Gene Symbol: RAD50
Description: MRX complex DNA-binding subunit
Alias: MRX complex DNA-binding subunit
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     RAD50

Top Publications

  1. Cejka P, Cannavo E, Polaczek P, Masuda Sasa T, Pokharel S, Campbell J, et al. DNA end resection by Dna2-Sgs1-RPA and its stimulation by Top3-Rmi1 and Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2. Nature. 2010;467:112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..addition to this core machinery, we establish that both the topoisomerase 3 (Top3) and Rmi1 complex and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex (MRX) have important roles as stimulatory components...
  2. Steininger S, Ahne F, Winkler K, Kleinschmidt A, Eckardt Schupp F, Moertl S. A novel function for the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex in base excision repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1853-65 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has well-characterized functions in DNA double-strand break processing, checkpoint activation, telomere length maintenance and meiosis...
  3. Psakhye I, Jentsch S. Protein group modification and synergy in the SUMO pathway as exemplified in DNA repair. Cell. 2012;151:807-820 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SUMOylation may thus often target a protein group rather than individual proteins, whereas localized modification enzymes and highly specific triggers ensure specificity. ..
  4. Kelly M, Jauert P, Jensen L, Chan C, Truong C, Kirkpatrick D. Zinc regulates the stability of repetitive minisatellite DNA tracts during stationary phase. Genetics. 2007;177:2469-79 pubmed
    ..The Deltazrt1 blebbing phenotype is partially dependent on a functional RAD50. Zinc is known for its role as an essential cofactor in many DNA-binding proteins...
  5. Chen L, Trujillo K, Ramos W, Sung P, Tomkinson A. Promotion of Dnl4-catalyzed DNA end-joining by the Rad50/Mre11/Xrs2 and Hdf1/Hdf2 complexes. Mol Cell. 2001;8:1105-15 pubmed
    S. cerevisiae RAD50, MRE11, and XRS2 genes are required for telomere maintenance, cell cycle checkpoint signaling, meiotic recombination, and the efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB)s by homologous recombination and ..
  6. Kelly M, Alver B, Kirkpatrick D. Minisatellite alterations in ZRT1 mutants occur via RAD52-dependent and RAD52-independent mechanisms in quiescent stationary phase yeast cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:556-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the mechanism of ZRT1-mediated minisatellite instability during quiescence is relevant to human cells, and thus, human disease. ..
  7. Kim H, Vijayakumar S, Reger M, Harrison J, Haber J, Weil C, et al. Functional interactions between Sae2 and the Mre11 complex. Genetics. 2008;178:711-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Sae2 oligomerizes independently of DNA damage and that oligomerization is required for its regulatory influence on the Mre11 nuclease and checkpoint functions. ..
  8. Foster S, Zubko M, Guillard S, Lydall D. MRX protects telomeric DNA at uncapped telomeres of budding yeast cdc13-1 mutants. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:840-51 pubmed
    MRX, an evolutionally conserved DNA damage response complex composed of Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2, is involved in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair, checkpoint activation and telomere maintenance...
  9. Tomizawa Y, Ui A, Onoda F, Ogiwara H, Tada S, Enomoto T, et al. Rad50 is involved in MMS-induced recombination between homologous chromosomes in mitotic cells. Genes Genet Syst. 2007;82:157-60 pubmed
    ..b>Rad50, a component of the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex, has a similar domain structure to the SMC proteins...

More Information


  1. Signon L, Malkova A, Naylor M, Klein H, Haber J. Genetic requirements for RAD51- and RAD54-independent break-induced replication repair of a chromosomal double-strand break. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2048-56 pubmed
    ..DSB-induced gene conversion is not significantly affected when RAD50, RAD59, TID1 (RDH54), SRS2, or SGS1 is deleted...
  2. Shim E, Chung W, Nicolette M, Zhang Y, Davis M, Zhu Z, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 and Ku proteins regulate association of Exo1 and Dna2 with DNA breaks. EMBO J. 2010;29:3370-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficient double-strand break (DSB) end resection requires several enzymes; Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) and Sae2 are implicated in the onset of 5'-strand resection, whereas Sgs1/Top3/Rmi1 with Dna2 and Exo1 ..
  3. Mischo H, Gómez González B, Grzechnik P, Rondon A, Wei W, Steinmetz L, et al. Yeast Sen1 helicase protects the genome from transcription-associated instability. Mol Cell. 2011;41:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that R loop formation is a frequent event during transcription and a key function of Sen1 is to prevent their accumulation and associated genome instability. ..
  4. Wilson T. A genomics-based screen for yeast mutants with an altered recombination/end-joining repair ratio. Genetics. 2002;162:677-88 pubmed
    ..loss of NHEJ, which corresponded to all known structural/catalytic NHEJ components (yku70, yku80, dnl4, lif1, rad50, mre11, and xrs2); no new mutants in this category were identified...
  5. Xiao W, Chow B, Rathgeber L. The repair of DNA methylation damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 1996;30:461-8 pubmed
    ..We found that cells carrying rad6, rad18, rad50 and rad52 single mutations are far more sensitive to killing by MMS than the mag1 mutant, that double mutants were ..
  6. Wiltzius J, Hohl M, Fleming J, Petrini J. The Rad50 hook domain is a critical determinant of Mre11 complex functions. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:403-7 pubmed
    The Mre11 complex (in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2) influences multiple facets of chromosome break metabolism. A conserved feature of the Mre11 complex is a zinc-coordinating motif in Rad50 called the Rad50 hook...
  7. Tsukamoto Y, Mitsuoka C, Terasawa M, Ogawa H, Ogawa T. Xrs2p regulates Mre11p translocation to the nucleus and plays a role in telomere elongation and meiotic recombination. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:597-608 pubmed
    The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) protein complex plays pivotal roles in meiotic recombination, repair of damaged DNA, telomere elongation, and cell cycle checkpoint control...
  8. Bressan D, Olivares H, Nelms B, Petrini J. Alteration of N-terminal phosphoesterase signature motifs inactivates Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11. Genetics. 1998;150:591-600 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11, Rad50, and Xrs2 function in a protein complex that is important for nonhomologous recombination...
  9. de Jager M, Trujillo K, Sung P, Hopfner K, Carney J, Tainer J, et al. Differential arrangements of conserved building blocks among homologs of the Rad50/Mre11 DNA repair protein complex. J Mol Biol. 2004;339:937-49 pubmed
    ..force microscopy imaging to determine the architecture of human, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pyrococcus furiosus Rad50/Mre11, Escherichia coli SbcCD, and S.cerevisiae SMC1/SMC3 cohesin SMC complexes...
  10. Lewis L, Karthikeyan G, Westmoreland J, Resnick M. Differential suppression of DNA repair deficiencies of Yeast rad50, mre11 and xrs2 mutants by EXO1 and TLC1 (the RNA component of telomerase). Genetics. 2002;160:49-62 pubmed
    b>Rad50, Mre11, and Xrs2 form a nuclease complex that functions in both nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  11. Usui T, Ogawa H, Petrini J. A DNA damage response pathway controlled by Tel1 and the Mre11 complex. Mol Cell. 2001;7:1255-66 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that the diverse functions of the Mre11 complex in the cellular DNA damage response are conserved in mammals and yeast. ..
  12. Chen L, Trujillo K, Van Komen S, Roh D, Krejci L, Lewis L, et al. Effect of amino acid substitutions in the rad50 ATP binding domain on DNA double strand break repair in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2620-7 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad50-Mre11-Xrs2 complex plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks. Rad50 has a globular ATPase head domain with a long coiled-coil tail...
  13. Lee S, Moore J, Holmes A, Umezu K, Kolodner R, Haber J. Saccharomyces Ku70, mre11/rad50 and RPA proteins regulate adaptation to G2/M arrest after DNA damage. Cell. 1998;94:399-409 pubmed
    ..Permanent arrest in hdf1 cells is suppressed by rad50 or mre11 deletions that retard this degradation...
  14. Shima H, Suzuki M, Shinohara M. Isolation and characterization of novel xrs2 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;170:71-85 pubmed
    The Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex is involved in DNA damage repair, DNA damage response, telomere control, and meiotic recombination. Here, we constructed and characterized novel mutant alleles of XRS2...
  15. Gordenin D, Malkova A, Peterzen A, Kulikov V, Pavlov Y, Perkins E, et al. Transposon Tn5 excision in yeast: influence of DNA polymerases alpha, delta, and epsilon and repair genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:3785-9 pubmed
    ..The three DNA repair pathways identified by rad1, rad6 and rad18, rad50 and rad52 mutations were examined for their possible role in Tn5 excision; no enhancement was observed in mutants...
  16. Ritchie K, Petes T. The Mre11p/Rad50p/Xrs2p complex and the Tel1p function in a single pathway for telomere maintenance in yeast. Genetics. 2000;155:475-9 pubmed
    ..TEL1 is primarily involved in telomere length regulation. By an epistasis analysis, we conclude that Tel1p and the Mre11p/Rad50p/Xrs2p complex function in a single pathway of telomere length regulation. ..
  17. Boulton S, Jackson S. Components of the Ku-dependent non-homologous end-joining pathway are involved in telomeric length maintenance and telomeric silencing. EMBO J. 1998;17:1819-28 pubmed
    ..However, RAD50, MRE11 and XRS2 function both in Ku-dependent DNA DSB repair and in telomeric length maintenance, although they ..
  18. Klein H. Mutations in recombinational repair and in checkpoint control genes suppress the lethal combination of srs2Delta with other DNA repair genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;157:557-65 pubmed
    ..However, cells do not achieve wild-type growth rates, suggesting that unrepaired damage is still present and may lead to chromosome loss. ..
  19. Ivanov E, Sugawara N, White C, Fabre F, Haber J. Mutations in XRS2 and RAD50 delay but do not prevent mating-type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3414-25 pubmed
    ..While most of these genes are essential for yeast mating-type (MAT) gene switching, neither RAD50 nor XRS2 is required to complete this specialized mitotic gene conversion process...
  20. Hohl M, Kwon Y, Galván S, Xue X, Tous C, Aguilera A, et al. The Rad50 coiled-coil domain is indispensable for Mre11 complex functions. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:1124-31 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) influences diverse functions in the DNA damage response...
  21. Nakada D, Matsumoto K, Sugimoto K. ATM-related Tel1 associates with double-strand breaks through an Xrs2-dependent mechanism. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1957-62 pubmed
    ..Xrs2 is an Nbs1 homolog and forms a complex with Mre11 and Rad50. We show here that Tel1 associates with double-strand breaks (DSBs) through a mechanism dependent on the C ..
  22. Arora C, Kee K, Maleki S, Keeney S. Antiviral protein Ski8 is a direct partner of Spo11 in meiotic DNA break formation, independent of its cytoplasmic role in RNA metabolism. Mol Cell. 2004;13:549-59 pubmed
    ..Ski8 works with Spo11 to recruit other DSB proteins to meiotic chromosomes, implicating Ski8 as a scaffold protein mediating assembly of a multiprotein complex essential for DSB formation. ..
  23. Torres J, Schnakenberg S, Zakian V. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrm3p DNA helicase promotes genome integrity by preventing replication fork stalling: viability of rrm3 cells requires the intra-S-phase checkpoint and fork restart activities. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3198-212 pubmed
    ..checkpoint, the SRS2 inhibitor of recombination, the SGS1/TOP3 replication fork restart pathway, and the MRE11/RAD50/XRS2 (MRX) complex were critical for viability of rrm3 cells...
  24. McKee A, Kleckner N. A general method for identifying recessive diploid-specific mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its application to the isolation of mutants blocked at intermediate stages of meiotic prophase and characterization of a new gene SAE2. Genetics. 1997;146:797-816 pubmed
    ..Identified in this screen were null mutations of the DMC1 gene, nonnull mutations of RAD50 (rad50S), and mutations in three new genes designed SAE1, SAE2 and SAE3 (Sporulation in the Absence of Spo Eleven)...
  25. Lewis L, Storici F, Van Komen S, Calero S, Sung P, Resnick M. Role of the nuclease activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11 in repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mitotic cells. Genetics. 2004;166:1701-13 pubmed
    The Rad50:Mre11:Xrs2 (RMX) complex functions in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by recombination and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and is also required for telomere stability...
  26. Symington L. Homologous recombination is required for the viability of rad27 mutants. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:5589-95 pubmed
    ..by crossing a strain containing a null allele of RAD27 to strains containing a mutation in either the RAD1, RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RAD55, RAD57, MRE11, XRS2 or RAD59 gene...
  27. Trujillo K, Sung P. DNA structure-specific nuclease activities in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad50*Mre11 complex. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:35458-64 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD50 and MRE11 genes are required for the nucleolytic processing of DNA double-strand breaks. We have overexpressed Rad50 and Mre11 in yeast cells and purified them to near homogeneity...
  28. Lengsfeld B, Rattray A, Bhaskara V, Ghirlando R, Paull T. Sae2 is an endonuclease that processes hairpin DNA cooperatively with the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex. Mol Cell. 2007;28:638-51 pubmed
    Mre11/Rad50 complexes in all organisms function in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks...
  29. Chamankhah M, Fontanie T, Xiao W. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mre11(ts) allele confers a separation of DNA repair and telomere maintenance functions. Genetics. 2000;155:569-76 pubmed
    ..that there is a strong correlation between Mre11 DNA repair and telomere maintenance functions and that Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex formation appears to be essential for both of these activities...
  30. Anderson D, Trujillo K, Sung P, Erickson H. Structure of the Rad50 x Mre11 DNA repair complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by electron microscopy. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37027-33 pubmed
    The RAD50 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of several genes required for recombinational repair of double-strand DNA breaks during vegetative growth and for initiation of meiotic recombination...
  31. Ben Aroya S, Koren A, Liefshitz B, Steinlauf R, Kupiec M. ELG1, a yeast gene required for genome stability, forms a complex related to replication factor C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9906-11 pubmed
    ..Genetic data indicate that the Elg1, Ctf18, and Rad24 RFC-like complexes work in three separate pathways important for maintaining the integrity of the genome and for coping with various genomic stresses. ..
  32. Ohta K, Nicolas A, Furuse M, Nabetani A, Ogawa H, Shibata T. Mutations in the MRE11, RAD50, XRS2, and MRE2 genes alter chromatin configuration at meiotic DNA double-stranded break sites in premeiotic and meiotic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:646-51 pubmed
    ..Herein we have examined the effects of mutations in four such genes, MRE11, RAD50, XRS2, and MRE2, on MNase sensitivity at DSB sites in premeiotic and meiotic cells...
  33. Chin J, Bashkirov V, Heyer W, Romesberg F. Esc4/Rtt107 and the control of recombination during replication. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:618-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that Esc4 associates with ssDNA of stalled forks and acts as a scaffolding protein to recruit and/or modulate the function of other proteins required to reinitiate DNA synthesis. ..
  34. Zanders S, Sonntag Brown M, Chen C, Alani E. Pch2 modulates chromatid partner choice during meiotic double-strand break repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;188:511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which Pch2 is required to promote full Mek1 activity and thereby promotes interhomolog repair...
  35. Oh J, Al Zain A, Cannavo E, Cejka P, Symington L. Xrs2 Dependent and Independent Functions of the Mre11-Rad50 Complex. Mol Cell. 2016;64:405-415 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex orchestrates the cellular response to DSBs through its structural, enzymatic, and signaling roles...
  36. Ruiz Gómez M. Telomere instability caused by subtelomeric Y' amplification and rearrangements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ku70 tel1 and ku70 rad50) double mutants. Indian J Exp Biol. 2011;49:324-31 pubmed
    ..Previous results suggested a relation between Yku70/80 and proteins Tell and Rad50 in telomere stabilization...
  37. Meng F, Hu Y, Shen N, Tong X, Wang J, Ding J, et al. Sua5p a single-stranded telomeric DNA-binding protein facilitates telomere replication. EMBO J. 2009;28:1466-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Sua5p represents a novel ssTG DNA-binding protein and positively regulates the telomere length in vivo. ..
  38. Chen H, Donnianni R, Handa N, Deng S, Oh J, Timashev L, et al. Sae2 promotes DNA damage resistance by removing the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex from DNA and attenuating Rad53 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E1880-7 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/NBS1 (MRX/N) nuclease/ATPase complex plays structural and catalytic roles in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is the DNA damage sensor for Tel1/ATM kinase activation...
  39. Gorbalenya A, Koonin E. Superfamily of UvrA-related NTP-binding proteins. Implications for rational classification of recombination/repair systems. J Mol Biol. 1990;213:583-91 pubmed
    ..proteins UvrA, RecF, RecN, MutH and HexA, T4 phage gp46, T5 phage D13 protein, lambda phage EA59 protein and yeast Rad50 protein, all involved in recombination, repair and, in some cases, also in replication of respective genomes, and ..
  40. Ogawa H, Johzuka K, Nakagawa T, Leem S, Hagihara A. Functions of the yeast meiotic recombination genes, MRE11 and MRE2. Adv Biophys. 1995;31:67-76 pubmed
    ..of properties of the mre11 disruption mutant as well as the xrs2 mutant showed a similarity to those of the rad50 disruptant...
  41. Raymond W, Kleckner N. RAD50 protein of S.cerevisiae exhibits ATP-dependent DNA binding. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:3851-6 pubmed
    b>RAD50 function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required during vegetative growth for recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks, and during meiosis for initiation of meiotic recombination and formation of synaptonemal complex...
  42. Kaye J, Melo J, Cheung S, Vaze M, Haber J, Toczyski D. DNA breaks promote genomic instability by impeding proper chromosome segregation. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2096-106 pubmed
    ..This association is partially dependent upon Rad50 and Rad52. After 6-8 hr, cells adapted to the checkpoint and resumed mitosis, segregating the broken chromosome...
  43. Ghosal G, Muniyappa K. The characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex reveals that Rad50 negatively regulates Mre11 endonucleolytic but not the exonucleolytic activity. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:864-82 pubmed
    The evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (Nbs1) (MRX/N) complex plays a central role in an array of cellular responses involving DNA damage, telomere length homeostasis, cell-cycle checkpoint control and meiotic ..
  44. Chen Q, Ijpma A, Greider C. Two survivor pathways that allow growth in the absence of telomerase are generated by distinct telomere recombination events. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1819-27 pubmed
    ..RAD52 is essential for the generation of both types of survivors. Deletion of both RAD50 and RAD51 produces a phenotype similar to that produced by deletion of RAD52...
  45. Li X, Tye B. Ploidy dictates repair pathway choice under DNA replication stress. Genetics. 2011;187:1031-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In response to replication stress, early events associated with ploidy dictate the repair pathway choice. This study uncovers a fundamental difference between haplophase and diplophase in the maintenance of genome integrity. ..
  46. Grenon M, Magill C, Lowndes N, Jackson S. Double-strand breaks trigger MRX- and Mec1-dependent, but Tel1-independent, checkpoint activation. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006;6:836-47 pubmed
    Together with the Tel1 PI3 kinase, the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex is involved in checkpoint activation in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs), a function also conserved in human cells by Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 acting with ATM...
  47. Sabourin M, Nitiss J, Nitiss K, Tatebayashi K, Ikeda H, Osheroff N. Yeast recombination pathways triggered by topoisomerase II-mediated DNA breaks. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:4373-84 pubmed
    ..Non-homologous end joining also was triggered by etoposide treatment, but this pathway was considerably less active than single-strand invasion and did not contribute significantly to cell survival in S.cerevisiae. ..
  48. Tong X, Li Q, Duan Y, Liu N, Zhang M, Zhou J. Est1 protects telomeres and inhibits subtelomeric y'-element recombination. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that one major functional role that Est1 brings to the telomerase complex is the capping or protection of telomeres. ..
  49. Bentsen I, Nielsen I, Lisby M, Nielsen H, Gupta S, Mundbjerg K, et al. MRX protects fork integrity at protein-DNA barriers, and its absence causes checkpoint activation dependent on chromatin context. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3173-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We discover a pivotal role for the MRX (Mre11, Rad50, Xrs2) complex for fork integrity at RFBs, which differs from its acknowledged function in double-strand break ..
  50. Galli A, Chan C, Parfenova L, Cervelli T, Schiestl R. Requirement of POL3 and POL4 on non-homologous and microhomology-mediated end joining in rad50/xrs2 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutagenesis. 2015;30:841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied the epistatic interaction between POL3, RAD50, XRS2 and POL4 in NHEJ using a plasmid-based endjoining assay in yeast...
  51. Andrews C, Clarke D. MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2) mutants reveal dual intra-S-phase checkpoint systems in budding yeast. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1073-7 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that the equivalent budding yeast complex, MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2), is not required for the intra-S-phase checkpoint in response to DNA alkylation damage, but is required in ..
  52. Malone R, Hoekstra M. Relationships between a hyper-rec mutation (REM1) and other recombination and repair genes in yeast. Genetics. 1984;107:33-48 pubmed
    ..These effects have not been observed in meiosis. We have examined the interactions of rem1 mutations with rad6-1, rad50 -1, rad52-1 or spo11 -1 mutations in order to understand the basis of the rem1 hyper-rec phenotype...
  53. Ponnusamy S, Alderson N, Hama H, Bielawski J, Jiang J, Bhandari R, et al. Regulation of telomere length by fatty acid elongase 3 in yeast. Involvement of inositol phosphate metabolism and Ku70/80 function. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27514-24 pubmed publisher
  54. Aggarwal M, Sommers J, Morris C, Brosh R. Delineation of WRN helicase function with EXO1 in the replicational stress response. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:765-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the ability of WRN to rescue DNA damage sensitivity of a yeast mutant defective in the Rad50 subunit of Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 nuclease complex implicated in homologous recombination repair...
  55. Foster S, Balestrini A, Petrini J. Functional interplay of the Mre11 nuclease and Ku in the response to replication-associated DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4379-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data define a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-independent, S-phase-specific function of the Ku heterodimer. ..
  56. Schiller C, Lammens K, Guerini I, Coordes B, Feldmann H, Schlauderer F, et al. Structure of Mre11-Nbs1 complex yields insights into ataxia-telangiectasia-like disease mutations and DNA damage signaling. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:693-700 pubmed publisher
    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex tethers, processes and signals DNA double-strand breaks, promoting genomic stability...
  57. Schmidt K, Kolodner R. Requirement of Rrm3 helicase for repair of spontaneous DNA lesions in cells lacking Srs2 or Sgs1 helicase. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3213-26 pubmed
    ..These observations identify Rrm3 as a new member of a network of pathways, involving Sgs1 and Srs2 helicases and Mus81 endonuclease, suggested to act during repair of stalled replication forks. ..
  58. Toussaint M, Wellinger R, Conconi A. Differential participation of homologous recombination and nucleotide excision repair in yeast survival to ultraviolet light radiation. Mutat Res. 2010;698:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides detailed and quantitative information on the co-participation of HR and NER in UV survival of yeast cells. ..
  59. Vasianovich Y, Harrington L, Makovets S. Break-induced replication requires DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of Pif1 and leads to telomere lengthening. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004679 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby the passage of BIR forks through telomeres promotes telomerase activity and leads to telomere lengthening. ..
  60. Esta A, Ma E, Dupaigne P, Maloisel L, Guerois R, Le Cam E, et al. Rad52 sumoylation prevents the toxicity of unproductive Rad51 filaments independently of the anti-recombinase Srs2. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003833 pubmed publisher
    ..This conclusion is strengthened by the finding that Rad52 is often associated with complete Rad51 filaments in vitro...
  61. Palancade B, Liu X, Garcia Rubio M, Aguilera A, Zhao X, Doye V. Nucleoporins prevent DNA damage accumulation by modulating Ulp1-dependent sumoylation processes. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2912-23 pubmed
    ..Our results thus provide a molecular mechanism that underlies the connection between NPC and genome stability. ..
  62. Allen Soltero S, Martinez S, Putnam C, Kolodner R. A saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase H2 interaction network functions to suppress genome instability. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1521-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis suggests that cells with RNase H2 defects have increased levels of DNA damage and depend on other pathways of DNA metabolism to overcome the deleterious effects of this DNA damage. ..
  63. Chepurnaya O, Kozhin S, Peshekhonov V, Korolev V. RAD58 (XRS4)--a new gene in the RAD52 epistasis group. Curr Genet. 1995;28:274-9 pubmed
    ..The spore inviability of rad58 strains is not rescued by a spo13 mutation. The rad50 mutation suppresses spore inviability of a spo13 rad58 strain suggesting that RAD58 acts after RAD50 in meiotic ..
  64. Merchan S, Pedelini L, Hueso G, Calzada A, Serrano R, Yenush L. Genetic alterations leading to increases in internal potassium concentrations are detrimental for DNA integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Cells. 2011;16:152-65 pubmed publisher
  65. Kelly M, Brosnan L, Jauert P, Dunham M, Kirkpatrick D. Multiple pathways regulate minisatellite stability during stationary phase in yeast. G3 (Bethesda). 2012;2:1185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This result indicates that the genetic control of stationary phase minisatellite stability is dependent on the sequence composition of the minisatellite itself. ..
  66. Keogh M, Kim J, Downey M, Fillingham J, Chowdhury D, Harrison J, et al. A phosphatase complex that dephosphorylates gammaH2AX regulates DNA damage checkpoint recovery. Nature. 2006;439:497-501 pubmed
    ..The dephosphorylation of gammaH2AX by the HTP-C is necessary for efficient recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint. ..
  67. Wu Z, Liu J, Zhang Q, Lv D, Wu N, Zhou J. Rad6-Bre1-mediated H2B ubiquitination regulates telomere replication by promoting telomere-end resection. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:3308-3322 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, inactivation of both Rad6-Bre1-H2Bub1 and Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) pathways causes synthetic growth defects and telomere shortening in telomerase-proficient cells, and ..
  68. Merrill B, Holm C. The RAD52 recombinational repair pathway is essential in pol30 (PCNA) mutants that accumulate small single-stranded DNA fragments during DNA synthesis. Genetics. 1998;148:611-24 pubmed
    ..onto DNA, and six mutations affected three members of the RAD52 epistasis group for DNA recombinational repair (rad50, rad52 and rad57)...
  69. Grandin N, Damon C, Charbonneau M. Cdc13 cooperates with the yeast Ku proteins and Stn1 to regulate telomerase recruitment. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8397-408 pubmed
    ..Our results represent the first evidence of a direct control of the telomerase-loading function of Cdc13 by a double-strand telomeric DNA-binding complex. ..
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    ..Given the high degree of conservation for the methyltransferase and the histone mark in a broad variety of organisms, these results could have similar implications for genome stability mechanisms in vertebrate and mammalian cells. ..