Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: PPH22
Description: phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit PPH22
Alias: PPH2, phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit PPH22
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
- Evans D, Stark M. Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A protein phosphatase catalytic subunit reveal roles in cell wall integrity, actin cytoskeleton organization and mitosis. Genetics. 1997;145:227-41 pubmedTemperature-sensitive mutations were generated in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPH22 gene that, together with its homologue PPH21, encode the catalytic subunit of type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A)...
- Lin F, Arndt K. The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase in the actin cytoskeleton and in entry into mitosis. EMBO J. 1995;14:2745-59 pubmed..These results suggest that PP2A is required during G2 for the activation of Clb-Cdc28 kinase complexes for progression into mitosis. ..
- Van Hoof C, Martens E, Longin S, Jordens J, Stevens I, Janssens V, et al. Specific interactions of PP2A and PP2A-like phosphatases with the yeast PTPA homologues, Ypa1 and Ypa2. Biochem J. 2005;386:93-102 pubmed..Ypa1 interacts specifically with Pph3, Sit4 and Ppg1, whereas Ypa2 binds to Pph21 and Pph22. The Ypa1 and Ypa2 proteins do not compete with Tap42 (PP2A associating protein) for binding to PP2A family ..
- Wu J, Tolstykh T, Lee J, Boyd K, Stock J, Broach J. Carboxyl methylation of the phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit promotes its functional association with regulatory subunits in vivo. EMBO J. 2000;19:5672-81 pubmed..These phenotypes can be reversed by overexpression of the B regulatory subunit. These results demonstrate that Ppm1 is the sole PP2A methyltransferase in yeast and that its activity is required for the integrity of the PP2A holoenzyme. ..
- Van Hoof C, Janssens V, De Baere I, Stark M, de Winde J, Winderickx J, et al. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator proteins are required for a subset of the functions disrupted by protein phosphatase 2A mutations. Exp Cell Res. 2001;264:372-87 pubmed..Therefore, Ypa does not seem to play a role in the regulation of PP2A at this stage of the cell cycle. These results imply that Ypa regulates a specific subset of PP2A functions, possibly by controlling the subunit composition of PP2A. ..
- Harvey S, Enciso G, Dephoure N, Gygi S, Gunawardena J, Kellogg D. A phosphatase threshold sets the level of Cdk1 activity in early mitosis in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:3595-608 pubmed publisher..These results define a new role for PP2A(Cdc55) and reveal a systems-level mechanism by which dynamically opposed kinase and phosphatase activities can modulate signal strength. ..
- Riedel C, Katis V, Katou Y, Mori S, Itoh T, Helmhart W, et al. Protein phosphatase 2A protects centromeric sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis I. Nature. 2006;441:53-61 pubmed..Our data are consistent with the notion that efficient cleavage of Rec8 requires phosphorylation of cohesin and that this is blocked by PP2A at meiosis I centromeres. ..
- Barbosa A, Pereira C, Osorio H, Moradas Ferreira P, Costa V. The ceramide-activated protein phosphatase Sit4p controls lifespan, mitochondrial function and cell cycle progression by regulating hexokinase 2 phosphorylation. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:1620-30 pubmed publisher..The overall results suggest that Hxk2p functions downstream of Sit4p in the control of cell cycle, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress resistance and chronological lifespan. ..
- Sugajska E, Swiatek W, Zabrocki P, Geyskens I, Thevelein J, Zolnierowicz S, et al. Multiple effects of protein phosphatase 2A on nutrient-induced signalling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1020-6 pubmed..To test whether PP2A was involved in trehalase inactivation in vivo, we overexpressed the yeast PP2A isoform Pph22. Unexpectedly, the moderate (approximately threefold) overexpression of Pph22 that we obtained increased basal ..
- Nakashima A, Maruki Y, Imamura Y, Kondo C, Kawamata T, Kawanishi I, et al. The yeast Tor signaling pathway is involved in G2/M transition via polo-kinase. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2223 pubmed publisher..The C-terminal polo-box domain of Cdc5 has an inhibitory role in nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicate a novel function of Tor in the regulation of cell cycle and proliferation. ..
- Thai V, Dephoure N, Weiss A, Ferguson J, Leitao R, Gygi S, et al. Protein Kinase C Controls Binding of Igo/ENSA Proteins to Protein Phosphatase 2A in Budding Yeast. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:4925-4941 pubmed publisher..Together, the data suggest that Pkc1 controls PP2ACdc55 by multiple overlapping mechanisms. ..
- Castermans D, Somers I, Kriel J, Louwet W, Wera S, Versele M, et al. Glucose-induced posttranslational activation of protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 in yeast. Cell Res. 2012;22:1058-77 pubmed publisher..Deletion of the PP2A subunits Pph21 and Pph22, Rrd1 and Rrd2, specifically enhanced the derepression level of SUC2, indicating that PP2A counteracts SUC2 ..
- Liko D, Conway M, Grunwald D, Heideman W. Stb3 plays a role in the glucose-induced transition from quiescence to growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2010;185:797-810 pubmed publisher..SCH9 overexpression or PPH22 deletion, mutations that activate target of rapamycin (Tor) nutrient sensing pathways, also reverse the Stb3OE ..
- Petty E, Lafon A, Tomlinson S, Mendelsohn B, Pillus L. Promotion of Cell Viability and Histone Gene Expression by the Acetyltransferase Gcn5 and the Protein Phosphatase PP2A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2016;203:1693-707 pubmed publisher..These data highlight the potential significance of dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of these deeply conserved histone residues for cell viability. ..
- Numamoto M, Sasano Y, Hirasaki M, Sugiyama M, Maekawa H, Harashima S. The protein phosphatase Siw14 controls caffeine-induced nuclear localization and phosphorylation of Gln3 via the type 2A protein phosphatases Pph21 and Pph22 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biochem. 2015;157:53-64 pubmed publisher..nuclear localization of Gln3 is known to be induced by activation of the type 2A phosphatases (PP2As) Pph21 and Pph22, and the type 2A-related phosphatase Sit4...
- Garipler G, Mutlu N, Lack N, Dunn C. Deletion of conserved protein phosphatases reverses defects associated with mitochondrial DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1473-8 pubmed publisher..Our work highlights the important role that nutrient-responsive signaling pathways can play in determining the response to mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
- Wang Y, Ng T. Phosphatase 2A negatively regulates mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:80-9 pubmed..Genes that encode the B-regulatory subunit (Cdc55) and the three catalytic subunits (Pph21, Pph22, and Pph3) of phosphatase 2A (PP2A) were isolated...
- Rempola B, Kaniak A, Migdalski A, Rytka J, Slonimski P, di Rago J. Functional analysis of RRD1 (YIL153w) and RRD2 (YPL152w), which encode two putative activators of the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity of PP2A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;262:1081-92 pubmed..Suppression of the lethal phenotype of the rrd1,2delta mutant by overexpression of PPH22 suggested that the products of the RRD genes function positively with catalytic subunits of PP2A...
- Sakumoto N, Matsuoka I, Mukai Y, Ogawa N, Kaneko Y, Harashima S. A series of double disruptants for protein phosphatase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their phenotypic analysis. Yeast. 2002;19:587-99 pubmed..Four double disruptants exhibited synthetic phenotypes in addition to eight single ones: the pph21 pph22 double disruptant showed slow growth on complete medium, as did the sit4 and yvh1 single ones...
- Clotet J, Posas F, Hu G, Ronne H, Arino J. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in the control of glycogen metabolism in yeast. Eur J Biochem. 1995;229:207-14 pubmedThe yeast homologues of mammalian protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are encoded by two genes, PPH21 and PPH22. To evaluate the role of these phosphatases in the control of glycogen metabolism, wild-type cells and mutants carrying deletions ..
- Rossio V, Michimoto T, Sasaki T, Ohbayashi I, Kikuchi Y, Yoshida S. Nuclear PP2A-Cdc55 prevents APC-Cdc20 activation during the spindle assembly checkpoint. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:4396-405 pubmed publisher..Because the Cdc55-binding proteins Zds1 and Zds2 inhibit both nuclear accumulation of Cdc55 and SAC activity, we propose that spatial control of PP2A by Zds1 family proteins is important for tight control of SAC and mitotic progression. ..
- Pracheil T, Thornton J, Liu Z. TORC2 signaling is antagonized by protein phosphatase 2A and the Far complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2012;190:1325-39 pubmed publisher..Antagonism of TORC2 signaling by PP2A-Far11 represents a novel regulatory mechanism for controlling spatial cell growth of yeast. ..
- Shen Z, Hsu P, Su Y, Yang C, Kao L, Tseng S, et al. PP2A and Aurora differentially modify Cdc13 to promote telomerase release from telomeres at G2/M phase. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5312 pubmed publisher..Here we show that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) subunit Pph22 and the yeast Aurora kinase homologue Ipl1 coordinately inhibit telomerase at G2/M by dephosphorylating and ..
- McCourt P, Gallo Ebert C, Gonghong Y, Jiang Y, Nickels J. PP2A(Cdc55) regulates G1 cyclin stability. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1201-10 pubmed publisher..In sum, our results indicate that PP2A is absolutely required to maintain G1-S cyclin levels through modulating their phosphorylation status, an event necessary to properly transit through the cell cycle. ..
- Georis I, Tate J, Feller A, Cooper T, Dubois E. Intranuclear function for protein phosphatase 2A: Pph21 and Pph22 are required for rapamycin-induced GATA factor binding to the DAL5 promoter in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:92-104 pubmed publisherProtein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a central Tor pathway phosphatase consisting of a catalytic subunit (Pph21 or Pph22), a scaffold subunit (Tpd3), and one of two regulatory subunits (Cdc55 or Rts1), has been repeatedly shown to play ..
- Sun Y, Miao Y, Yamane Y, Zhang C, Shokat K, Takematsu H, et al. Orm protein phosphoregulation mediates transient sphingolipid biosynthesis response to heat stress via the Pkh-Ypk and Cdc55-PP2A pathways. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2388-98 pubmed publisher..We propose that this mechanism serves as the basis for how Orm phosphoregulation controls sphingolipid biosynthesis in response to stress in a kinetically coupled manner. ..
- Evans D, Hemmings B. Mutation of the C-terminal leucine residue of PP2Ac inhibits PR55/B subunit binding and confers supersensitivity to microtubule destabilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;264:425-32 pubmed
- Munoz I, Simon E, Casals N, Clotet J, Arino J. Identification of multicopy suppressors of cell cycle arrest at the G1-S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2003;20:157-69 pubmed..The possible relationship between the known functions of these suppressor genes and the progress through the G(1)-S transition is discussed. ..
- Mitchell D, Sprague G. The phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator, Ncs1p (Rrd1p), functions with Cla4p to regulate the G(2)/M transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:488-500 pubmed..Strains lacking both NCS1 and NOH1 were inviable and arrested as unbudded cells, implying that PTPA function is required for proper G(1) progression. ..
- Hu G, Ronne H. Overexpression of yeast PAM1 gene permits survival without protein phosphatase 2A and induces a filamentous phenotype. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:3429-35 pubmed..In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the catalytic subunit of PP2A is encoded by two duplicated genes, PPH21 and PPH22. A third related gene, PPH3, also contributes some PP2A activity...
- Yaakov G, THORN K, Morgan D. Separase biosensor reveals that cohesin cleavage timing depends on phosphatase PP2A(Cdc55) regulation. Dev Cell. 2012;23:124-36 pubmed publisher..Thus, separase acts directly on Scc1 and also indirectly, through inhibition of PP2A(Cdc55), to stimulate cohesin cleavage, providing a feedforward loop that may contribute to a robust and timely anaphase. ..
- Kuepfer L, Peter M, Sauer U, Stelling J. Ensemble modeling for analysis of cell signaling dynamics. Nat Biotechnol. 2007;25:1001-6 pubmed..Beyond revising our picture of TOR signaling, we expect ensemble modeling to help elucidate other insufficiently characterized cellular circuits. ..