Gene Symbol: PPZ1
Description: salt homeostasis regulator
Alias: salt homeostasis regulator
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Yenush L, Mulet J, Arino J, Serrano R. The Ppz protein phosphatases are key regulators of K+ and pH homeostasis: implications for salt tolerance, cell wall integrity and cell cycle progression. EMBO J. 2002;21:920-9 pubmed
    ..In addition to providing a coherent explanation for all Ppz-dependent phenotypes, our results provide evidence for a causal relationship between intracellular cation homeostasis and a potential cell cycle checkpoint. ..
  2. Merchan S, Pedelini L, Hueso G, Calzada A, Serrano R, Yenush L. Genetic alterations leading to increases in internal potassium concentrations are detrimental for DNA integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Cells. 2011;16:152-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeast strains lacking the PPZ1 and PPZ2 phosphatase genes, which aberrantly accumulate potassium, are sensitive to agents causing replicative ..
  3. Sakumoto N, Matsuoka I, Mukai Y, Ogawa N, Kaneko Y, Harashima S. A series of double disruptants for protein phosphatase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their phenotypic analysis. Yeast. 2002;19:587-99 pubmed
    ..In addition to the ptc1, ynr022c and ycr079w single disruptants, the ppz1 ppz2 double disruptant showed temperature-sensitive slow growth...
  4. Marquina M, González A, Barreto L, Gelis S, Munoz I, Ruiz A, et al. Modulation of yeast alkaline cation tolerance by Ypi1 requires calcineurin. Genetics. 2012;190:1355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to a complex role of Ypi1 on the regulation of cation homeostasis, largely mediated by the calcineurin phosphatase. ..
  5. Cheng Y, Chen R. Assembly and quality control of the protein phosphatase 1 holoenzyme involves the Cdc48-Shp1 chaperone. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:1180-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Cdc48-Shp1 functions as a molecular chaperone for the structural integrity of PP1 complex in general and that it specifically promotes the assembly of Glc7-Sds22-Ypi1 for nuclear import. ..
  6. Andrews P, Stark M. Type 1 protein phosphatase is required for maintenance of cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 3):507-20 pubmed
    ..Dephosphorylation by PP1 therefore functions positively to promote cell integrity, bud morphology and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and glc7-10 cells require higher levels of Pkc1p activity to sustain these functions. ..
  7. Venturi G, Bloecher A, Williams Hart T, Tatchell K. Genetic interactions between GLC7, PPZ1 and PPZ2 in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2000;155:69-83 pubmed
    ..Three other phosphatases (Ppz1p, Ppz2p, and Sal6p) share >59% identity in their catalytic region with Glc7p. ppz1 ppz2 null mutants have no apparent growth defect on rich media...
  8. Ruiz A, Munoz I, Serrano R, González A, Simon E, Arino J. Functional characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VHS3 gene: a regulatory subunit of the Ppz1 protein phosphatase with novel, phosphatase-unrelated functions. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34421-30 pubmed
    ..Vhs3 is structurally related to Hal3, a negative regulatory subunit of the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase Ppz1 important for cell integrity, salt tolerance, and cell cycle control...
  9. Erez O, Kahana C. Screening for modulators of spermine tolerance identifies Sky1, the SR protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a regulator of polyamine transport and ion homeostasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:175-84 pubmed
    ..While deletion or overexpression of SKY1 did not significantly affect Pma1p activity, the ability of overexpressed Sky1p, Ptk1p, and Ptk2p to increase sensitivity to LiCl depends on the integrity of PPZ1 but not of ENA1.

More Information


  1. Hughes V, Muller A, Stark M, Cohen P. Both isoforms of protein phosphatase Z are essential for the maintenance of cell size and integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to osmotic stress. Eur J Biochem. 1993;216:269-79 pubmed
    The sequences of two genes encoding the protein-serine/threonine-phosphatases PPZ1 and PPZ2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined. The molecular masses of PPZ1 and PPZ2 are 77.5 and 78...
  2. Posas F, Bollen M, Stalmans W, Arino J. Biochemical characterization of recombinant yeast PPZ1, a protein phosphatase involved in salt tolerance. FEBS Lett. 1995;368:39-44 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PPZ1 codes for a 692-residues protein that shows in its carboxyl-terminal half about 60% identity with the catalytic subunit of mammalian and yeast protein phosphatase-1 and that is involved in salt ..
  3. Munoz I, Ruiz A, Marquina M, Barceló A, Albert A, Arino J. Functional characterization of the yeast Ppz1 phosphatase inhibitory subunit Hal3: a mutagenesis study. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42619-27 pubmed
    ..protein that binds the carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain of the PP1c (protein phosphatase 1)-related phosphatase Ppz1 and potently inhibits its activity, thus modulating all of the characterized functions so far of the phosphatase...
  4. Clotet J, Posas F, de Nadal E, Arino J. The NH2-terminal extension of protein phosphatase PPZ1 has an essential functional role. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26349-55 pubmed
    Deletion of the yeast Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PPZ1 results in increased tolerance to sodium and lithium...
  5. Lee K, Hines L, Levin D. A pair of functionally redundant yeast genes (PPZ1 and PPZ2) encoding type 1-related protein phosphatases function within the PKC1-mediated pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:5843-53 pubmed
    ..encode a type 1-related protein phosphatase and is functionally redundant with a closely related gene, designated PPZ1. Deletion of both PPZ1 and PPZ2 resulted in a temperature-dependent cell lysis defect similar to that observed for ..
  6. Posas F, Casamayor A, Arino J. The PPZ protein phosphatases are involved in the maintenance of osmotic stability of yeast cells. FEBS Lett. 1993;318:282-6 pubmed
    We have recently reported the existence in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a gene named PPZ1, encoding a novel Ser/Thr phosphatase characterized by a large, Ser-rich amino-terminal extension, and suggested the existence of a related ..
  7. Merchan S, Bernal D, Serrano R, Yenush L. Response of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway to increases in internal turgor pressure caused by loss of Ppz protein phosphatases. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:100-7 pubmed
    ..the fact that K+ is the major determinant of intracellular turgor pressure, we reasoned that the connection between PPZ1 and -2 and MPK1 was due to the combination of increased internal turgor pressure in Ppz-deficient strains and cell ..
  8. González A, Casado C, Petrezselyova S, Ruiz A, Arino J. Molecular analysis of a conditional hal3 vhs3 yeast mutant links potassium homeostasis with flocculation and invasiveness. Fungal Genet Biol. 2013;53:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that all these effects are caused by hyperactivation of Ppz1 as a result of depletion of its natural inhibitors...
  9. Yenush L, Merchan S, Holmes J, Serrano R. pH-Responsive, posttranslational regulation of the Trk1 potassium transporter by the type 1-related Ppz1 phosphatase. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8683-92 pubmed
    ..Genetic evidence indicates that Trk1p is activated by the Hal4 and -5 kinases and inhibited by the Ppz1 and -2 phosphatases, which, in turn, are inhibited by their regulatory subunit, Hal3p...
  10. Abrie J, Molero C, Ariño J, Strauss E. Complex stability and dynamic subunit interchange modulates the disparate activities of the yeast moonlighting proteins Hal3 and Vhs3. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15774 pubmed publisher
    ..Hal3 and Vhs3 are moonlighting proteins, acting both as inhibitors of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase Ppz1 and as subunits (together with Cab3) of the unique heterotrimeric phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) ..
  11. de Nadal E, Fadden R, Ruiz A, Haystead T, Arino J. A role for the Ppz Ser/Thr protein phosphatases in the regulation of translation elongation factor 1Balpha. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:14829-34 pubmed
    In vivo 32P-labeled yeast proteins from wild type and ppz1 ppz2 phosphatase mutants were resolved by bidimensional electrophoresis...
  12. Ruiz A, Yenush L, Arino J. Regulation of ENA1 Na(+)-ATPase gene expression by the Ppz1 protein phosphatase is mediated by the calcineurin pathway. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:937-48 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking the Ppz1 protein phosphatase are salt tolerant and display increased expression of the ENA1 Na(+)-ATPase gene, a major determinant for sodium extrusion, while cells devoid of the similar Ppz2 ..
  13. Hirasaki M, Horiguchi M, Numamoto M, Sugiyama M, Kaneko Y, Nogi Y, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase Ppz1 and protein kinases Sat4 and Hal5 are involved in the control of subcellular localization of Gln3 by likely regulating its phosphorylation state. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;111:249-54 pubmed publisher
    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking PPZ1, encoding a serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PPase), is caffeine-sensitive...
  14. Posas F, Camps M, Arino J. The PPZ protein phosphatases are important determinants of salt tolerance in yeast cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13036-41 pubmed
    Protein phosphatases PPZ1 and PPZ2 represent a novel form of Ser/Thr phosphatases structurally related to type 1 phosphatases and characterized by an unusual amino-terminal region...
  15. de Nadal E, Clotet J, Posas F, Serrano R, Gomez N, Arino J. The yeast halotolerance determinant Hal3p is an inhibitory subunit of the Ppz1p Ser/Thr protein phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7357-62 pubmed
    ..Previous work has shown that yeast cells deficient in Ppz1 protein phosphatase or overexpressing Hal3p, a novel regulatory protein of unknown function, exhibit increased ..
  16. Brown C, Hung G, Dunton D, Chiang H. The TOR complex 1 is distributed in endosomes and in retrograde vesicles that form from the vacuole membrane and plays an important role in the vacuole import and degradation pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23359-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that TORC1 interacts with multiple cargo proteins destined for the Vid pathway and plays an important role in the degradation of FBPase in the vacuole. ..
  17. Aucher W, Becker E, Ma E, Miron S, Martel A, Ochsenbein F, et al. A strategy for interaction site prediction between phospho-binding modules and their partners identified from proteomic data. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:2745-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The STRIP method relies on a combination of conservation, phosphorylation likelihood, and binding specificity criteria and can be accessed via a web interface at http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/strip/. ..
  18. Ivanov M, Aksenova A, Burdaeva I, Radchenko E, Mironova L. [Overexpression of gene PPZ1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects the efficiency of nonsense suppression]. Genetika. 2008;44:177-84 pubmed
    ..In this work, the impact of the overexpression of gene PPZ1 and its mutant allele PPZ1-R451L on the phenotypic expression of various mutant alleles of genes SUP35 and SUP45 or ..
  19. Ivanov M, Radchenko E, Mironova L. [The protein complex Ppz1p/Hal3p and nonsense suppression efficiency in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2010;44:1018-26 pubmed
    ..a genetic approach consisting of the analysis of nonsense suppression phenotype of strains over-expressing HAL3 or PPZ1 genes and also bearing deletions or mutant alleles of genes which presumably could participate in the manifestation ..
  20. Abrie J, González A, Strauss E, Arino J. Functional mapping of the disparate activities of the yeast moonlighting protein Hal3. Biochem J. 2012;442:357-68 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae Hal3 protein is a moonlighting protein, able to function both as an inhibitory subunit of the Ppz1 protein phosphatase and as a constituent protomer of an unprecedented heterotrimeric PPCDC (..
  21. Clotet J, Gari E, Aldea M, Arino J. The yeast ser/thr phosphatases sit4 and ppz1 play opposite roles in regulation of the cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2408-15 pubmed
    Yeast cells overexpressing the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase Ppz1 display a slow-growth phenotype...
  22. Ruiz A, del Carmen Ruiz M, Sánchez Garrido M, Arino J, Ramos J. The Ppz protein phosphatases regulate Trk-independent potassium influx in yeast. FEBS Lett. 2004;578:58-62 pubmed
    ..This can be explained by the observation that trk1 trk2 ppz1 or trk1 trk2 ppz1 ppz2 strains display a very poor rubidium uptake, with markedly increased Km values...
  23. Aghamohammadzadeh S, Ayscough K. Differential requirements for actin during yeast and mammalian endocytosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1039-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, increased turgor pressure in specific yeast mutants correlated with a decreased rate of endocytic patch invagination. ..
  24. Aksenova A, Munoz I, Volkov K, Arino J, Mironova L. The HAL3-PPZ1 dependent regulation of nonsense suppression efficiency in yeast and its influence on manifestation of the yeast prion-like determinant [ISP(+)]. Genes Cells. 2007;12:435-45 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate the participation of the Hal3-Ppz1 protein complex in regulation of read-through efficiency and manifestation of non-Mendelian anti-suppressor ..
  25. Molero C, Petrényi K, González A, Carmona M, Gelis S, Abrie J, et al. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe fusion gene hal3 encodes three distinct activities. Mol Microbiol. 2013;90:367-82 pubmed publisher
    ..decarboxylase (PPCDC) required for CoA biosynthesis, and regulating cation homeostasis by inhibition of the Ppz1 phosphatase. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe?ORF SPAC15E1...
  26. Garcia Gimeno M, Munoz I, Arino J, Sanz P. Molecular characterization of Ypi1, a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 1 protein phosphatase inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47744-52 pubmed
    ..Ypi1 interacts physically in vitro with both Glc7 and Ppz1 phosphatase catalytic subunits, as shown by pull-down assays...
  27. Munoz I, Simon E, Casals N, Clotet J, Arino J. Identification of multicopy suppressors of cell cycle arrest at the G1-S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2003;20:157-69 pubmed
    ..The possible relationship between the known functions of these suppressor genes and the progress through the G(1)-S transition is discussed. ..
  28. Makanae K, Kintaka R, Makino T, Kitano H, Moriya H. Identification of dosage-sensitive genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the genetic tug-of-war method. Genome Res. 2013;23:300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in this study will provide basic knowledge about the physiology of chromosomal abnormalities and the evolution of chromosomal composition. ..