PDR5

Summary

Gene Symbol: PDR5
Description: ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter PDR5
Alias: LEM1, STS1, YDR1, ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter PDR5
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Ernst R, Kueppers P, Klein C, Schwarzmueller T, Kuchler K, Schmitt L. A mutation of the H-loop selectively affects rhodamine transport by the yeast multidrug ABC transporter Pdr5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5069-74 pubmed publisher
    The yeast ABC transporter Pdr5 plays a major role in drug resistance against a large number of structurally unrelated compounds...
  2. Decottignies A, Grant A, Nichols J, de Wet H, McIntosh D, Goffeau A. ATPase and multidrug transport activities of the overexpressed yeast ABC protein Yor1p. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:12612-22 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes 15 full-size ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC), of which PDR5, SNQ2, and YOR1 are known to be regulated by the transcription factors Pdr1p and Pdr3p (pleiotropic drug resistance)...
  3. Sauna Z, Bohn S, Rutledge R, Dougherty M, Cronin S, May L, et al. Mutations define cross-talk between the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain and transmembrane helix-2 of the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5: possible conservation of a signaling interface for coupling ATP hydrolysis to drug transport. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35010-22 pubmed publisher
    The yeast Pdr5 multidrug transporter is an important member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of proteins...
  4. Decottignies A, Lambert L, Catty P, Degand H, Epping E, Moye Rowley W, et al. Identification and characterization of SNQ2, a new multidrug ATP binding cassette transporter of the yeast plasma membrane. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:18150-7 pubmed
    ..fraction from a pdr1 mutant, the SNQ2 protein is found in the 160-kDa over-expressed band, together with PDR5. The SNQ2 protein was solubilized with n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside from the plasma membranes of a PDR5-deleted ..
  5. de Thozée C, Cronin S, Goj A, Golin J, Ghislain M. Subcellular trafficking of the yeast plasma membrane ABC transporter, Pdr5, is impaired by a mutation in the N-terminal nucleotide-binding fold. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:811-25 pubmed
    ..The Pdr5(1157) variant lacked the C-terminal transmembrane domain due to the presence of a nonsense mutation at codon 1158...
  6. Kihara A, Igarashi Y. Cross talk between sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids in the establishment of plasma membrane asymmetry. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4949-59 pubmed
    ..In this study of phytosphingosine (PHS)-resistant yeast mutants, we isolated mutants for PDR5, an ABC transporter involved in drug efflux as well as in the flop of phosphatidylethanolamine...
  7. Mahe Y, Lemoine Y, Kuchler K. The ATP binding cassette transporters Pdr5 and Snq2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can mediate transport of steroids in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:25167-72 pubmed
    Multiple or pleiotropic drug resistance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can arise from overexpression of the Pdr5 and Snq2 ATP binding cassette multidrug transporters...
  8. Schüller C, Mamnun Y, Wolfger H, Rockwell N, Thorner J, Kuchler K. Membrane-active compounds activate the transcription factors Pdr1 and Pdr3 connecting pleiotropic drug resistance and membrane lipid homeostasis in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4932-44 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Pdr1/Pdr3 target genes encoding the ATP-binding cassette proteins Pdr5 and Pdr15 confer resistance against these compounds...
  9. Mehla J, Ernst R, Moore R, Wakschlag A, Marquis M, Ambudkar S, et al. Evidence for a molecular diode-based mechanism in a multispecific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter: SER-1368 as a gatekeeping residue in the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:26597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotype of an S1368A mutant that lies in the putative drug-binding pocket of the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5. This substitution created broad, severe drug hypersensitivity, although drug binding, ATP hydrolysis, and ..

More Information

Publications59

  1. Hlavacek O, Kucerova H, Harant K, Palkova Z, Vachova L. Putative role for ABC multidrug exporters in yeast quorum sensing. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..They appear to be involved in population quorum sensing, which consequently influences transcription factor Pdr1p level via feedback regulation...
  2. Nishida Aoki N, Mori H, Kuroda K, Ueda M. Activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway in response to organic solvent stress in yeast. Curr Genet. 2015;61:153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..species and mitochondrial fragmentation, and to activate retrograde signaling pathway via Pdr3p to upregulate PDR5 expression...
  3. Zhang M, Hanna M, Li J, Butcher S, Dai H, Xiao W. Creation of a hyperpermeable yeast strain to genotoxic agents through combined inactivation of PDR and CWP genes. Toxicol Sci. 2010;113:401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that this hyperpermeable yeast mutant strain would be suitable for other chemical-based genotoxic assays...
  4. Forafonov F, Toogun O, Grad I, Suslova E, Freeman B, Picard D. p23/Sba1p protects against Hsp90 inhibitors independently of its intrinsic chaperone activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3446-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The large interface may also contribute to preserving a protective function in an environment in which Hsp90 inhibitory compounds can be produced by various microorganisms. ..
  5. Golin J, Kon Z, Wu C, Martello J, Hanson L, Supernavage S, et al. Complete inhibition of the Pdr5p multidrug efflux pump ATPase activity by its transport substrate clotrimazole suggests that GTP as well as ATP may be used as an energy source. Biochemistry. 2007;46:13109-19 pubmed
    ..We propose that Pdr5p increases its multidrug transport substrate specificity by using more than one nucleotide as an energy source...
  6. Alenquer M, Tenreiro S, Sá Correia I. Adaptive response to the antimalarial drug artesunate in yeast involves Pdr1p/Pdr3p-mediated transcriptional activation of the resistance determinants TPO1 and PDR5. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006;6:1130-9 pubmed
    The expression of the transcription regulator Pdr1p and its target genes PDR5 and TPO1 is required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation and resistance to artesunate, a promising antimalarial drug, also active against tumour cells and ..
  7. Cadek R, Chládková K, Sigler K, Gaskova D. Impact of the growth phase on the activity of multidrug resistance pumps and membrane potential of S. cerevisiae: effect of pump overproduction and carbon source. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1665:111-7 pubmed
    The potentiometric fluorescence probe diS-C3(3) is expelled from S. cerevisiae by ABC pumps Pdr5 and Snq2 and can conveniently be used for studying their performance...
  8. Gupta R, Kueppers P, Hanekop N, Schmitt L. Generating symmetry in the asymmetric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Pdr5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:15272-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Pdr5 is a plasma membrane-bound ABC transporter from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is involved in the phenomenon of resistance against xenobiotics, which are clinically relevant in bacteria, fungi, and humans...
  9. Hiraga K, Yamamoto S, Fukuda H, Hamanaka N, Oda K. Enniatin has a new function as an inhibitor of Pdr5p, one of the ABC transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;328:1119-25 pubmed
    ..The enniatins did not inhibit the function of Snq2p, a homologue of Pdr5p. Thus, it was found that enniatins are potent and specific inhibitors for Pdr5p, with less toxicities than that of FK506...
  10. Fleckenstein A, Shallom J, Golin J. A PDR5-independent pathway of multi-drug resistance regulated by the SIN4 gene product. Yeast. 1999;15:133-7 pubmed
    ..that loss of function mutations in SIN4 create a multi-drug hypersensitive phenotype that is independent of PDR5 mediated resistance. Thus, double sin4, pdr5 mutants are more sensitive than single mutants...
  11. Jensen A, Chindaudomsate W, Thitiananpakorn K, Mongkolsuk S, Jensen L. Improper protein trafficking contributes to artemisinin sensitivity in cells lacking the KDAC Rpd3p. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:4018-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of protein trafficking appears to sensitize cells to artemisinin and targeting these pathways may be useful as part of artemisinin based anti-malarial therapy. ..
  12. Wolfger H, Mamnun Y, Kuchler K. Fungal ABC proteins: pleiotropic drug resistance, stress response and cellular detoxification. Res Microbiol. 2001;152:375-89 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we discuss the role of ABC proteins in clinical drug resistance development of certain fungal pathogens...
  13. Miyahara K, Mizunuma M, Hirata D, Tsuchiya E, Miyakawa T. The involvement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae multidrug resistance transporters Pdr5p and Snq2p in cation resistance. FEBS Lett. 1996;399:317-20 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that these transporters are also involved in cation resistance. Null mutants of PDR5 and SNQ2 genes exhibit increased sensitivity to NaCl, LiCl and MnCl2...
  14. Rutledge R, Ghislain M, Mullins J, de Thozée C, Golin J. Pdr5-mediated multidrug resistance requires the CPY-vacuolar sorting protein Vps3: are xenobiotic compounds routed from the vacuole to plasma membrane transporters for efflux?. Mol Genet Genomics. 2008;279:573-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that this is not the case. Significantly, Vps3 has an epistatic relationship with Pdr5, a major yeast multidrug transporter...
  15. Subba Rao G, Bachhawat A, Gupta C. Two-hybrid-based analysis of protein-protein interactions of the yeast multidrug resistance protein, Pdr5p. Funct Integr Genomics. 2002;1:357-66 pubmed
    ..The possibility of an interaction between the CL1 loops of two neighboring Pdr5p molecules was also indicated, which could possibly have implications for dimerization of this protein...
  16. Wagner M, Doehl K, Schmitt L. Transmitting the energy: interdomain cross-talk in Pdr5. Biol Chem. 2017;398:145-154 pubmed publisher
    ..Important and well-studied members of the PDR subfamily of ABC transporters are Pdr5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its homolog Cdr1 from Candida albicans...
  17. van den Hazel H, Pichler H, do Valle Matta M, Leitner E, Goffeau A, Daum G. PDR16 and PDR17, two homologous genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, affect lipid biosynthesis and resistance to multiple drugs. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1934-41 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results indicate that PDR16 and PDR17 control levels of various lipids in various compartments of the cell and thereby provide a mechanism for multidrug resistance unrecognized so far. ..
  18. Gulshan K, Schmidt J, Shahi P, Moye Rowley W. Evidence for the bifunctional nature of mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase: role in Pdr3-dependent retrograde regulation of PDR5 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5851-64 pubmed publisher
    ..A major Pdr3 target gene is the ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene PDR5. Pdr5 has been demonstrated to act as a phospholipid floppase catalyzing the net outward movement of ..
  19. Tsujimoto Y, Shimizu Y, Otake K, Nakamura T, Okada R, Miyazaki T, et al. Multidrug resistance transporters Snq2p and Pdr5p mediate caffeine efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2015;79:1103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..SNQ2 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter and is highly homologous to PDR5. Multicopy of PDR5 also conferred resistance to caffeine, while its resistance was smaller than that of SNQ2...
  20. Golin J, Ambudkar S. The multidrug transporter Pdr5 on the 25th anniversary of its discovery: an important model for the study of asymmetric ABC transporters. Biochem J. 2015;467:353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Pdr5 multidrug transporter is the founding member of the Pdr subfamily of asymmetric ABC transporters, which exist only ..
  21. Kueppers P, Gupta R, Stindt J, Smits S, Schmitt L. Functional impact of a single mutation within the transmembrane domain of the multidrug ABC transporter Pdr5. Biochemistry. 2013;52:2184-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these transporters, the ABC transporter Pdr5 is a key component, because it confers resistance against a broad spectrum of such cytotoxic agents...
  22. Johnson S, Hanson P, Manoharlal R, Brice S, Cowart L, Moye Rowley W. Regulation of yeast nutrient permease endocytosis by ATP-binding cassette transporters and a seven-transmembrane protein, RSB1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35792-802 pubmed publisher
    ..More recent experiments demonstrated that loss of the genes encoding the ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins Pdr5 and Yor1 elevated PHS tolerance. This increased resistance was suggested to be due to increased expression of RSB1...
  23. Vachova L, Stovícek V, Hlavacek O, Chernyavskiy O, Stepánek L, Kubinova L, et al. Flo11p, drug efflux pumps, and the extracellular matrix cooperate to form biofilm yeast colonies. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The two mechanisms act in concert during colony development, allowing growth of new cell generations in a well-protected internal cavity of the colony. Colony architecture is strengthened by intercellular fiber connections...
  24. Furman C, Mehla J, Ananthaswamy N, Arya N, Kulesh B, KOVACH I, et al. The deviant ATP-binding site of the multidrug efflux pump Pdr5 plays an active role in the transport cycle. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:30420-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Pdr5 is the founding member of a large subfamily of evolutionarily distinct, clinically important fungal ABC transporters containing a characteristic, deviant ATP-binding site with altered Walker A, Walker B, Signature (C-loop), and Q-..
  25. Souza A, Miranda M, da Silva S, Bozaquel Morais B, Masuda C, Ghislain M, et al. Expression of the glucose transporter HXT1 involves the Ser-Thr protein phosphatase Sit4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2012;12:907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that Sit4p ensures that HXT1 transcript is efficiently transcribed and translated thus increasing protein levels of Hxt1p when high glucose levels are present. ..
  26. Tsujimoto Y, Takase D, Okano H, Tomari N, Watanabe K, Matsui H. Functional roles of YPT31 and YPT32 in clotrimazole resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through effects on vacuoles and ATP-binding cassette transporter(s). J Biosci Bioeng. 2013;115:4-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of Pdr5p was independent of YPT31 or YPT32, and multicopies of YPT31 or YPT32 still conferred resistance to CTZ in pdr5 cells...
  27. Kugler K, Jandric Z, Beyer R, Klopf E, Glaser W, Lemmens M, et al. Ribosome quality control is a central protection mechanism for yeast exposed to deoxynivalenol and trichothecin. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:417 pubmed publisher
    ..To focus the genetic analysis on intracellular consequences of toxin action we eliminated the PDR5 gene coding for a potent pleiotropic drug efflux protein potentially confounding results...
  28. Souid A, Gao C, Wang L, Milgrom E, Shen W. ELM1 is required for multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2006;173:1919-37 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription of several drug transporter genes, including the major transporter gene PDR5, has been shown to peak during mitosis. The significance of this observation, however, remains unclear...
  29. Demir A, Koc A. High-Copy Overexpression Screening Reveals PDR5 as the Main Doxorubicin Resistance Gene in Yeast. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0145108 pubmed publisher
    ..to find genes that play a role in doxorubicin resistance and found several genes (CUE5, AKL1, CAN1, YHR177W and PDR5) that provide resistance...
  30. Tutulan Cunita A, Ohnishi T, Mizunuma M, Hirata D, Miyakawa T. Involvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5p ATP-binding cassette transporter in calcium homeostasis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:857-60 pubmed
    Deletion of PDR5 gene (Deltapdr5) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to increased resistance to calcium...
  31. Khakhina S, Johnson S, Manoharlal R, Russo S, Blugeon C, Lemoine S, et al. Control of Plasma Membrane Permeability by ABC Transporters. Eukaryot Cell. 2015;14:442-53 pubmed publisher
    ATP-binding cassette transporters Pdr5 and Yor1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae control the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the plasma membrane as well as serving as ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps...
  32. Katzmann D, Burnett P, Golin J, Mahe Y, Moye Rowley W. Transcriptional control of the yeast PDR5 gene by the PDR3 gene product. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:4653-61 pubmed
    ..PDR1 or PDR3 is essential for drug resistance and expression of a putative membrane transporter-encoding gene, PDR5. Deletion mapping of the PDR5 promoter identified a region from -360 to -112 that is essential for expression of ..
  33. Sato B, Schulz D, Do P, Hampton R. Misfolded membrane proteins are specifically recognized by the transmembrane domain of the Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase. Mol Cell. 2009;34:212-22 pubmed publisher
    ..From in vitro and interaction studies, we suggest a model in which the Hrd1p membrane domain employs intramembrane residues to evaluate substrate misfolding, leading to selective ubiquitination of appropriate ERAD-M clients...
  34. Zhang L, Nebane N, Wennerberg K, Li Y, Neubauer V, Hobrath J, et al. A high-throughput screen for chemical inhibitors of exocytic transport in yeast. Chembiochem. 2010;11:1291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In this and similar chemical-genetic yeast screens, using just a single pump mutation might be sufficient for increasing hit diversity while minimizing the physiological effects of transporter mutations. ..
  35. Chen Z, Li J, Wang W, Guo X, Li Y, Mao X, et al. Mutations adjacent to the end of transmembrane helices 6 and 7 independently affect drug efflux capacity of yeast ABC transporter Pdr5p. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1838:932-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Görnemann J, Kotovic K, Hujer K, Neugebauer K. Cotranscriptional spliceosome assembly occurs in a stepwise fashion and requires the cap binding complex. Mol Cell. 2005;19:53-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the demonstration of an essential link between CBC and spliceosome assembly in vivo indicates that 5' end capping couples pre-mRNA splicing to transcription. ..
  37. Emter R, Heese Peck A, Kralli A. ERG6 and PDR5 regulate small lipophilic drug accumulation in yeast cells via distinct mechanisms. FEBS Lett. 2002;521:57-61 pubmed
    ..In the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletions of PDR5 or ERG6 increase sensitivity to many small lipophilic drugs...
  38. Dou W, Zhu J, Wang T, Wang W, Li H, Chen X, et al. Mutations of charged amino acids at the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane helix 2 affect transport activity of the budding yeast multidrug resistance protein Pdr5p. FEMS Yeast Res. 2016;16: pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify two novel Pdr5 mutants (E574K and E580K), which exhibit impaired substrate efflux functions...
  39. Stolz A, Besser S, Hottmann H, Wolf D. Previously unknown role for the ubiquitin ligase Ubr1 in endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15271-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data unravel another layer of complexity in ERAD. ..
  40. da Silva F, Tessis A, Ferreira P, Rangel L, Garcia Gomes A, Pereira F, et al. Oroidin inhibits the activity of the multidrug resistance target Pdr5p from yeast plasma membranes. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:279-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This compound may help in the development of new drugs that reverse this dangerous phenotype of pathogenic yeast and fungi...
  41. Rong Mullins X, Ravishankar A, McNeal K, Lonergan Z, Biega A, Creamer J, et al. Genetic variation in Dip5, an amino acid permease, and Pdr5, a multiple drug transporter, regulates glyphosate resistance in S. cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187522 pubmed publisher
    ..due to polymorphisms within Aro1, instead, it was caused by genetic variation in an ABC multiple drug transporter, Pdr5, and an amino acid permease, Dip5...
  42. Walsh L, Hastwell P, Keenan P, Knight A, Billinton N, Walmsley R. Genetic modification and variations in solvent increase the sensitivity of the yeast RAD54-GFP genotoxicity assay. Mutagenesis. 2005;20:317-27 pubmed
    ..host strain by deletion of genes involved in cell wall integrity or with products functioning as efflux pumps (PDR5, ERG6, SNQ2, YOR1); (ii) expression in the host yeast of human phase I metabolic activation genes and (iii) ..
  43. Rockwell N, Wolfger H, Kuchler K, Thorner J. ABC transporter Pdr10 regulates the membrane microenvironment of Pdr12 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Membr Biol. 2009;229:27-52 pubmed publisher
    ..and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which are proposed to act as outward-directed lipid translocases (Pdr5 and Yor1). The S...
  44. Somboon P, Poonsawad A, Wattanachaisaereekul S, Jensen L, Niimi M, Cheevadhanarak S, et al. Fungicide Xylaria sp. BCC 1067 extract induces reactive oxygen species and activates multidrug resistance system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Future Microbiol. 2017;12:417-440 pubmed publisher
    ..Antioxidant regulator Yap1, efflux transporter Pdr5 and ascorbate were pivotal to protect S. cerevisiae from extract cytotoxicity. Xylaria sp...
  45. Shirozu R, Yashiroda H, Murata S. Proteasome Impairment Induces Recovery of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and an Alternative Pathway of Mitochondrial Fusion. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:347-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a new pathway for mitochondrial quality control that is induced by proteasome impairment. ..
  46. Shekhar Guturja T, Gunaherath G, Wijeratne E, Lambert J, Averette A, Lee S, et al. Dual action antifungal small molecule modulates multidrug efflux and TOR signaling. Nat Chem Biol. 2016;12:867-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Substitutions in the multidrug transporter Pdr5 that enable beauvericin efflux impair antifungal efflux, thereby impeding resistance to the drug combination...
  47. Kolaczkowska A, Kolaczkowski M, Goffeau A, Moye Rowley W. Compensatory activation of the multidrug transporters Pdr5p, Snq2p, and Yor1p by Pdr1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:977-83 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae, the transcription factors Pdr1p and Pdr3p activate the expression of several genes, including PDR5, SNQ2, and YOR1, which encode ATP-binding cassette transporters that extrude dozens of antifungals with overlapping ..
  48. Navarre C, Degand H, Bennett K, Crawford J, Mørtz E, Boutry M. Subproteomics: identification of plasma membrane proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proteomics. 2002;2:1706-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, combining subcellular fractionation with adapted two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in the identification of intrinsic plasma membrane proteins. ..
  49. Guo X, Li J, Wang T, Liu Z, Chen X, Li Y, et al. A mutation in intracellular loop 4 affects the drug-efflux activity of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr5p. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29520 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of amino acid changes in this functional change, PDR5 chimeras were constructed by segmental replacement of homologous BY4741 PDR5 fragments...
  50. Miranda M, Masuda C, Ferreira Pereira A, Carvajal E, Ghislain M, Montero Lomeli M. The serine/threonine protein phosphatase Sit4p activates multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010;10:674-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is a consequence of the decreased transcriptional levels of mainly PDR3 and its target genes, PDR5, SNQ2 and YOR1, which encode multidrug efflux pumps...