Gene Symbol: PHO4
Description: phosphate-sensing transcription factor PHO4
Alias: phosphate-sensing transcription factor PHO4
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Jeffery D, Springer M, King D, O Shea E. Multi-site phosphorylation of Pho4 by the cyclin-CDK Pho80-Pho85 is semi-processive with site preference. J Mol Biol. 2001;306:997-1010 pubmed
    ..signaling pathway, the budding yeast cyclin-CDK complex Pho80-Pho85 phosphorylates the transcription factor Pho4 on five sites and inactivates it. Here, we describe the kinetic reaction between Pho80-Pho85 and Pho4...
  2. Springer M, Wykoff D, Miller N, O Shea E. Partially phosphorylated Pho4 activates transcription of a subset of phosphate-responsive genes. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E28 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that differential phosphorylation of the budding yeast transcription factor Pho4 contributes to differential gene expression...
  3. Komeili A, O Shea E. Roles of phosphorylation sites in regulating activity of the transcription factor Pho4. Science. 1999;284:977-80 pubmed
    ..Here it is shown that multiple phosphorylation sites on the budding yeast transcription factor Pho4 play distinct and separable roles in regulating the factor's activity...
  4. Lenburg M, O Shea E. Signaling phosphate starvation. Trends Biochem Sci. 1996;21:383-7 pubmed
    ..The possibility that this pathway mediates cell-cycle responses to phosphate starvation is discussed. ..
  5. O Neill E, Kaffman A, Jolly E, O Shea E. Regulation of PHO4 nuclear localization by the PHO80-PHO85 cyclin-CDK complex. Science. 1996;271:209-12 pubmed
    b>PHO4, a transcription factor required for induction of the PHO5 gene in response to phosphate starvation, is phosphorylated by the PHO80-PHO85 cyclin-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) complex when yeast are grown in phosphate-rich medium...
  6. Ogawa N, Oshima Y. Functional domains of a positive regulatory protein, PHO4, for transcriptional control of the phosphatase regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:2224-36 pubmed
    The PHO4 gene encodes a positive regulatory factor involved in regulating transcription of various genes in the phosphatase regulon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Besides its own coding region, the 1...
  7. Wysocki R, Javaheri A, Kristjansdottir K, Sha F, Kron S. CDK Pho85 targets CDK inhibitor Sic1 to relieve yeast G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:908-14 pubmed
    ..analysis to identify the stress-responsive CDK Pho85, the cyclin Pho80 and the targeted transcription factors Pho4 and Swi5 as determinants of G1 checkpoint adaptation...
  8. Wilson W, Mahrenholz A, Roach P. Substrate targeting of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85p by the cyclin Pcl10p. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7020-30 pubmed
    ..We suggest a model for Pho85p function in the cell whereby cyclins like Pcl10p recruit Pho85p from a pool of monomers, both activating the kinase and targeting it to substrate. ..
  9. Espinoza F, Ogas J, Herskowitz I, Morgan D. Cell cycle control by a complex of the cyclin HCS26 (PCL1) and the kinase PHO85. Science. 1994;266:1388-91 pubmed
    ..HCS26 does not associate with CDC28, but instead associates with PHO85, a closely related protein kinase. Thus, budding yeast, like higher eukaryotes, use multiple cdk's in the regulation of cell cycle progression. ..

More Information


  1. O Connell K, Baker R. Possible cross-regulation of phosphate and sulfate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1992;132:63-73 pubmed
    ..The suppressing plasmids contained either CEP1 or DNA derived from the PHO4 locus. Subcloning experiments confirmed that suppression correlated with increased dosage of PHO4...
  2. Kaffman A, Rank N, O Shea E. Phosphorylation regulates association of the transcription factor Pho4 with its import receptor Pse1/Kap121. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2673-83 pubmed
    The transcription factor Pho4 is phosphorylated and localized predominantly to the cytoplasm when budding yeast are grown in phosphate-rich medium and is unphosphorylated and localized to the nucleus upon phosphate starvation...
  3. Kaffman A, Rank N, O Neill E, Huang L, O Shea E. The receptor Msn5 exports the phosphorylated transcription factor Pho4 out of the nucleus. Nature. 1998;396:482-6 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate how the export of the yeast transcription factor Pho4 is regulated in response to changes in phosphate availability...
  4. Hirst K, Fisher F, McAndrew P, Goding C. The transcription factor, the Cdk, its cyclin and their regulator: directing the transcriptional response to a nutritional signal. EMBO J. 1994;13:5410-20 pubmed
    ..complex prevents transcription of PHO5 by inhibiting the ability of the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor Pho4 to activate transcription in response to high phosphate conditions...
  5. Nishizawa M, Komai T, Morohashi N, Shimizu M, Toh e A. Transcriptional repression by the Pho4 transcription factor controls the timing of SNZ1 expression. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..expression during the growth of various yeast mutants, including those affecting Pho85 function or lacking the Pho4 transcription factor, an in vivo substrate of Pho85, and tested Pho4 binding by chromatin immunoprecipitation...
  6. Kaffman A, Herskowitz I, Tjian R, O Shea E. Phosphorylation of the transcription factor PHO4 by a cyclin-CDK complex, PHO80-PHO85. Science. 1994;263:1153-6 pubmed
    Induction of the yeast gene PHO5 is mediated by the transcription factors PHO2 and PHO4. PHO5 transcription is not detectable in high phosphate; it is thought that the negative regulators PHO80 and PHO85 inactivate PHO2 and PHO4...
  7. Yoshida K, Ogawa N, Oshima Y. Function of the PHO regulatory genes for repressible acid phosphatase synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;217:40-6 pubmed
    ..The Pi signals are conveyed to PHO5 by a regulatory system consisting of proteins coded for by the PHO2, PHO4, PHO80 and PHO81 genes...
  8. Pimentel C, Caetano S, Menezes R, Figueira I, Santos C, Ferreira R, et al. Yap1 mediates tolerance to cobalt toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:1977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Cobalt has a rare occurrence in nature, but may accumulate in cells to toxic levels. In the present study, we have investigated how the transcription factor Yap1 mediates tolerance to cobalt toxicity...
  9. Peiró Chova L, Estruch F. The yeast RNA polymerase II-associated factor Iwr1p is involved in the basal and regulated transcription of specific genes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28958-67 pubmed publisher
  10. Lee Y, Huang K, Quiocho F, O Shea E. Molecular basis of cyclin-CDK-CKI regulation by reversible binding of an inositol pyrophosphate. Nat Chem Biol. 2008;4:25-32 pubmed
    ..These findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms of cyclin-CDK regulation and of the biochemical mechanisms of IP7 action. ..
  11. Serra Cardona A, Petrezsélyová S, Canadell D, Ramos J, Ariño J. Coregulated expression of the Na+/phosphate Pho89 transporter and Ena1 Na+-ATPase allows their functional coupling under high-pH stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:4420-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon Pi starvation, PHO84 and PHO89 are induced by the activation of the PHO regulon by the binding of the Pho4 transcription factor to specific promoter sequences...
  12. Kobayashi J, Matsuura Y. Structural basis for cell-cycle-dependent nuclear import mediated by the karyopherin Kap121p. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1852-1868 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of the NLS and RanGTP complexes reveals that RanGTP binding not only occludes the cargo-binding site but also forces Kap121p into a conformation that is incompatible with NLS recognition. ..
  13. Yang J, Wu J, Ao S. Analysis of Activation Activity of Yeast PHO2, PHO4 Protein and Their Interaction. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 1997;29:122-128 pubmed
    Both PHO2 and PHO4 are positive regulatory factors of yeast PHO5 gene...
  14. Nishizawa M, Komai T, Katou Y, Shirahige K, Ito T, Toh e A. Nutrient-regulated antisense and intragenic RNAs modulate a signal transduction pathway in yeast. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:2817-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Pi starvation triggers an inhibition of Pho85 kinase, leading to migration of unphosphorylated Pho4 transcriptional activator into the nucleus and enabling expression of PHO genes...
  15. Shimizu T, Toumoto A, Ihara K, Shimizu M, Kyogoku Y, Ogawa N, et al. Crystal structure of PHO4 bHLH domain-DNA complex: flanking base recognition. EMBO J. 1997;16:4689-97 pubmed
    The crystal structure of a DNA-binding domain of PHO4 complexed with DNA at 2...
  16. Sun L, Johnston S, Kodadek T. Physical association of the APIS complex and general transcription factors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:991-9 pubmed
    ..These data add to the growing body of evidence that the APIS complex has a role in transcription, independent of its role in proteolysis and, furthermore, argues that it functions in association with the general transcription complex. ..
  17. Pinson B, Vaur S, Sagot I, Coulpier F, Lemoine S, Daignan Fornier B. Metabolic intermediates selectively stimulate transcription factor interaction and modulate phosphate and purine pathways. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1399-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data show that Bas1p and Pho4p compete for Pho2p binding, hence leading to the concerted regulation of cellular nucleotide synthesis and phosphate consumption. ..
  18. Holbein S, Freimoser F, Werner T, Wengi A, Dichtl B. Cordycepin-hypersensitive growth links elevated polyphosphate levels to inhibition of poly(A) polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:353-63 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we suggest that binding of poly P to poly(A) polymerase negatively regulates its activity. ..
  19. Measday V, Moore L, Ogas J, Tyers M, Andrews B. The PCL2 (ORFD)-PHO85 cyclin-dependent kinase complex: a cell cycle regulator in yeast. Science. 1994;266:1391-5 pubmed
    ..Because PHO85 and another cyclin-like molecule, PHO80, also take part in inorganic phosphate metabolism, this cdk enzyme may integrate responses to nutritional conditions with the cell cycle. ..
  20. Fascher K, Schmitz J, Hörz W. Role of trans-activating proteins in the generation of active chromatin at the PHO5 promoter in S. cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1990;9:2523-8 pubmed
    ..We have now investigated the role of two trans-activating proteins, encoded by PHO2 and PHO4, which bind to the PHO5 promoter...
  21. Ghillebert R, Swinnen E, De Snijder P, Smets B, Winderickx J. Differential roles for the low-affinity phosphate transporters Pho87 and Pho90 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2011;434:243-51 pubmed publisher
    When starved of P(i), yeast cells activate the PHO signalling pathway, wherein the Pho4 transcription factor mediates expression of genes involved in P(i) acquisition, such as PHO84, encoding the high-affinity H(+)/P(i) symporter...
  22. Tu W, Huang Y, Liu L, Chang L, Tam M. Rpl12p affects the transcription of the PHO pathway high-affinity inorganic phosphate transporters and repressible phosphatases. Yeast. 2011;28:481-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The high-affinity phosphate transporters and repressible phosphatases were suppressed, while PHO4, a PHO pathway transcription activator, was upregulated in 6EA1...
  23. Wu J, Xia Z, Cao Z, Ao S. Phosphorylation of PHO4 Protein by the PHO85-PAP1 Kinase Complex. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 1998;30:63-69 pubmed
    ..Simultaneously, we purified PHO4 protein expressed in E. coli and constructed a PHO85::TRP1 strain...
  24. Lemire J, Willcocks T, Halvorson H, Bostian K. Regulation of repressible acid phosphatase gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1985;5:2131-41 pubmed
    ..These mutants identify numerous positive- (PHO4, PHO2, PHO81) and negative-acting (PHO80, PHO85) regulatory loci dispersed throughout the yeast genome...
  25. Huang K, Ferrin O Connell I, Zhang W, Leonard G, O Shea E, Quiocho F. Structure of the Pho85-Pho80 CDK-cyclin complex of the phosphate-responsive signal transduction pathway. Mol Cell. 2007;28:614-23 pubmed
    ..It further showed two sites on the Pho80 cyclin for high-affinity binding of the transcription factor substrate (Pho4) and the CDK inhibitor (Pho81) that are markedly distant to each other and the active site.
  26. Swinnen E, Rosseels J, Winderickx J. The minimum domain of Pho81 is not sufficient to control the Pho85-Rim15 effector branch involved in phosphate starvation-induced stress responses. Curr Genet. 2005;48:18-33 pubmed
    ..neither the expression control of stress-regulated genes nor the trehalose metabolism relies directly on Pho4. Finally, we present data supporting that the PHO pathway functions in parallel to the fermentable growth medium- ..
  27. Okada H, Toh e A. A novel mutation occurring in the PHO80 gene suppresses the PHO4c mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 1992;21:95-9 pubmed
    ..Suppression by PHO80-2) did show some allele specificity. From these results we were able to delimit the region of PHo80 which may interact with the Pho4 protein.
  28. Barbaric S, Munsterkotter M, Goding C, Hörz W. Cooperative Pho2-Pho4 interactions at the PHO5 promoter are critical for binding of Pho4 to UASp1 and for efficient transactivation by Pho4 at UASp2. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:2629-39 pubmed phosphate starvation critically depends on two transcriptional activators, the basic helix-loop-helix protein Pho4 and the homeodomain protein Pho2...
  29. Shao D, Creasy C, Bergman L. Interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pho2 with Pho4 increases the accessibility of the activation domain of Pho4. Mol Gen Genet. 1996;251:358-64 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae, expression of acid phosphatase, encoded by the PHO5 gene, requires two positive regulatory factors, Pho4 and Pho2 (also called Bas2 or Grf10)...
  30. Vogel K, Hörz W, Hinnen A. The two positively acting regulatory proteins PHO2 and PHO4 physically interact with PHO5 upstream activation regions. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:2050-7 pubmed
    ..phosphatase gene PHO5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the two positively acting regulatory proteins PHO2 and PHO4 for expression. pho2 or pho4 mutants are not able to derepress the PHO5 gene under low-Pi conditions...
  31. Estrella L, Krishnamurthy S, Timme C, Hampsey M. The Rsp5 E3 ligase mediates turnover of low affinity phosphate transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae, we have isolated and characterized suppressors of the Pho(-) phenotype associated with deletion of the Pho4 transcriptional activator...
  32. Pedersen J, Fredsoe J, Roedgaard M, Andreasen L, Mundbjerg K, Kruhøffer M, et al. DNA Topoisomerases maintain promoters in a state competent for transcriptional activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003128 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results reveal a hitherto unknown function of topoisomerases during transcriptional activation of genes with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation. ..
  33. Pérez Sampietro M, Serra Cardona A, Canadell D, Casas C, Arino J, Herrero E. The yeast Aft2 transcription factor determines selenite toxicity by controlling the low affinity phosphate transport system. Sci Rep. 2016;6:32836 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of PHO4, the transcriptional activator of the PHO regulon under low phosphate conditions, partially reverses sensitivity ..
  34. Xia Z, Ao S. Analysis of Interaction between PHO4 and PHO2 Protein by Real Time BIA. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 1999;31:145-149 pubmed
    Applying real time BIA(biomolecular interaction analysis) the interaction between yeast PHO4 and PHO2 protein was analyzed. Recombinant PHO4 protein was coupled at the sensor chip via amino group...
  35. Adkins M, Howar S, Tyler J. Chromatin disassembly mediated by the histone chaperone Asf1 is essential for transcriptional activation of the yeast PHO5 and PHO8 genes. Mol Cell. 2004;14:657-66 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that nucleosomes are reassembled over the PHO5 promoter during repression. As such, nucleosome disassembly and reassembly are important mechanisms for transcriptional activation and repression, respectively. ..
  36. Byrne M, Miller N, Springer M, O Shea E. A distal, high-affinity binding site on the cyclin-CDK substrate Pho4 is important for its phosphorylation and regulation. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:57-70 pubmed
    ..The cyclin-CDK Pho80-Pho85 inactivates the transcription factor Pho4 in budding yeast by phosphorylating it on five sites...
  37. Barz T, Ackermann K, Pyerin W. Perturbation of protein kinase CK2 uncouples executive part of phosphate maintenance pathway from cyclin-CDK control. FEBS Lett. 2003;537:210-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, perturbation of CK2 uncouples the executive part of the PHO pathway from its cyclin-CDK control complex. ..
  38. Lee M, O Regan S, Moreau J, Johnson A, Johnston L, Goding C. Regulation of the Pcl7-Pho85 cyclin-cdk complex by Pho81. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:411-22 pubmed
    ..exhibit a complex phenotype, including deregulation of phosphatase genes controlled by the transcription factor Pho4, slow growth on rich media, failure to grow using galactose, lactate or glycerol as a carbon source and ..
  39. Wickert S, Finck M, Herz B, Ernst J. A small protein (Ags1p) and the Pho80p-Pho85p kinase complex contribute to aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1887-94 pubmed
    ..pho80 and pho85 mutants were rendered resistant by deletion of PHO4, indicating that activation of the Pho4p transcription factor is required for increased aminoglycoside sensitivity...
  40. Huang D, Patrick G, Moffat J, Tsai L, Andrews B. Mammalian Cdk5 is a functional homologue of the budding yeast Pho85 cyclin-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14445-50 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the existence of a functionally conserved pathway involving Cdks and actin-regulatory proteins that promotes reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to regulatory signals. ..
  41. Neely K, Hassan A, Brown C, Howe L, Workman J. Transcription activator interactions with multiple SWI/SNF subunits. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1615-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, three distinct subunits of the SWI/SNF complex contribute to its interactions with activation domains. ..
  42. Menoyo S, Ricco N, Bru S, Hernandez Ortega S, Escote X, Aldea M, et al. Phosphate-activated cyclin-dependent kinase stabilizes G1 cyclin to trigger cell cycle entry. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that Cln3 is a molecular target of the Pho85 kinase that is required to modulate cell cycle entry in response to environmental changes in nutrient availability. ..
  43. Nishizawa M. The regulators of yeast PHO system participate in the transcriptional regulation of G1 cyclin under alkaline stress conditions. Yeast. 2015;32:367-78 pubmed publisher
    ..I found that Pho85 is required for CLN2 expression and that overproduction of the transcription factors Pho4, Rim101 and Crz1, all targets of Pho85, inhibited CLN2 expression...
  44. Nishizawa M, Tanigawa M, Hayashi M, Maeda T, Yazaki Y, Saeki Y, et al. Pho85 kinase, a cyclin-dependent kinase, regulates nuclear accumulation of the Rim101 transcription factor in the stress response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:943-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we report that Pho85 and the transcription factor Pho4 are necessary for adaptation to alkaline conditions and that PTK2 activation by Pho4 is involved in this process...
  45. Waters N, Knight J, Creasy C, Bergman L. The yeast Pho80-Pho85 cyclin-CDK complex has multiple substrates. Curr Genet. 2004;46:1-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the control of acid phosphatase expression involves the phosphorylation of several of the regulatory components of the system. ..
  46. Wu W, Hampsey M. An activation-specific role for transcription factor TFIIB in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2764-9 pubmed
    ..b>Pho4, the principal activator of PHO5, directly interacted with TFIIB in vitro, and this interaction was impaired by the ..
  47. Reddi A, Culotta V. Regulation of manganese antioxidants by nutrient sensing pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;189:1261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observed roles for nutrient and stress response kinases and transcription factors in regulating the Mn antioxidant underscore its physiological importance in aerobic fitness. ..
  48. Shao D, Creasy C, Bergman L. A cysteine residue in helixII of the bHLH domain is essential for homodimerization of the yeast transcription factor Pho4p. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:710-4 pubmed
    ..Experiments support the role of an intermolecular disulfide bond in stabilization of homodimerization, which is critical for DNA binding. ..
  49. Yang Z, Geng J, Yen W, Wang K, Klionsky D. Positive or negative roles of different cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85-cyclin complexes orchestrate induction of autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2010;38:250-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Pho85 negatively regulates autophagy through downregulating the protein kinase Rim15 and the transcription factors Pho4 and Gcn4...
  50. Popova I, Padkina M, Sambuk E. [Effect of mutations in PHO85 and PHO4 genes on utilization of proline in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts]. Genetika. 2000;36:1622-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, regulation of phosphorus and nitrogen metabolism have common elements. ..
  51. Toh e A, Oshima Y. Characterization of a dominant, constitutive mutation, PHOO, for the repressible acid phosphatase synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1974;120:608-17 pubmed
    ..Close similarity between the apparent role of the phoO-PHOD gene cluster and that of the c-GAL4 gene cluster in the galactose system of S. cerevisiae could be inferred. ..
  52. Sengstag C, Hinnen A. A 28-bp segment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PHO5 upstream activator sequence confers phosphate control to the CYC1-lacZ gene fusion. Gene. 1988;67:223-8 pubmed
    ..No gene activation is observed in a pho4 and in a pho2 mutant. Absence of PHO2 reduces the basal expression of CYC1.
  53. Kang H, Jeong S, Kim K, Baek I, Chang M, Kang C, et al. A novel protein, Pho92, has a conserved YTH domain and regulates phosphate metabolism by decreasing the mRNA stability of PHO4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2014;457:391-400 pubmed publisher
    ..the phosphate signal transduction (PHO) pathway were up-regulated in the ?pho92 strain, as were genes regulated by Pho4, which is an important transcription factor in the PHO pathway...
  54. Sung M, Huh W. In vivo quantification of protein-protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. J Microbiol Methods. 2010;83:194-201 pubmed publisher
  55. Huang D, Moffat J, Wilson W, Moore L, Cheng C, Roach P, et al. Cyclin partners determine Pho85 protein kinase substrate specificity in vitro and in vivo: control of glycogen biosynthesis by Pcl8 and Pcl10. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3289-99 pubmed
    ..cyclin Pho80, Pho85 controls acid phosphatase gene expression through phosphorylation of the transcription factor Pho4. Pho85 has also been implicated as a kinase that phosphorylates and negatively regulates glycogen synthase (Gsy2), ..
  56. Liu C, Yang Z, Yang J, Xia Z, Ao S. Regulation of the yeast transcriptional factor PHO2 activity by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:31972-8 pubmed
    The induction of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PHO5 expression is mediated by transcriptional factors PHO2 and PHO4. PHO4 protein has been reported to be phosphorylated and inactivated by a cyclin-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) ..
  57. Berben G, Legrain M, Hilger F. Studies on the structure, expression and function of the yeast regulatory gene PHO2. Gene. 1988;66:307-12 pubmed
    The yeast regulatory gene PHO2 encodes a protein assumed to activate, in concert with the PHO4 protein, the transcription of the repressible acid phosphatase-coding gene PHO5. The PHO2 gene was cloned and sequenced...
  58. Kliewe F, Engelhardt M, Aref R, Schüller H. Promoter recruitment of corepressors Sin3 and Cyc8 by activator proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2017;63:739-750 pubmed publisher
    ..Recruitment of corepressors by an activator is not a regulatory exception as we could show that activators Pho4 and Hac1 also contain domains being able to interact with Sin3 and Cyc8.
  59. Rosenfeld L, Reddi A, Leung E, Aranda K, Jensen L, Culotta V. The effect of phosphate accumulation on metal ion homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2010;15:1051-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Such lowering of phosphate content by pho4 mutations reversed the high calcium and sodium content of pho80 mutants and prevented the iron starvation response...
  60. Jayaraman P, Hirst K, Goding C. The activation domain of a basic helix-loop-helix protein is masked by repressor interaction with domains distinct from that required for transcription regulation. EMBO J. 1994;13:2192-9 pubmed
    ..Using a two-hybrid system we show here that transcription repression of the basic domain/helix-loop-helix factor PHO4 is mediated by complex formation with the PHO80 repressor...
  61. Magbanua J, Ogawa N, Harashima S, Oshima Y. The transcriptional activators of the PHO regulon, Pho4p and Pho2p, interact directly with each other and with components of the basal transcription machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biochem. 1997;121:1182-9 pubmed
    ..Genetic evidence with temperature-sensitive pho4 and pho2 mutants suggested that Pho4p and Pho2p interact with each other...
  62. Duina A, Winston F. Analysis of a mutant histone H3 that perturbs the association of Swi/Snf with chromatin. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:561-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the integrity of the globular domain of histone H3 is an important determinant in the ability of Swi/Snf to associate with chromatin. ..