Gene Symbol: RAD2
Description: ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease RAD2
Alias: ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease RAD2
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Harrington J, Lieber M. Functional domains within FEN-1 and RAD2 define a family of structure-specific endonucleases: implications for nucleotide excision repair. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1344-55 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequence of FEN-1 is highly homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes YKL510 and RAD2. We show that YKL510 and a truncated RAD2 protein are also structure-specific endonucleases...
  2. Bardwell A, Bardwell L, Iyer N, Svejstrup J, Feaver W, Kornberg R, et al. Yeast nucleotide excision repair proteins Rad2 and Rad4 interact with RNA polymerase II basal transcription factor b (TFIIH). Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3569-76 pubmed
    The Rad2, Rad3, Rad4, and Ss12 proteins are required for nucleotide excision repair in yeast cells and are homologs of four human proteins which are involved in a group of hereditary repair-defective diseases...
  3. Lafrance Vanasse J, Arseneault G, Cappadocia L, Chen H, Legault P, Omichinski J. Structural and functional characterization of interactions involving the Tfb1 subunit of TFIIH and the NER factor Rad2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:5739-50 pubmed publisher
    ..During NER, TFIIH recruits the 3'-endonuclease Rad2 to damaged DNA...
  4. Yu S, Kang M, Kim H, Gorospe C, Kim T, Lee S. The PCNA binding domain of Rad2p plays a role in mutagenesis by modulating the cell cycle in response to DNA damage. DNA Repair (Amst). 2014;16:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of this domain is controversial because its presence does not affect NER. Using yeast RAD2, a homolog of human XPG, we show that Rad2p interacts with PCNA through its PCNA-BD and the PCNA-BD of Rad2p plays ..
  5. Dowling E, Maloney D, Fogel S. Meiotic recombination and sporulation in repair-deficient strains of yeast. Genetics. 1985;109:283-302 pubmed
    ..Seven were defective in excision repair (rad1, rad2, rad3, rad4, rad10, rad14 and rad16), and three were defective in mutagenic repair (rad5, rad9 and rad18)...
  6. McA Nulty M, Lippard S. The HMG-domain protein Ixr1 blocks excision repair of cisplatin-DNA adducts in yeast. Mutat Res. 1996;362:75-86 pubmed
    ..the lower cytotoxicity of cisplatin in the ixr1 strain is the result of enhanced repair was investigated in rad1, rad2, rad4, rad6, rad9, rad10, rad14 and rad52 backgrounds...
  7. Koval tsova S, Gracheva L, Evstiukhina T, Fedorova I, Alekseev S, Korolev V. [Mutator genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interaction of mutations him and his with mutations blocking three principal pathways of repair of induced DNA damage]. Genetika. 1996;32:1061-7 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, mutation rad2 synergistically interacts with mutations him1, hsm1, hsm3, hsm6, and hsm2, thus enhancing the frequency of UV-..
  8. Nitiss K, Malik M, He X, White S, Nitiss J. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) participates in the repair of Top2-mediated DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8953-8 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Tdp1 plays more general roles in DNA repair than repair of Top1 mediated DNA damage, and may participate in repairing many types of base damage to DNA. ..
  9. Kelberg E, Kovaltsova S, Alekseev S, Fedorova I, Gracheva L, Evstukhina T, et al. HIM1, a new yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene playing a role in control of spontaneous and induced mutagenesis. Mutat Res. 2005;578:64-78 pubmed
    ..in double mutants carrying him1 mutation and mutations in other repair genes: apn1, blocking base excision repair; rad2, rev3, and rad54, blocking three principal DNA repair pathways; pms1, blocking mismatch repair; hsm2 and hsm3 ..

More Information


  1. Lee S, Yu S, Prakash L, Prakash S. Requirement of yeast RAD2, a homolog of human XPG gene, for efficient RNA polymerase II transcription. implications for Cockayne syndrome. Cell. 2002;109:823-34 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of RAD2, the S. cerevisiae counterpart of XPG, in promoting efficient RNA polymerase II transcription...
  2. Fedorova I, Kovaltzova S, Gracheva L, Evstuhina T, Korolev V. Requirement of HSM3 gene for spontaneous mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat Res. 2004;554:67-75 pubmed
    ..Effect of accumulation of spontaneous mutants was observed in slowly dividing cells in the rad1, rad2, rad14, rad54, and pms1, but it was absent in the rev3, pol2 and pol3 mutants...
  3. Guzder S, Torres Ramos C, Johnson R, Haracska L, Prakash L, Prakash S. Requirement of yeast Rad1-Rad10 nuclease for the removal of 3'-blocked termini from DNA strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2283-91 pubmed
  4. Sun X, Thrower D, Qiu J, Wu P, Zheng L, Zhou M, et al. Complementary functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad2 family nucleases in Okazaki fragment maturation, mutation avoidance, and chromosome stability. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:925-40 pubmed
    b>Rad2 family nucleases, identified by sequence similarity within their catalytic domains, function in multiple pathways of DNA metabolism...
  5. Jimeno S, Herrera Moyano E, Ortega P, Aguilera A. Differential effect of the overexpression of Rad2/XPG family endonucleases on genome integrity in yeast and human cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2017;57:66-75 pubmed publisher
    Eukaryotic cells possess several DNA endonucleases that are necessary to complete different steps in DNA metabolism. Rad2/XPG and Rad27/FEN1 belong to a group of evolutionary conserved proteins that constitute the Rad2 family...
  6. Chinchilla K, Rodríguez Molina J, Ursic D, Finkel J, Ansari A, Culbertson M. Interactions of Sen1, Nrd1, and Nab3 with multiple phosphorylated forms of the Rpb1 C-terminal domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:417-29 pubmed publisher
  7. Alekseev S, Kovaltsova S, Fedorova I, Gracheva L, Evstukhina T, Peshekhonov V, et al. HSM2 (HMO1) gene participates in mutagenesis control in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:287-97 pubmed
    ..in double mutants carrying hsm2-1 mutation and a mutation in a gene of principal damaged DNA repair pathways (rad2 and rev3) or in a mismatch repair gene (pms1 and recently characterized in our laboratory hsm3)...
  8. Keszenman D, Salvo V, Nunes E. Effects of bleomycin on growth kinetics and survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a model of repair pathways. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3125-32 pubmed
    ..The synergistic interaction observed at high concentrations in the triple mutant rad2-6 rad6-1 rad52-1 indicates partial independence of the involved repair pathways, with possible common substrates...
  9. Lewis L, Westmoreland J, Resnick M. Repair of endonuclease-induced double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: essential role for genes associated with nonhomologous end-joining. Genetics. 1999;152:1513-29 pubmed
    ..Cell-cycle progression was inhibited in excision repair-defective rad1 mutants, but not in rad2 cells, indicating a role for Rad1 processing of the DSB ends...
  10. Bertrand P, Tishkoff D, Filosi N, Dasgupta R, Kolodner R. Physical interaction between components of DNA mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14278-83 pubmed
    ..identified in a two-hybrid screen using MSH2 as "bait," and pairwise interactions between MSH2 and RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD10, RAD14, and RAD25 subsequently were demonstrated by two-hybrid analysis...
  11. Habraken Y, Sung P, Prakash S, Prakash L. Transcription factor TFIIH and DNA endonuclease Rad2 constitute yeast nucleotide excision repair factor 3: implications for nucleotide excision repair and Cockayne syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10718-22 pubmed
    ..Neither of the two endonucleases, Rad1-Rad10 and Rad2, required for dual incision, shows any affinity for ultraviolet-damaged DNA...
  12. Habraken Y, Sung P, Prakash L, Prakash S. Yeast excision repair gene RAD2 encodes a single-stranded DNA endonuclease. Nature. 1993;366:365-8 pubmed
    ..The RAD2 gene is one of at least seven genes indispensable for excision repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and ..
  13. Li W, Selvam K, Rahman S, Li S. Sen1, the yeast homolog of human senataxin, plays a more direct role than Rad26 in transcription coupled DNA repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:6794-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Sen1 plays a more direct role than Rad26 in TCR. ..
  14. Miętus M, Nowak E, Jaciuk M, Kustosz P, Studnicka J, Nowotny M. Crystal structure of the catalytic core of Rad2: insights into the mechanism of substrate binding. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:10762-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Rad2/XPG belongs to the flap nuclease family and is responsible for a key step of the eukaryotic nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) pathway...
  15. Su X, Freudenreich C. Cytosine deamination and base excision repair cause R-loop-induced CAG repeat fragility and instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E8392-E8401 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rad1/XPF and Rad2/XPG nucleases were also important in protecting against contractions, but through BER rather than nucleotide ..
  16. Eyboulet F, Cibot C, Eychenne T, Neil H, Alibert O, Werner M, et al. Mediator links transcription and DNA repair by facilitating Rad2/XPG recruitment. Genes Dev. 2013;27:2549-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a functional contact between the Med17 Mediator subunit and Rad2/XPG, the 3' endonuclease involved in nucleotide excision DNA repair...
  17. Podlaska A, McIntyre J, Skoneczna A, Sledziewska Gojska E. The link between 20S proteasome activity and post-replication DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:1321-32 pubmed
    ..We show that UMP1 is not epistatic to RAD23 and RAD2, which are involved in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway...
  18. Vance J, Wilson T. Yeast Tdp1 and Rad1-Rad10 function as redundant pathways for repairing Top1 replicative damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13669-74 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that yeast lacking the Rad1-Rad10-related proteins Mus81-Mms4 display a unique pattern of camptothecin sensitivity and suggest a concerted model for the action of these endonucleases. ..
  19. Torres Ramos C, Johnson R, Prakash L, Prakash S. Evidence for the involvement of nucleotide excision repair in the removal of abasic sites in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3522-8 pubmed
    ..A deficiency in the repair of AP sites may contribute to the internal cancers and progressive neurodegeneration that occur in XP patients. ..
  20. Lafrance Vanasse J, Arseneault G, Cappadocia L, Legault P, Omichinski J. Structural and functional evidence that Rad4 competes with Rad2 for binding to the Tfb1 subunit of TFIIH in NER. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2736-45 pubmed publisher
    ..TFIIH then recruits XPG/Rad2 through interactions with similar subunits and the two repair factors appear to be mutually exclusive within the ..
  21. Kang M, Yu S, Kim H, Gorospe C, Choi B, Lee S, et al. Yeast RAD2, a homolog of human XPG, plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle and actin dynamics. Biol Open. 2014;3:29-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of RAD2, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart of XPG, in cell cycle regulation and efficient actin assembly following ..
  22. Kang M, Yu S, Lim H, Choi B, Park C, Kang J, et al. Mitotic catastrophe induced by overexpression of budding yeast Rad2p. Yeast. 2010;27:399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RAD2 is a yeast homologue of XPG, which is a human endonuclease involved in nucleotide excision repair...
  23. Ursic D, Chinchilla K, Finkel J, Culbertson M. Multiple protein/protein and protein/RNA interactions suggest roles for yeast DNA/RNA helicase Sen1p in transcription, transcription-coupled DNA repair and RNA processing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:2441-52 pubmed
    ..The protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions reported here suggest that the DNA/RNA helicase activity of Sen1p is utilized for several different purposes in multiple gene expression pathways. ..