIR defect observed for rad51 mutants is due to strand invasion failure, whereas the Pol delta complex mutants are proficient for strand ..
  29. Shinohara A, Gasior S, Ogawa T, Kleckner N, Bishop D. Saccharomyces cerevisiae recA homologues RAD51 and DMC1 have both distinct and overlapping roles in meiotic recombination. Genes Cells. 1997;2:615-29 pubmed
    b>Rad51 and Dmc1 are Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologues of the Escherichia coli recombination protein RecA...
  30. Tsubouchi H, Roeder G. Budding yeast Hed1 down-regulates the mitotic recombination machinery when meiotic recombination is impaired. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1766-75 pubmed
    In budding yeast, there are two RecA homologs: Rad51 and Dmc1. While Rad51 is involved in both mitotic and meiotic recombination, Dmc1 participates specifically in meiotic recombination...
  31. Mankouri H, Ngo H, Hickson I. Shu proteins promote the formation of homologous recombination intermediates that are processed by Sgs1-Rmi1-Top3. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4062-73 pubmed
    ..Here, we have identified a specific role for the Shu proteins in a Rad51/Rad54-dependent HRR pathway(s) to repair MMS-induced lesions during S-phase...
  32. Sheridan S, Yu X, Roth R, Heuser J, Sehorn M, Sung P, et al. A comparative analysis of Dmc1 and Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:4057-66 pubmed publisher
    The eukaryotic RecA homologs Rad51 and Dmc1 are essential for strand exchange between homologous chromosomes during meiosis...
  33. Tsukuda T, Lo Y, Krishna S, Sterk R, Osley M, Nickoloff J. INO80-dependent chromatin remodeling regulates early and late stages of mitotic homologous recombination. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:360-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of homologous donor sequences, RPA recruitment to a DSB appeared normal in arp8Delta, but Rad51 recruitment was defective...
  34. Antony E, Tomko E, Xiao Q, Krejci L, Lohman T, Ellenberger T. Srs2 disassembles Rad51 filaments by a protein-protein interaction triggering ATP turnover and dissociation of Rad51 from DNA. Mol Cell. 2009;35:105-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Rad51 is a DNA recombinase functioning in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and the generation of genetic diversity by homologous recombination (HR)...
  35. Soustelle C, Vernis L, Fréon K, Reynaud Angelin A, Chanet R, Fabre F, et al. A new Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with a mutant Smt3-deconjugating Ulp1 protein is affected in DNA replication and requires Srs2 and homologous recombination for its viability. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5130-43 pubmed
    ..Genetic interactions between ulp1 and mutations that affect different repair pathways indicated that the RAD51-dependent homologous recombination mechanism, but not excision resynthesis, translesion synthesis, or ..
  36. Busygina V, Saro D, Williams G, Leung W, Say A, Sehorn M, et al. Novel attributes of Hed1 affect dynamics and activity of the Rad51 presynaptic filament during meiotic recombination. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1566-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The concurrent action of the Rad51 and Dmc1 recombinases is necessary for an interhomolog bias...
  37. Ribeyre C, Lopes J, Boulé J, Piazza A, Guédin A, Zakian V, et al. The yeast Pif1 helicase prevents genomic instability caused by G-quadruplex-forming CEB1 sequences in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000475 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we conclude that CEB1 instability in pif1Delta cells depends on the potential to form G-quadruplex structures, suggesting that Pif1 could play a role in the metabolism of G4-forming sequences. ..
  38. Tsubouchi H, Roeder G. The importance of genetic recombination for fidelity of chromosome pairing in meiosis. Dev Cell. 2003;5:915-25 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis indicates that Hop2 acts in the same pathway as the Rad51 and Dmc1 proteins, two homologs of E. coli RecA...
  39. Motegi A, Kuntz K, Majeed A, Smith S, Myung K. Regulation of gross chromosomal rearrangements by ubiquitin and SUMO ligases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1424-33 pubmed
    ..We propose a mechanism for how defects in these proteins could lead to diverse outcomes (proper repair or GCR formation) through different regulation of DNA repair machinery. ..
  40. Petukhova G, Sung P, Klein H. Promotion of Rad51-dependent D-loop formation by yeast recombination factor Rdh54/Tid1. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2206-15 pubmed
    ..product, a Swi2/Snf2-like factor involved in recombination, is shown here to promote D-loop formation with Rad51 recombinase...
  41. Oum J, Seong C, Kwon Y, Ji J, Sid A, Ramakrishnan S, et al. RSC facilitates Rad59-dependent homologous recombination between sister chromatids by promoting cohesin loading at DNA double-strand breaks. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3924-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides molecular insights into how chromatin remodeling contributes to DNA repair and maintenance of chromatin fidelity in the face of DNA damage. ..
  42. Davis A, Symington L. The Rad52-Rad59 complex interacts with Rad51 and replication protein A. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:1127-34 pubmed
    ..Rad52 forms complexes with Rad51, replication protein A (RPA) or Rad59 and its presence is essential for the formation of Rad51-Rad52-Rad59 and RPA-..
  43. Krishna S, Wagener B, Liu H, Lo Y, Sterk R, Petrini J, et al. Mre11 and Ku regulation of double-strand break repair by gene conversion and break-induced replication. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:797-808 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, yku70Delta suppressed BIR in mre11 mutants. BIR is also elevated in rad51 mutants, but yku70Delta did not suppress BIR in a rad51 background...
  44. Nimonkar A, Dombrowski C, Siino J, Stasiak A, Stasiak A, Kowalczykowski S. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dmc1 and Rad51 proteins preferentially function with Tid1 and Rad54 proteins, respectively, to promote DNA strand invasion during genetic recombination. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28727-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Dmc1, a meiosis-specific paralog of Rad51, mediates the pairing of homologous chromosomes...
  45. Chen H, Lisby M, Symington L. RPA coordinates DNA end resection and prevents formation of DNA hairpins. Mol Cell. 2013;50:589-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, RPA is required to generate ssDNA, and also to protect ssDNA from degradation and inappropriate annealing that could lead to genome rearrangements. ..
  46. Pfander B, Moldovan G, Sacher M, Hoege C, Jentsch S. SUMO-modified PCNA recruits Srs2 to prevent recombination during S phase. Nature. 2005;436:428-33 pubmed
    ..SUMO-modified PCNA functionally cooperates with Srs2, a helicase that blocks recombinational repair by disrupting Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments...
  47. Kelly M, Alver B, Kirkpatrick D. Minisatellite alterations in ZRT1 mutants occur via RAD52-dependent and RAD52-independent mechanisms in quiescent stationary phase yeast cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:556-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the mechanism of ZRT1-mediated minisatellite instability during quiescence is relevant to human cells, and thus, human disease. ..
  48. Schmidt K, Wu J, Kolodner R. Control of translocations between highly diverged genes by Sgs1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of the Bloom's syndrome protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5406-20 pubmed
    ..The translocation structures observed suggest involvement of a dicentric intermediate and break-induced replication with multiple cycles of DNA template switching. ..
  49. Pohl T, Nickoloff J. Rad51-independent interchromosomal double-strand break repair by gene conversion requires Rad52 but not Rad55, Rad57, or Dmc1. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:897-906 pubmed
    ..In yeast, HR is catalyzed by the Rad51 strand transferase and its "mediators," including the Rad52 single-strand DNA-annealing protein, two ..
  50. Schmidt K, Kolodner R. Suppression of spontaneous genome rearrangements in yeast DNA helicase mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18196-201 pubmed
    ..Moreover, helicase double mutants accumulate Rad51-dependent Ddc2 foci, indicating the presence of recombination intermediates that are sensed by checkpoints...
  51. Kerrest A, Anand R, Sundararajan R, Bermejo R, Liberi G, Dujon B, et al. SRS2 and SGS1 prevent chromosomal breaks and stabilize triplet repeats by restraining recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of RAD52 or RAD51 suppresses these phenotypes, suggesting that recombination triggers trinucleotide repeat instability in srs2Delta ..
  52. Chavez A, Agrawal V, Johnson F. Homologous recombination-dependent rescue of deficiency in the structural maintenance of chromosomes (Smc) 5/6 complex. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data as a whole highlight a role for Smc5/6 and Sgs1 in the resolution of Mph1-dependent HR intermediates. ..
  53. Schild D. Suppression of a new allele of the yeast RAD52 gene by overexpression of RAD51, mutations in srs2 and ccr4, or mating-type heterozygosity. Genetics. 1995;140:115-27 pubmed
    ..Because other researchers have shown that the RAD51 and RAD52 proteins interact, RAD51 on a high copy number plasmid was tested and found to suppress the rad52-20 ..
  54. Mazin A, Alexeev A, Kowalczykowski S. A novel function of Rad54 protein. Stabilization of the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14029-36 pubmed
    Homologous recombination is important for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in all organisms. Rad51 and Rad54 proteins are two key components of the homologous recombination machinery in eukaryotes...
  55. Dubrana K, van Attikum H, Hediger F, Gasser S. The processing of double-strand breaks and binding of single-strand-binding proteins RPA and Rad51 modulate the formation of ATR-kinase foci in yeast. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:4209-20 pubmed
    ..Conversely, loss of Rad51 enhanced Mec1 focus formation independently of ssDNA formation, suggesting that Rad51 might compete for the ..
  56. Matsuzaki K, Terasawa M, Iwasaki D, Higashide M, Shinohara M. Cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Lif1 and Sae2 controls imprecise nonhomologous end joining accompanied by double-strand break resection. Genes Cells. 2012;17:473-93 pubmed publisher
    ..CDK-dependent modification of the NHEJ pathway might make DSB ends compatible for NHEJ and thus prevent competition between HR and NHEJ in hierarchy on the choice of DSB repair pathways. ..
  57. Dresser M, Ewing D, Conrad M, Dominguez A, Barstead R, Jiang H, et al. DMC1 functions in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiotic pathway that is largely independent of the RAD51 pathway. Genetics. 1997;147:533-44 pubmed
    ..Epistasis analysis suggests that DMC1 and RAD51 function in separate pathways responsible for meiotic recombination...
  58. Bai Y, Davis A, Symington L. A novel allele of RAD52 that causes severe DNA repair and recombination deficiencies only in the absence of RAD51 or RAD59. Genetics. 1999;153:1117-30 pubmed
    ..we have shown that mitotic recombination is dependent on the RAD52 gene, but reduced only fivefold by mutation of RAD51. RAD59, a component of the RAD51-independent pathway, was identified previously by screening for mutations that ..
  59. Hays S, Firmenich A, Massey P, Banerjee R, Berg P. Studies of the interaction between Rad52 protein and the yeast single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4400-6 pubmed
    ..Both of the mutant proteins are capable of self-interaction but are unable to interact with Rad51. The mutant proteins also lack the ability to interact with the large subunit of RPA, Rfa1...
  60. Ho C, Mazon G, Lam A, Symington L. Mus81 and Yen1 promote reciprocal exchange during mitotic recombination to maintain genome integrity in budding yeast. Mol Cell. 2010;40:988-1000 pubmed publisher
  61. Tishkoff D, Filosi N, Gaida G, Kolodner R. A novel mutation avoidance mechanism dependent on S. cerevisiae RAD27 is distinct from DNA mismatch repair. Cell. 1997;88:253-63 pubmed
    ..Mutations in RAD27 cause increased rates of mitotic crossing over and are lethal in combination with mutations in RAD51 and RAD52...
  62. Lin Y, Chang C, Wong C, Teng S. Recruitment of Rad51 and Rad52 to short telomeres triggers a Mec1-mediated hypersensitivity to double-stranded DNA breaks in senescent budding yeast. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8224 pubmed publisher
    ..we also observed that when cells equipped with short telomeres, recruitments of homologous recombination proteins, Rad51 and Rad52, were reduced at an HO-endonuclease-catalyzed double-strand break (DSB), while their associations were ..
  63. Bergink S, Ammon T, Kern M, Schermelleh L, Leonhardt H, Jentsch S. Role of Cdc48/p97 as a SUMO-targeted segregase curbing Rad51-Rad52 interaction. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:526-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus suggest that SUMO-targeted Cdc48 restricts the recombinase Rad51 by counterbalancing the activity of Rad52...
  64. Petukhova G, Stratton S, Sung P. Catalysis of homologous DNA pairing by yeast Rad51 and Rad54 proteins. Nature. 1998;393:91-4 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD51 and RAD54 genes are both required for the occurrence of homologous recombination and for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks...
  65. Ragu S, Faye G, Iraqui I, Masurel Heneman A, Kolodner R, Huang M. Oxygen metabolism and reactive oxygen species cause chromosomal rearrangements and cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9747-52 pubmed
    ..growth reduced substantially GCR rates of WT and tsa1 mutants and restored the viability of tsa1 rad6, tsa1 rad51, and tsa1 mre11 double mutants...
  66. Busygina V, Sehorn M, Shi I, Tsubouchi H, Roeder G, Sung P. Hed1 regulates Rad51-mediated recombination via a novel mechanism. Genes Dev. 2008;22:786-95 pubmed publisher
    Two RecA orthologs, Rad51 and Dmc1, mediate homologous recombination in meiotic cells. During budding yeast meiosis, Hed1 coordinates the actions of Rad51 and Dmc1 by down-regulating Rad51 activity...
  67. Chen Y, Choi K, Szakal B, Arenz J, Duan X, Ye H, et al. Interplay between the Smc5/6 complex and the Mph1 helicase in recombinational repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the Smc5/6 complex can counteract/modulate a pro-recombinogenic function of Mph1 or facilitate the resolution of recombination structures generated by Mph1. ..
  68. Gangloff S, Soustelle C, Fabre F. Homologous recombination is responsible for cell death in the absence of the Sgs1 and Srs2 helicases. Nat Genet. 2000;25:192-4 pubmed
    ..Yeast SRS2 encodes another DNA helicase involved in the maintenance of genome integrity. Our data suggest that some defects observed in BS, WS or RTS are the consequence of unrestrained recombination. ..
  69. Sung P. Catalysis of ATP-dependent homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange by yeast RAD51 protein. Science. 1994;265:1241-3 pubmed
    The RAD51 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for genetic recombination and DNA double-strand break repair...
  70. Altmannova V, Eckert Boulet N, Arneric M, Kolesar P, Chaloupkova R, Damborsky J, et al. Rad52 SUMOylation affects the efficiency of the DNA repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4708-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results highlight the importance of Rad52 SUMOylation as part of a 'quality control' mechanism regulating the efficiency of recombination and DNA repair. ..
  71. Shah P, Zheng X, Epshtein A, Carey J, Bishop D, Klein H. Swi2/Snf2-related translocases prevent accumulation of toxic Rad51 complexes during mitotic growth. Mol Cell. 2010;39:862-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Rad51 complexes are dissociated by these translocases in mitotic cells...
  72. Iraqui I, Faye G, Ragu S, Masurel Heneman A, Kolodner R, Huang M. Human peroxiredoxin PrxI is an orthologue of yeast Tsa1, capable of suppressing genome instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1055-63 pubmed publisher
    ..a variety of defects including genome instability, the synthetic lethality observed in rad6 Delta tsa1Delta and rad51 Delta tsa1Delta double mutants, and mutagen sensitivity...
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    ..DSB repair involves the sequential recruitment of repair factors to the DSBs, followed by Rad51-mediated homology probing, DNA synthesis, and ligation...
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    A number of studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed RAD51-independent recombination events...
  75. Dong Z, Fasullo M. Multiple recombination pathways for sister chromatid exchange in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of RAD1 and the RAD52 epistasis group genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2576-85 pubmed
    ..In comparison with wild type, rates of spontaneous SCE are 10-fold lower in rad51 rad1 but not in either rad51 rad50 or rad51 rad59 double mutants...
  76. Branzei D, Sollier J, Liberi G, Zhao X, Maeda D, Seki M, et al. Ubc9- and mms21-mediated sumoylation counteracts recombinogenic events at damaged replication forks. Cell. 2006;127:509-22 pubmed
    ..ubc9 cells maintain stalled-fork stability but exhibit a Rad51-dependent accumulation of cruciform structures during replication of damaged templates...
  77. Krejci L, Damborsky J, Thomsen B, Duno M, Bendixen C. Molecular dissection of interactions between Rad51 and members of the recombination-repair group. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:966-76 pubmed
    ..In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recombination requires products of the RAD52 epistasis group. The Rad51 protein associates with the Rad51, Rad52, Rad54, and Rad55 proteins to form a dynamic complex...
  78. Alzu A, Bermejo R, Begnis M, Lucca C, Piccini D, Carotenuto W, et al. Senataxin associates with replication forks to protect fork integrity across RNA-polymerase-II-transcribed genes. Cell. 2012;151:835-46 pubmed publisher
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    ..ss) DNA-dependent ATPase activity, a DNA helicase activity, and an ability to disassemble the Rad51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament, which is the key catalytic intermediate in Rad51-mediated recombination reactions...
  80. Gangavarapu V, Prakash S, Prakash L. Requirement of RAD52 group genes for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7758-64 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the contributions of the RAD51, RAD52, and RAD54 genes and of the RAD50 and XRS2 genes to the PRR of UV-damaged DNA...
  81. Niu H, Wan L, Busygina V, Kwon Y, Allen J, Li X, et al. Regulation of meiotic recombination via Mek1-mediated Rad54 phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2009;36:393-404 pubmed publisher
    ..and the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1, which suppresses engagement of sister chromatids by the mitotic recombinase Rad51. Here, a combination of proteomic, biochemical, and genetic approaches has identified an additional role for ..
  82. Gangavarapu V, Santa Maria S, Prakash S, Prakash L. Requirement of replication checkpoint protein kinases Mec1/Rad53 for postreplication repair in yeast. MBio. 2011;2:e00079-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss this important issue and suggest that lesion bypass in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells occurs in conjunction with the stalled replication forks and not in gaps. ..
  83. Jiang H, Xie Y, Houston P, Stemke Hale K, Mortensen U, Rothstein R, et al. Direct association between the yeast Rad51 and Rad54 recombination proteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:33181-6 pubmed
    The RAD54 and RAD51 genes are involved in genetic recombination and double-strand break repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  84. Wu L, Davies S, Levitt N, Hickson I. Potential role for the BLM helicase in recombinational repair via a conserved interaction with RAD51. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19375-81 pubmed
    ..In eukaryotes, a central step in homologous recombination is catalyzed by the RAD51 protein...
  85. Gasior S, Olivares H, Ear U, Hari D, Weichselbaum R, Bishop D. Assembly of RecA-like recombinases: distinct roles for mediator proteins in mitosis and meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8411-8 pubmed
    ..Immuno-double-staining experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that Rad51, the eukaryotic recombinase, can assemble at or near sites containing ssb (replication protein A, RPA) during the ..
  86. Papouli E, Chen S, Davies A, Huttner D, Krejci L, Sung P, et al. Crosstalk between SUMO and ubiquitin on PCNA is mediated by recruitment of the helicase Srs2p. Mol Cell. 2005;19:123-33 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest a mechanism by which SUMO and ubiquitin cooperatively control the choice of pathway for the processing of DNA lesions during replication. ..
  87. Dupaigne P, Le Breton C, Fabre F, Gangloff S, Le Cam E, Veaute X. The Srs2 helicase activity is stimulated by Rad51 filaments on dsDNA: implications for crossover incidence during mitotic recombination. Mol Cell. 2008;29:243-54 pubmed publisher
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 helicase was shown to displace Rad51 in vitro upon translocation on single-stranded DNA...
  88. Agmon N, Pur S, Liefshitz B, Kupiec M. Analysis of repair mechanism choice during homologous recombination. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5081-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that increasing the distance between two repeated sequences enhances the dependence on Rad51 for colony formation after DSB repair...
  89. Ira G, Malkova A, Liberi G, Foiani M, Haber J. Srs2 and Sgs1-Top3 suppress crossovers during double-strand break repair in yeast. Cell. 2003;115:401-11 pubmed
    ..Overexpressing SRS2 nearly eliminates crossovers, whereas overexpression of RAD51 in srs2Delta cells almost completely eliminates the noncrossover recombination pathway...
  90. Henry J, Camahort R, Rice D, Florens L, Swanson S, Washburn M, et al. Mnd1/Hop2 facilitates Dmc1-dependent interhomolog crossover formation in meiosis of budding yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2913-23 pubmed
    ..Recombination in meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on two Escherichia coli recA homologs, Rad51 and Dmc1, as well as the more recently discovered heterodimer Mnd1/Hop2. Meiotic recombination in S...
  91. Moriel Carretero M, Aguilera A. A postincision-deficient TFIIH causes replication fork breakage and uncovers alternative Rad51- or Pol32-mediated restart mechanisms. Mol Cell. 2010;37:690-701 pubmed publisher
    ..are rescued by MRX-Rad52-Rfc1-dependent recombination via two types of replication restart mechanisms, one being Rad51 dependent and the other Pol32 dependent...
  92. Fortin G, Symington L. Mutations in yeast Rad51 that partially bypass the requirement for Rad55 and Rad57 in DNA repair by increasing the stability of Rad51-DNA complexes. EMBO J. 2002;21:3160-70 pubmed
    Yeast Rad51 promotes homologous pairing and strand exchange in vitro, but this activity is inefficient in the absence of the accessory proteins, RPA, Rad52, Rad54 and the Rad55-Rad57 heterodimer...
  93. Rattray A, Symington L. Multiple pathways for homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1995;139:45-56 pubmed
    ..The majority of recombination events are mediated by a RAD51-dependent pathway, where the RAD54, RAD55 and RAD57 genes function downstream of RAD51...
  94. Symington L. Homologous recombination is required for the viability of rad27 mutants. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:5589-95 pubmed
    ..by crossing a strain containing a null allele of RAD27 to strains containing a mutation in either the RAD1, RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RAD55, RAD57, MRE11, XRS2 or RAD59 gene...
  95. McVey M, Kaeberlein M, Tissenbaum H, Guarente L. The short life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sgs1 and srs2 mutants is a composite of normal aging processes and mitotic arrest due to defective recombination. Genetics. 2001;157:1531-42 pubmed
    ..This arrest can be suppressed by mutations in RAD51, RAD52, and RAD57, suggesting that the cell cycle defect in sgs1 srs2 mutants results from inappropriate ..
  96. Song B, Sung P. Functional interactions among yeast Rad51 recombinase, Rad52 mediator, and replication protein A in DNA strand exchange. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15895-904 pubmed
    b>Rad51-catalyzed DNA strand exchange is greatly enhanced by the single-stranded (ss) DNA binding factor RPA if the latter is introduced after Rad51 has already nucleated onto the initiating ssDNA substrate...
  97. Ivanov E, Sugawara N, Fishman Lobell J, Haber J. Genetic requirements for the single-strand annealing pathway of double-strand break repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;142:693-704 pubmed
    ..We show that RAD51, RAD54, RAD55, and RAD57 genes are not required for SSA irrespective of whether recombination occurred in plasmid ..
  98. Fasullo M, Dong Z, Sun M, Zeng L. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD53 (CHK2) but not CHK1 is required for double-strand break-initiated SCE and DNA damage-associated SCE after exposure to X rays and chemical agents. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1240-51 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that RAD53, not CHK1, is required for DSB-initiated SCE, and DNA damage-associated SCE after exposure to X-ray-mimetic and UV-mimetic chemicals. ..