Gene Symbol: RAD3
Description: TFIIH/NER complex ATP-dependent 5'-3' DNA helicase subunit RAD3
Alias: REM1, TFIIH/NER complex ATP-dependent 5'-3' DNA helicase subunit RAD3
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     RAD3

Top Publications

  1. Moriel Carretero M, Aguilera A. A postincision-deficient TFIIH causes replication fork breakage and uncovers alternative Rad51- or Pol32-mediated restart mechanisms. Mol Cell. 2010;37:690-701 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that replication can be strongly disturbed in a specific type of rad3/XPD NER mutant of TFIIH, causing replication fork breakage. In contrast to classical NER-deficient mutations, the S...
  2. Malone R, Hoekstra M. Relationships between a hyper-rec mutation (REM1) and other recombination and repair genes in yeast. Genetics. 1984;107:33-48 pubmed
    Mutations in the REM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer a semidominant hyper-recombination and hypermutable phenotype upon mitotic cells ( GOLIN and ESPOSITO 1977). These effects have not been observed in meiosis...
  3. Song J, Montelone B, Siede W, Friedberg E. Effects of multiple yeast rad3 mutant alleles on UV sensitivity, mutability, and mitotic recombination. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6620-30 pubmed
    A yeast strain was constructed that had a disruption of the chromosomal RAD3 gene and carried a series of centromeric plasmids with defined mutations in this gene...
  4. Gibbons B, Brignole E, Azubel M, Murakami K, Voss N, Bushnell D, et al. Subunit architecture of general transcription factor TFIIH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..core" subunits (Ssl1, Tfb1, Tfb2, Tfb4, and Tfb5), and additional densities can be specifically attributed to Rad3, Ssl2, and the TFIIK trimer...
  5. Naumovski L, Friedberg E. The RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: isolation and characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant in the essential function and of extragenic suppressors of this mutant. Mol Gen Genet. 1987;209:458-66 pubmed
    Mutations in the RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated by integration of a mutagenized incomplete copy of the cloned gene into wild-type cells...
  6. Luo J, Cimermancic P, Viswanath S, Ebmeier C, Kim B, Dehecq M, et al. Architecture of the Human and Yeast General Transcription and DNA Repair Factor TFIIH. Mol Cell. 2015;59:794-806 pubmed publisher
    ..one of these conserved regions, the p62/Tfb1 Anchor region, directly interacts with the DNA helicase subunit XPD/Rad3 in native TFIIH and is required for the integrity and function of TFIIH...
  7. Murakami K, Gibbons B, Davis R, Nagai S, Liu X, Robinson P, et al. Tfb6, a previously unidentified subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH, facilitates dissociation of Ssl2 helicase after transcription initiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Tfb6 does not, however, dissociate Ssl2 from TFIIH in the context of a fully assembled transcription preinitiation complex. Our findings suggest a dynamic state of Ssl2, allowing its engagement in multiple cellular processes. ..
  8. Dowling E, Maloney D, Fogel S. Meiotic recombination and sporulation in repair-deficient strains of yeast. Genetics. 1985;109:283-302 pubmed
    ..Seven were defective in excision repair (rad1, rad2, rad3, rad4, rad10, rad14 and rad16), and three were defective in mutagenic repair (rad5, rad9 and rad18)...
  9. Guzder S, Habraken Y, Sung P, Prakash L, Prakash S. Reconstitution of yeast nucleotide excision repair with purified Rad proteins, replication protein A, and transcription factor TFIIH. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:12973-6 pubmed
    ..The excision DNA fragments formed as a result of dual incision are in the 24-27-nucleotide range. ..

More Information


  1. Yang C, Khaperskyy D, Hou M, Ponticelli A. Improved methods for expression and purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIIF and TFIIH; identification of a functional Escherichia coli promoter and internal translation initiation within the N-terminal coding region of the TFIIF TFG1 subunit. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;70:172-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report conditions for the efficient two-step tandem affinity purification (TAP) of holo-TFIIH, core TFIIH and TFIIK complexes from yeast whole cell extracts. ..
  2. Navarro M, Bi L, Bailis A. A mutant allele of the transcription factor IIH helicase gene, RAD3, promotes loss of heterozygosity in response to a DNA replication defect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;176:1391-402 pubmed
    ..Similarly, rad3-102, an allele of the gene RAD3, which encodes an essential helicase subunit of the core TFIIH transcription ..
  3. Svejstrup J, Feaver W, Lapointe J, Kornberg R. RNA polymerase transcription factor IIH holoenzyme from yeast. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:28044-8 pubmed
    ..By contrast, core TFIIH is inert in both C-terminal repeat domain kinase and reconstituted transcription assays. ..
  4. Feaver W, Huang W, Gileadi O, Myers L, Gustafsson C, Kornberg R, et al. Subunit interactions in yeast transcription/repair factor TFIIH. Requirement for Tfb3 subunit in nucleotide excision repair. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:5941-6 pubmed
    ..A comprehensive pairwise two-hybrid analysis between yeast TFIIH subunits identified novel interactions between Rad3 and Tfb3, Tfb4 and Ssl1, as well as Ssl2 and Tfb2...
  5. Bertrand P, Tishkoff D, Filosi N, Dasgupta R, Kolodner R. Physical interaction between components of DNA mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14278-83 pubmed
    ..in a two-hybrid screen using MSH2 as "bait," and pairwise interactions between MSH2 and RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD10, RAD14, and RAD25 subsequently were demonstrated by two-hybrid analysis...
  6. Saparbaev M, Prakash L, Prakash S. Requirement of mismatch repair genes MSH2 and MSH3 in the RAD1-RAD10 pathway of mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;142:727-36 pubmed
    ..Coupling of mismatch binding proteins with the recombinational machinery could be important for ensuring genetic fidelity in the recombination process. ..
  7. Sung P, Prakash L, Matson S, Prakash S. RAD3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a DNA helicase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:8951-5 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD3 gene, which is required for cell viability and excision repair of damaged DNA, encodes an 89-kDa protein that has a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity...
  8. Vonarx E, Tabone E, Osmond M, Anderson H, Kunz B. Arabidopsis homologue of human transcription factor IIH/nucleotide excision repair factor p44 can function in transcription and DNA repair and interacts with AtXPD. Plant J. 2006;46:512-21 pubmed
    ..thaliana AtGTF2H2 and AtXPD, homologues of the essential interacting human/yeast TFIIH components p44/Ssl1 and XPD/Rad3, respectively...
  9. Warfield L, Luo J, Ranish J, Hahn S. Function of Conserved Topological Regions within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Basal Transcription Factor TFIIH. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we used site-specific cross-linking to localize the Tfb3-binding surface on the Rad3 Arch domain...
  10. Kou H, Zhou Y, Gorospe R, Wang Z. Mms19 protein functions in nucleotide excision repair by sustaining an adequate cellular concentration of the TFIIH component Rad3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15714-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In mms19 mutant cells, protein levels of the core TFIIH component Rad3 (XPD homologue) and Ssl2 (XPB homologue) were significantly reduced by up to 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively...
  11. Lee B, Bi L, Garfinkel D, Bailis A. Nucleotide excision repair/TFIIH helicases RAD3 and SSL2 inhibit short-sequence recombination and Ty1 retrotransposition by similar mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2436-45 pubmed
    ..Here we show that certain mutant alleles of the nucleotide excision repair (NER)/TFIIH helicase genes RAD3 and SSL2 (RAD25) confer synthetic lethality and destabilize the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome by increasing both ..
  12. Svejstrup J, Feaver W, Kornberg R. Subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIIH encoded by the CCL1 gene. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:643-5 pubmed
    ..In all likelihood, these two subunits individually form cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin dimers with Kin28 protein, a key enzyme in phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II concomitant with transcription. ..
  13. Habraken Y, Sung P, Prakash S, Prakash L. Transcription factor TFIIH and DNA endonuclease Rad2 constitute yeast nucleotide excision repair factor 3: implications for nucleotide excision repair and Cockayne syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10718-22 pubmed
    ..Our findings are important for understanding the manner of assembly of the NER machinery and they have implications for Cockayne syndrome. ..
  14. Herrera Moyano E, Moriel Carretero M, Montelone B, Aguilera A. The rem mutations in the ATP-binding groove of the Rad3/XPD helicase lead to Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome-like phenotypes. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004859 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes)...
  15. Henriques J, Moustacchi E. Interactions between mutations for sensitivity to psoralen photoaddition (pso) and to radiation (rad) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1981;148:248-56 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae of two pso mutations with each other and with rad mutations affected in their excision-resynthesis (rad3), error-prone (rad6), and deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand break (rad52) repair pathways was determined for ..
  16. Akhtar M, Heidemann M, Tietjen J, Zhang D, Chapman R, Eick D, et al. TFIIH kinase places bivalent marks on the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2009;34:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These bivalent CTD marks, in concert with cues within nascent transcripts, specify the cotranscriptional engagement of the relevant RNA processing machinery. ..
  17. Guzder S, Sung P, Prakash L, Prakash S. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast is mediated by sequential assembly of repair factors and not by a pre-assembled repairosome. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:8903-10 pubmed
    ..In the reconstituted NER system, a higher level of incision of UV-damaged DNA is achieved with the Rad1-Rad10-Rad14 complex, which we designate as nucleotide excision repair factor-1, NEF-1. ..
  18. Rodriguez K, Talamantez J, Huang W, Reed S, Wang Z, Chen L, et al. Affinity purification and partial characterization of a yeast multiprotein complex for nucleotide excision repair using histidine-tagged Rad14 protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34180-9 pubmed
    ..The affinity purified NER complex catalyzed the incision of UV-irradiated DNA in an ATP-dependent reaction. We conclude that active high molecular weight complexes of NER proteins exist in undamaged yeast cells. ..
  19. Jensen T, Boulay J, Olesen J, Colin J, Weyler M, Libri D. Modulation of transcription affects mRNP quality. Mol Cell. 2004;16:235-44 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that efficient mRNP assembly is under a kinetic control that is influenced by the rate of transcription. ..
  20. Montelone B, Liang Chong B. Interaction of excision repair gene products and mitotic recombination functions in yeast. Curr Genet. 1993;24:481-6 pubmed
    ..to suppress the hyper-recombination and rad52 double-mutant lethality phenotypes of the rad3-102 (formerly rem1-2) mutation. Such suppression has previously been observed with mutant alleles of RAD1 and RAD4...
  21. Valay J, Simon M, Dubois M, Bensaude O, Facca C, Faye G. The KIN28 gene is required both for RNA polymerase II mediated transcription and phosphorylation of the Rpb1p CTD. J Mol Biol. 1995;249:535-44 pubmed
    ..with a kin28 thermosensitive mutation (kin28-ts3) has uncovered genetic interactions between gene KIN28 and genes RAD3, SIN4, STI1 and CDC37...
  22. Takagi Y, Komori H, Chang W, Hudmon A, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. Revised subunit structure of yeast transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) and reconciliation with human TFIIH. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:43897-900 pubmed
    ..This reassignment of subunits resolves a longstanding discrepancy between yeast and human TFIIH complexes. ..
  23. Bardwell L, Bardwell A, Feaver W, Svejstrup J, Kornberg R, Friedberg E. Yeast RAD3 protein binds directly to both SSL2 and SSL1 proteins: implications for the structure and function of transcription/repair factor b. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:3926-30 pubmed
    The RAD3 and SSL2 gene products are essential proteins that are also required for the nucleotide excision repair pathway...
  24. Esnault C, Ghavi Helm Y, Brun S, Soutourina J, Van Berkum N, Boschiero C, et al. Mediator-dependent recruitment of TFIIH modules in preinitiation complex. Mol Cell. 2008;31:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A direct interaction between Med11 Mediator head subunit and Rad3 TFIIH subunit was identified...
  25. Sung P, Guzder S, Prakash L, Prakash S. Reconstitution of TFIIH and requirement of its DNA helicase subunits, Rad3 and Rad25, in the incision step of nucleotide excision repair. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10821-6 pubmed
    Yeast TFIIH is composed of six subunits: Rad3, Rad25, TFB1, SSL1, p55, and p38. In addition to TFIIH, we have purified a subassembly of the factor that lacks Rad3 and Rad25 and which we refer to as TFIIHi...
  26. Eckardt Schupp F, Siede W, Game J. The RAD24 (= Rs1) gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae participates in two different pathways of DNA repair. Genetics. 1987;115:83-90 pubmed
    ..RAD24 maps on chromosome V, close to RAD3 (1.3 cM)...
  27. Estruch F, Cole C. An early function during transcription for the yeast mRNA export factor Dbp5p/Rat8p suggested by its genetic and physical interactions with transcription factor IIH components. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1664-76 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest a nuclear role for Dbp5 during the early steps of transcription. ..
  28. Moriel Carretero M, Tous C, Aguilera A. Control of the function of the transcription and repair factor TFIIH by the action of the cochaperone Ydj1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15300-5 pubmed publisher
    Yeast rad3-102, a mutant of the TFIIH complex involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription, can perform NER initial steps but not late steps of postincision gap filing...
  29. Muñoz Galvan S, Garcia Rubio M, Ortega P, Ruiz J, Jimeno S, Pardo B, et al. A new role for Rrm3 in repair of replication-born DNA breakage by sister chromatid recombination. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006781 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Rrm3 recruitment to replication-born DSBs is crucial for viability, uncovering a new role for Rrm3 in the repair of broken replication forks. ..
  30. Silver H, Nissley J, Reed S, Hou Y, Johnson E. A role for SUMO in nucleotide excision repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:1243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..found that several factors that participate in NER are sumoylated, including Rad4, Rad16, Rad7, Rad1, Rad10, Ssl2, Rad3, and Rpb4...
  31. Nestoras K, Mohammed A, Schreurs A, Fleck O, Watson A, Poitelea M, et al. Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by Spd1 involves multiple mechanisms. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1145-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identify a new behavior for RNR complexes that potentially provides yet another mechanism to regulate dNTP synthesis via modulation of RNR complex architecture. ..
  32. Takagi Y, Masuda C, Chang W, Komori H, Wang D, Hunter T, et al. Ubiquitin ligase activity of TFIIH and the transcriptional response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2005;18:237-43 pubmed
    ..Rather, it correlates with reduced transcriptional induction of genes involved in DNA repair, suggesting that the E3 Ub ligase activity of TFIIH mediates the transcriptional response to DNA damage. ..
  33. Sung P, Watkins J, Prakash L, Prakash S. Negative superhelicity promotes ATP-dependent binding of yeast RAD3 protein to ultraviolet-damaged DNA. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:8303-8 pubmed
    The RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for excision repair of UV-damaged DNA and is essential for cell viability...
  34. Kim M, Suh H, Cho E, Buratowski S. Phosphorylation of the yeast Rpb1 C-terminal domain at serines 2, 5, and 7. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The basal factor TFIIH can phosphorylate Ser-7 in vitro and is necessary for Ser-7(P) in vivo. Interestingly, deletion of the CTD Ser-5(P) phosphatase Rtr1 leads to an increase in Ser-5(P) but not Ser-7(P). ..
  35. Malone R, Golin J, Esposito M. Mitotic versus meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 1980;1:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In reml-1/rem1-1 hybrids the distribution of mitotic exchange events is more similar to the distribution observed in meiosis.
  36. Chang W, Kornberg R. Electron crystal structure of the transcription factor and DNA repair complex, core TFIIH. Cell. 2000;102:609-13 pubmed
    ..The structure is based on a ring of three subunits, Tfb1, Tfb2, and Tfb3, to which are appended several functional moieties: Rad3, bridged to Tfb1 by SsI1; SsI2, known to interact with Tfb2; and Kin28, known to interact with Tfb3.
  37. Andersen S, Zhang A, Dominska M, Moriel Carretero M, Herrera Moyano E, Aguilera A, et al. High-Resolution Mapping of Homologous Recombination Events in rad3 Hyper-Recombination Mutants in Yeast. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005938 pubmed publisher
    The Saccharomyces cerevisae RAD3 gene is the homolog of human XPD, an essential gene encoding a DNA helicase of the TFIIH complex involved in both nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription...
  38. Maines S, Negritto M, Wu X, Manthey G, Bailis A. Novel mutations in the RAD3 and SSL1 genes perturb genome stability by stimulating recombination between short repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1998;150:963-76 pubmed
    ..Novel alleles of the RAD3 and SSL1 genes, which code for components of a basal transcription and UV-damage-repair complex in Saccharomyces ..