Gene Symbol: PRE1
Description: proteasome core particle subunit beta 4
Alias: proteasome core particle subunit beta 4
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Schauber C, Chen L, Tongaonkar P, Vega I, Lambertson D, Potts W, et al. Rad23 links DNA repair to the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Nature. 1998;391:715-8 pubmed
    ..The ubiquitin-like domain of human Rad23 (UbL[HRB]) also interacts with the human proteasome. These results demonstrate that ubiquitin-like domains (UbLs) represent a new class of proteasome-interacting motifs. ..
  2. Chen L, Madura K. Rad23 promotes the targeting of proteolytic substrates to the proteasome. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4902-13 pubmed
  3. Verma R, McDonald H, Yates J, Deshaies R. Selective degradation of ubiquitinated Sic1 by purified 26S proteasome yields active S phase cyclin-Cdk. Mol Cell. 2001;8:439-48 pubmed
    ..Activation of S-Cdk reported herein represents a complete reconstitution of the regulatory switch underlying the G1/S transition in budding yeast. ..
  4. Biederer T, Volkwein C, Sommer T. Degradation of subunits of the Sec61p complex, an integral component of the ER membrane, by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. EMBO J. 1996;15:2069-76 pubmed
    ..The process is proposed to be specific for unassembled Sec61p and Sss1p. Thus, our results suggest that one pathway of ER degradation of abnormal or unassembled membrane proteins is initiated at the cytoplasmic side of the ER. ..
  5. Ligr M, Velten I, Frohlich E, Madeo F, Ledig M, Fröhlich K, et al. The proteasomal substrate Stm1 participates in apoptosis-like cell death in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2422-32 pubmed
    ..Conversely, Stm1 accumulation induces cell death. In addition we identified five other genes whose overexpression in proteasomal mutants caused similar apoptotic phenotypes. ..
  6. Park S, Roelofs J, Kim W, Robert J, Schmidt M, Gygi S, et al. Hexameric assembly of the proteasomal ATPases is templated through their C termini. Nature. 2009;459:866-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies show that assembly of the proteasome base is a rapid yet highly orchestrated process. ..
  7. Chuang S, Chen L, Lambertson D, Anand M, Kinzy T, Madura K. Proteasome-mediated degradation of cotranslationally damaged proteins involves translation elongation factor 1A. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:403-13 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide a mechanistic foundation for defining how cellular proteins are degraded cotranslationally. ..
  8. Kaiser P, Moncollin V, Clarke D, Watson M, Bertolaet B, Reed S, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase and Cks/Suc1 interact with the proteasome in yeast to control proteolysis of M-phase targets. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1190-202 pubmed
    ..Stabilization of Pds1 is partially responsible for the metaphase arrest phenotype of cks1 mutants because deletion of PDS1 partially relieves the metaphase block in these mutants. ..
  9. Seufert W, Futcher B, Jentsch S. Role of a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in degradation of S- and M-phase cyclins. Nature. 1995;373:78-81 pubmed
    ..Thus distinct degradation signals or regulated interaction with the ubiquitin-protein ligase system may determine the cell-cycle specificity of cyclin proteolysis. ..

More Information


  1. Sun L, Johnston S, Kodadek T. Physical association of the APIS complex and general transcription factors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:991-9 pubmed
    ..These data add to the growing body of evidence that the APIS complex has a role in transcription, independent of its role in proteolysis and, furthermore, argues that it functions in association with the general transcription complex. ..
  2. Russell S, Steger K, Johnston S. Subcellular localization, stoichiometry, and protein levels of 26 S proteasome subunits in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21943-52 pubmed
    ..of the regulatory complex of the proteasome, Sug2/Rpt4 and Sug1/Rpt6, and a subunit of the 20 S proteasome, Pre1, were determined by immunofluorescence...
  3. Chuang S, Madura K. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ub-conjugating enzyme Ubc4 binds the proteasome in the presence of translationally damaged proteins. Genetics. 2005;171:1477-84 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these studies suggest a specific role for Ubc4 and Ubc5 in the degradation of cotranslationally damaged proteins that are targeted to the proteasome. ..
  4. Groll M, Ditzel L, Lowe J, Stock D, Bochtler M, Bartunik H, et al. Structure of 20S proteasome from yeast at 2.4 A resolution. Nature. 1997;386:463-71 pubmed
  5. Baugh J, Viktorova E, Pilipenko E. Proteasomes can degrade a significant proportion of cellular proteins independent of ubiquitination. J Mol Biol. 2009;386:814-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest a significant contribution of the ubiquitin-independent proteasome degradation pathway to the regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. ..
  6. Hiller M, Finger A, Schweiger M, Wolf D. ER degradation of a misfolded luminal protein by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Science. 1996;273:1725-8 pubmed
    ..It is likely that CPY* entered the ER, was glycosylated, and was then transported back out of the ER lumen to the cytoplasmic side of the organelle, where it was conjugated with ubiquitin and degraded. ..
  7. Wani P, Rowland M, Ondracek A, Deeds E, Roelofs J. Maturation of the proteasome core particle induces an affinity switch that controls regulatory particle association. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6384 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work thus provides mechanistic insights into a crucial step in proteasome biogenesis. ..
  8. Brandina I, Smirnov A, Kolesnikova O, Entelis N, Krasheninnikov I, Martin R, et al. tRNA import into yeast mitochondria is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:4248-54 pubmed
    ..This result suggests a functional link between UPS and tRNA mitochondrial import in yeast and indicates on the existence of negative and positive import regulators. ..
  9. Marques A, Glanemann C, Ramos P, Dohmen R. The C-terminal extension of the beta7 subunit and activator complexes stabilize nascent 20 S proteasomes and promote their maturation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34869-76 pubmed
    ..Together these data demonstrate that Blm10 and the 19 S activator have a partially redundant function in stabilizing nascent 20 S proteasomes and in promoting their activation. ..
  10. Prakash S, Inobe T, Hatch A, Matouschek A. Substrate selection by the proteasome during degradation of protein complexes. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data provide a plausible explanation for how adaptor proteins can bind to otherwise stable proteins and target them for degradation. ..
  11. Kalies K, Allan S, Sergeyenko T, Kroger H, Römisch K. The protein translocation channel binds proteasomes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. EMBO J. 2005;24:2284-93 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that the Sec61 channel is a principal proteasome receptor in the ER membrane. ..
  12. Funakoshi M, Tomko R, Kobayashi H, Hochstrasser M. Multiple assembly chaperones govern biogenesis of the proteasome regulatory particle base. Cell. 2009;137:887-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that proteasomal RP biogenesis requires multiple, functionally overlapping chaperones and suggest a model in which subunits form specific subcomplexes that then assemble into the base. ..
  13. MacDiarmid C, Taggart J, Jeong J, Kerdsomboon K, Eide D. Activation of the Yeast UBI4 Polyubiquitin Gene by Zap1 Transcription Factor via an Intragenic Promoter Is Critical for Zinc-deficient Growth. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:18880-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Zap1-dependent UBI4 expression caused a growth defect in zinc-deficient conditions. Thus, the intragenic UBI4 promoter is critical to preventing ubiquitin deficiency in zinc-deficient cells. ..
  14. Denison C, Kodadek T. Toward a general chemical method for rapidly mapping multi-protein complexes. J Proteome Res. 2004;3:417-25 pubmed
  15. Tongaonkar P, Chen L, Lambertson D, Ko B, Madura K. Evidence for an interaction between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and the 26S proteasome. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4691-8 pubmed
    ..Purified proteasomes can ligate ubiquitin to a test substrate without the addition of exogenous E2 protein, suggesting that the ubiquitylation of some proteolytic substrates might be directly coupled to degradation by the proteasome. ..
  16. Gueckel R, Enenkel C, Wolf D, Hilt W. Mutations in the yeast proteasome beta-type subunit Pre3 uncover position-dependent effects on proteasomal peptidase activity and in vivo function. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19443-52 pubmed
    ..g. fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. In addition, pre3-1 and pre3-6 mutant cells exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes as temperature sensitivity and cell cycle-related effects. ..
  17. Rumpf S, Jentsch S. Functional division of substrate processing cofactors of the ubiquitin-selective Cdc48 chaperone. Mol Cell. 2006;21:261-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that the balance between the distinct substrate-processing cofactors may determine whether a substrate is multiubiquitylated and routed to the proteasome for degradation or deubiquitylated and/or released for other purposes. ..
  18. Ishii T, Funakoshi M, Kobayashi H. Yeast Pth2 is a UBL domain-binding protein that participates in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. EMBO J. 2006;25:5492-503 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Pth2 negatively regulates the UBL-UBA protein-mediated shuttling pathway in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. ..
  19. Doss Pepe E, Stenroos E, Johnson W, Madura K. Ataxin-3 interactions with rad23 and valosin-containing protein and its associations with ubiquitin chains and the proteasome are consistent with a role in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6469-83 pubmed
  20. Richter Ruoff B, Wolf D. Proteasome and cell cycle. Evidence for a regulatory role of the protease on mitotic cyclins in yeast. FEBS Lett. 1993;336:34-6 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that the proteasome is the proteolytic regulator of this cyclin and thus a central regulator of the cell cycle. ..
  21. Chandra A, Chen L, Liang H, Madura K. Proteasome assembly influences interaction with ubiquitinated proteins and shuttle factors. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8330-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the carboxyl-terminal domain of Rpn11 partially suppressed the growth and proteasome stability defects of rpn11-1. These results indicate that ubiquitinated substrates are preferentially delivered to intact proteasome. ..
  22. Chen P, Hochstrasser M. Autocatalytic subunit processing couples active site formation in the 20S proteasome to completion of assembly. Cell. 1996;86:961-72 pubmed
  23. Juanes M, Queralt E, Bañó M, Igual J. Rot1 plays an antagonistic role to Clb2 in actin cytoskeleton dynamics throughout the cell cycle. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2390-401 pubmed
    ..Several genetic interactions suggest a link between Rot1 and the ubiquitin-proteasome system and we show that the Clb2 cyclin is not properly degraded in rot1 cells. ..
  24. Plemper R, Bordallo J, Deak P, Taxis C, Hitt R, Wolf D. Genetic interactions of Hrd3p and Der3p/Hrd1p with Sec61p suggest a retro-translocation complex mediating protein transport for ER degradation. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 22):4123-34 pubmed
    ..The retro-translocon seems to be build up at least by the Sec61 pore, Der3p/Hrd1p and Hrd3p and mediates both retrograde transport and ubiquitination of substrate molecules. ..
  25. Funakoshi M, Li X, Velichutina I, Hochstrasser M, Kobayashi H. Sem1, the yeast ortholog of a human BRCA2-binding protein, is a component of the proteasome regulatory particle that enhances proteasome stability. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6447-54 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a potential mechanism for this protein-protein stabilization and also suggest that an intact proteasomal regulatory particle is required for responses to DNA damage. ..
  26. Chen L, Madura K. Evidence for distinct functions for human DNA repair factors hHR23A and hHR23B. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:3401-8 pubmed
    ..We also determined that hHR23A and hHR23B could be co-purified with unique proteolytic and stress-responsive factors from human breast cancer tissues, indicating that they have unique functions in vivo. ..
  27. van Nocker S, Sadis S, Rubin D, Glickman M, Fu H, Coux O, et al. The multiubiquitin-chain-binding protein Mcb1 is a component of the 26S proteasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and plays a nonessential, substrate-specific role in protein turnover. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:6020-8 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that Mcb1 is not the sole factor involved in ubiquitin recognition by the 26S proteasome and that Mcb1 may interact with only a subset of ubiquitinated substrates. ..
  28. Hilt W, Enenkel C, Gruhler A, Singer T, Wolf D. The PRE4 gene codes for a subunit of the yeast proteasome necessary for peptidylglutamyl-peptide-hydrolyzing activity. Mutations link the proteasome to stress- and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:3479-86 pubmed
    ..The mutant protein is shortened by 15 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus. Mutations (pre1-1, pre2-2) in the chymotrypsin-like activity of proteinase yscE uncovered the enzyme to be involved in ubiquitin-..
  29. Yashiroda H, Toda Y, Otsu S, Takagi K, Mizushima T, Murata S. N-terminal α7 deletion of the proteasome 20S core particle substitutes for yeast PI31 function. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the α7 N terminus has a role in CP activation different from that of the α3 N terminus and that the role of Fub1 antagonizes a specific function of the α7 N terminus. ..
  30. Malinovska L, Kroschwald S, Munder M, Richter D, Alberti S. Molecular chaperones and stress-inducible protein-sorting factors coordinate the spatiotemporal distribution of protein aggregates. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3041-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model suggests that protein aggregation is not a haphazard process but rather an orchestrated cellular response that adjusts the flux of misfolded proteins to the capacities of the protein quality control system. ..
  31. Verma R, Oania R, Fang R, Smith G, Deshaies R. Cdc48/p97 mediates UV-dependent turnover of RNA Pol II. Mol Cell. 2011;41:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal an intimate coupling of function between proteasomes and Cdc48 that we suggest is necessary to sustain processive degradation of unstable subunits of some macromolecular protein complexes. ..
  32. Braun S, Jentsch S. SM-protein-controlled ER-associated degradation discriminates between different SNAREs. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:1176-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings identify Sly1 as a discriminating regulator of SNARE levels and indicate that Sly1-controlled ERAD might regulate the balance between different Qa-SNARE proteins. ..
  33. Rubin D, van Nocker S, Glickman M, Coux O, Wefes I, Sadis S, et al. ATPase and ubiquitin-binding proteins of the yeast proteasome. Mol Biol Rep. 1997;24:17-26 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the recognition of ubiquitin conjugates by the proteasome is a complex process which must involve proteins other than Mcb1. ..
  34. Heinemeyer W, Gruhler A, Möhrle V, Mahe Y, Wolf D. PRE2, highly homologous to the human major histocompatibility complex-linked RING10 gene, codes for a yeast proteasome subunit necessary for chrymotryptic activity and degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:5115-20 pubmed
  35. Mullen J, Chen C, Brill S. Wss1 is a SUMO-dependent isopeptidase that interacts genetically with the Slx5-Slx8 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that Wss1 is a SUMO-dependent isopeptidase that acts on sumoylated substrates as they undergo proteasomal degradation. ..
  36. Romero Perez L, Chen L, Lambertson D, Madura K. Sts1 can overcome the loss of Rad23 and Rpn10 and represents a novel regulator of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:35574-82 pubmed
    ..Despite these proteolytic defects, overall proteasome activity was increased in sts1-2. We propose that Sts1 is a new regulatory factor in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway that controls the turnover of proteasome substrates...
  37. Gilon T, Chomsky O, Kulka R. Degradation signals for ubiquitin system proteolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1998;17:2759-66 pubmed
    ..Some of these C-terminal tails share similar sequence motifs, and a feature common to almost all of these sequences is a highly hydrophobic region such as is usually located inside globular proteins or inserted into membranes. ..
  38. Singer T, Haefner S, Hoffmann M, Fischer M, Ilyina J, Hilt W. Sit4 phosphatase is functionally linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Genetics. 2003;164:1305-21 pubmed
    ..Yeast cells harboring sit4 mutations and an impaired proteasome (due to pre1-1 pre4-1 mutations) exhibited defective growth on minimal medium...
  39. Metzger M, Michaelis S. Analysis of quality control substrates in distinct cellular compartments reveals a unique role for Rpn4p in tolerating misfolded membrane proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1006-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these is RPN4, highlighting the importance of the Rpn4p-dependent response in tolerating UPR-M/C stress. Further analysis suggests the requirement for Rpn4p reflects severe impairment of the proteasome by UPR-M/C stress. ..
  40. Silva G, Netto L, Discola K, Piassa Filho G, Pimenta D, Bárcena J, et al. Role of glutaredoxin 2 and cytosolic thioredoxins in cysteinyl-based redox modification of the 20S proteasome. FEBS J. 2008;275:2942-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate for the first time that 20S proteasome cysteinyl redox modification is a regulated mechanism coupled to enzymatic deglutathionylase activity. ..
  41. Demasi M, Silva G, Netto L. 20 S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is responsive to redox modifications and is S-glutathionylated. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:679-85 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that at the physiological level the yeast 20 S proteasome is regulated by its sulfhydryl content, thereby coupling intracellular redox signaling to proteasome-mediated proteolysis. ..
  42. Loayza D, Michaelis S. Role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the vacuolar degradation of Ste6p, the a-factor transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:779-89 pubmed
    ..the degradation of Ste6p is impaired in mutants that exhibit defects in the activity of the proteasome (doa4 and pre1,2)...