Gene Symbol: PET9
Description: ADP/ATP carrier protein PET9
Alias: AAC2, ANC2, ADP/ATP carrier protein PET9
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Dallabona C, Baruffini E, Goffrini P, Lodi T. Dominance of yeast aac2R96H and aac2R252G mutations, equivalent to pathological mutations in ant1, is due to gain of function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:909-913 pubmed publisher
    ..or to a gain of function, the two mutations have been introduced in the equivalent positions of the AAC2 gene, the yeast orthologue of human ANT1, and their dominant effect has been studied in heteroallelic strains, ..
  2. Dienhart M, Stuart R. The yeast Aac2 protein exists in physical association with the cytochrome bc1-COX supercomplex and the TIM23 machinery. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3934-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence here that in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mitochondria the abundant Aac2 isoform exists in physical association with the cytochrome c reductase (cytochrome bc(1))-cytochrome c oxidase (COX)..
  3. Clémençon B, Rey M, Dianoux A, Trezeguet V, Lauquin G, Brandolin G, et al. Structure-function relationships of the C-terminal end of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADP/ATP carrier isoform 2. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of the Anc2p C-terminal region in nucleotide recognition, binding, and transport. ..
  4. Kihira Y, Majima E, Shinohara Y, Terada H. Cysteine labeling studies detect conformational changes in region 106-132 of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2005;44:184-92 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, possible roles of the conformational changes of the LC1 in the transport activity are discussed. ..
  5. Pereira C, Camougrand N, Manon S, Sousa M, Corte Real M. ADP/ATP carrier is required for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release in yeast apoptosis. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:571-82 pubmed
    ..Absence of AAC proteins impairs MOMP and release of cytochrome c, which, together with other mitochondrial inner membrane proteins, is degraded. Our findings point to a crucial role of AAC in yeast apoptosis. ..
  6. Bamber L, Slotboom D, Kunji E. Yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents as demonstrated by differential affinity purification. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:388-95 pubmed
    ..Here we show by differential tagging that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC2 is a monomer in mild detergents...
  7. Brandina I, Graham J, Lemaitre Guillier C, Entelis N, Krasheninnikov I, Sweetlove L, et al. Enolase takes part in a macromolecular complex associated to mitochondria in yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1217-28 pubmed
    ..This suggests an unsuspected novel function for this complex in tRNA mitochondrial import. ..
  8. Liu Y, Wang X, Chen X. Misfolding of mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in yeast supports a novel mechanism of Ant1-induced muscle diseases. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:1985-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that equivalent mutations in the yeast Aac2 protein cause protein misfolding...
  9. Lauffer S, Mäbert K, Czupalla C, Pursche T, Hoflack B, Rödel G, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae porin pore forms complexes with mitochondrial outer membrane proteins Om14p and Om45p. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17447-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model for the role of the two OM proteins in addressing the porin pore to bind to specific channels in the mt IM to facilitate transport of metabolites. ..

More Information


  1. Wang X, Zuo X, Kucejova B, Chen X. Reduced cytosolic protein synthesis suppresses mitochondrial degeneration. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1090-7 pubmed
    ..The aac2(A128P) allele dominantly induces ageing-dependent mitochondrial degeneration and phenotypically tractable ..
  2. Chen Y, Taylor E, Dephoure N, Heo J, Tonhato A, Papandreou I, et al. Identification of a protein mediating respiratory supercomplex stability. Cell Metab. 2012;15:348-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Rcf1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved protein family that acts to promote respiratory supercomplex assembly and activity. ..
  3. Wang X, Salinas K, Zuo X, Kucejova B, Chen X. Dominant membrane uncoupling by mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in mitochondrial diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:4036-44 pubmed publisher
    ..More interestingly, the aac2(A137D) allele mimicking ant1(A123D) in mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy exhibits similar dominant ..
  4. Postis V, De Marcos Lousa C, Arnou B, Lauquin G, Trezeguet V. Subunits of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier: cooperation within the dimer. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14732-40 pubmed
    ..However, full inhibition of phosphate uptake by CATR, a very specific inhibitor of Ancp, strongly suggests that the native functional unit of Ancp, and thus of Picp, is a dimer. ..
  5. Clémençon B, Rey M, Trezeguet V, Forest E, Pelosi L. Yeast ADP/ATP carrier isoform 2: conformational dynamics and role of the RRRMMM signature sequence methionines. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36119-31 pubmed publisher
    ..All our results indicate that the methionine cluster is involved in the ADP/ATP transport mechanism and confirm that the Ancp cavity is a highly dynamic structure. ..
  6. Drgon T, Sabova L, Nelson N, Kolarov J. ADP/ATP translocator is essential only for anaerobic growth of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 1991;289:159-62 pubmed
    All three genes (AAC1, AAC2 and AAC3) encoding the mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator, were inactivated in a haploid yeast strain by a gene disruption technique...
  7. Pereira H, Azevedo F, Rego A, Sousa M, Chaves S, Corte Real M. The protective role of yeast cathepsin D in acetic acid-induced apoptosis depends on ANT (Aac2p) but not on the voltage-dependent channel (Por1p). FEBS Lett. 2013;587:200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a differential interplay between yeast vacuolar CatD and mitochondrial proteins involved in apoptosis regulation. ..
  8. Chen X. Sal1p, a calcium-dependent carrier protein that suppresses an essential cellular function associated With the Aac2 isoform of ADP/ATP translocase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2004;167:607-17 pubmed
    ..The loss of V function in aac2 mutants leads to a lethal phenotype under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
  9. Buttner S, Ruli D, Vögtle F, Galluzzi L, Moitzi B, Eisenberg T, et al. A yeast BH3-only protein mediates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. EMBO J. 2011;30:2779-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the yeast genome encodes a functional BH3 domain that induces cell death through phylogenetically conserved mechanisms. ..
  10. Chen X, Sullivan D, Huffaker T. Two yeast genes with similarity to TCP-1 are required for microtubule and actin function in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9111-5 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of TCP1, BIN2, BIN3, or ANC2, a fourth member of the TCP-1 family in yeast, does not complement mutations in the other genes, indicating that ..
  11. Iwahashi A, Kihira Y, Majima E, Terada H, Yamazaki N, Kataoka M, et al. The structure of the second cytosolic loop of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC2 is dependent on the conformational state. Mitochondrion. 2006;6:245-51 pubmed
    ..structural changes in the second cytosolic loop of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAC2, we prepared 20 single cysteine mutants by replacing each amino acid in the S213 to L232 region...
  12. Gawaz M, Douglas M, Klingenberg M. Structure-function studies of adenine nucleotide transport in mitochondria. II. Biochemical analysis of distinct AAC1 and AAC2 proteins in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:14202-8 pubmed
    ..In the present study, mitochondria harboring distinct AAC proteins and the pet9 Arg96 to HIS mutant (Lawson, J., Gawaz, M., Klingenberg, M., and Douglas, M. G. (1990) J. Biol. Chem...
  13. Brandolin G, Le Saux A, Trezeguet V, Vignais P, Lauquin G. Biochemical characterisation of the isolated Anc2 adenine nucleotide carrier from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;192:143-50 pubmed
    The yeast mitochondrial adenine nucleotide carrier isoform encoded by the ANC2 gene has been specifically expressed in a yeast strain disrupted for the two other genes, ANC1 and ANC3...
  14. Okamoto H, Miyagawa A, Shiota T, Tamura Y, Endo T. Intramolecular disulfide bond of Tim22 protein maintains integrity of the TIM22 complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:4827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a new insight into the mechanism of the maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of the TIM22 complex. ..
  15. Buttner S, Eisenberg T, Carmona Gutierrez D, Ruli D, Knauer H, Ruckenstuhl C, et al. Endonuclease G regulates budding yeast life and death. Mol Cell. 2007;25:233-46 pubmed
    ..Deletion of NUC1 diminishes apoptotic death when mitochondrial respiration is increased but enhances necrotic death when oxidative phosphorylation is repressed, pointing to dual--lethal and vital--roles for EndoG. ..
  16. Kucejova B, Li L, Wang X, Giannattasio S, Chen X. Pleiotropic effects of the yeast Sal1 and Aac2 carriers on mitochondrial function via an activity distinct from adenine nucleotide transport. Mol Genet Genomics. 2008;280:25-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of SAL1 is synthetically lethal with the loss of a specific function associated with the Aac2 isoform of the ATP/ADP translocase...
  17. Fontanesi F, Palmieri L, Scarcia P, Lodi T, Donnini C, Limongelli A, et al. Mutations in AAC2, equivalent to human adPEO-associated ANT1 mutations, lead to defective oxidative phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and affect mitochondrial DNA stability. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:923-34 pubmed
    ..their functional consequences on cellular physiology, we introduced three of them at equivalent positions in AAC2, the yeast orthologue of human ANT1...
  18. Lauquin G, Lunardi J, Vignais P. Effect of genetic and physiological manipulations onthe kinetic and binding parameters of the adenine nucleotide translocator in Saccharomyces cervisiae and Candida utilis. Biochimie. 1976;58:1213-20 pubmed
    ..6. The above results are interpreted to mean that the structure and function of the mitochondrial adN translocator are not affected by any change in the mitochondrial protein synthetizing system. ..
  19. Dahout Gonzalez C, Ramus C, Dassa E, Dianoux A, Brandolin G. Conformation-dependent swinging of the matrix loop m2 of the mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADP/ATP carrier. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16310-20 pubmed
    ..Its participation in the translocation of ADP/ATP is strongly suggested, based on the finding that its accessibility to reagents added outside mitochondria is modified according to the conformational state of the carrier. ..
  20. Strogolova V, Furness A, Robb McGrath M, Garlich J, Stuart R. Rcf1 and Rcf2, members of the hypoxia-induced gene 1 protein family, are critical components of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1-cytochrome c oxidase supercomplex. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our findings, we propose a model where the Hig1 proteins regulate the COX enzyme activity through Cox3 and associated Cox12 protein, in a manner that may be influenced by the neighboring AAC proteins. ..
  21. Kihira Y, Iwahashi A, Majima E, Terada H, Shinohara Y. Twisting of the second transmembrane alpha-helix of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier during the transition between two carrier conformational states. Biochemistry. 2004;43:15204-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the results, the roles of TM2 in the transport function of AAC were discussed. ..
  22. Bamber L, Harding M, Monné M, Slotboom D, Kunji E. The yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier functions as a monomer in mitochondrial membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10830-4 pubmed
    ..we show by negative dominance studies that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AAC2) is functional as a monomer in the mitochondrial membrane...
  23. Stuart R. Chapter 11 Supercomplex organization of the yeast respiratory chain complexes and the ADP/ATP carrier proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2009;456:191-208 pubmed publisher
    ..approaches, the abundant ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) isoform in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Aac2 isoform, has recently been found to also exist in physical association with the cytochrome bc(1)-COX supercomplex ..
  24. Azuma M, Kabe Y, Kuramori C, Kondo M, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H. Adenine nucleotide translocator transports haem precursors into mitochondria. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3070 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results represent a new model that ANT plays a crucial role in haem biosynthesis by facilitating accumulation of its precursors into the mitochondrial matrix. ..
  25. Dzugasova V, Subik J. Synthetic lethal interaction between the pel1 and op1 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2005;50:293-9 pubmed
  26. David C, Arnou B, Sanchez J, Pelosi L, Brandolin G, Lauquin G, et al. Two residues of a conserved aromatic ladder of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier are crucial to nucleotide transport. Biochemistry. 2008;47:13223-31 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these aromatic residues may be involved in substrate gliding, and they may also confer specificity toward adenine nucleotides for the ADP/ATP carrier as compared with the MCF members. ..