Gene Symbol: PAP1
Description: polynucleotide adenylyltransferase PAP1
Alias: polynucleotide adenylyltransferase PAP1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     PAP1

Top Publications

  1. Nedea E, He X, Kim M, Pootoolal J, Zhong G, Canadien V, et al. Organization and function of APT, a subcomplex of the yeast cleavage and polyadenylation factor involved in the formation of mRNA and small nucleolar RNA 3'-ends. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33000-10 pubmed
    ..Ref2 and Pta1 similarly affect at least one snoRNA transcript. ..
  2. Houseley J, Kotovic K, El Hage A, Tollervey D. Trf4 targets ncRNAs from telomeric and rDNA spacer regions and functions in rDNA copy number control. EMBO J. 2007;26:4996-5006 pubmed
    ..Co-transcriptional RNA binding by Trf4 may link RNA and DNA metabolism and direct immediate IGS1-R degradation by the exosome following transcription termination. ..
  3. Dichtl B, Blank D, Ohnacker M, Friedlein A, Roeder D, Langen H, et al. A role for SSU72 in balancing RNA polymerase II transcription elongation and termination. Mol Cell. 2002;10:1139-50 pubmed
    ..The sum of our analyses suggests a negative influence of Ssu72p on RNAP II during transcription that affects the commitment to either elongation or termination. ..
  4. Preker P, Ohnacker M, Minvielle Sebastia L, Keller W. A multisubunit 3' end processing factor from yeast containing poly(A) polymerase and homologues of the subunits of mammalian cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor. EMBO J. 1997;16:4727-37 pubmed
    ..PF I also appears to be functionally related to CPSF, as it polyadenylates a substrate RNA more efficiently than Pap1p alone. Possibly, the observed interaction of the complex with RNA tethers Pap1p to its substrate. ..
  5. Ohnacker M, Barabino S, Preker P, Keller W. The WD-repeat protein pfs2p bridges two essential factors within the yeast pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing complex. EMBO J. 2000;19:37-47 pubmed
    ..These results show that Pfs2p plays an essential role in 3'-end formation by bridging different processing factors and thereby promoting the assembly of the processing complex. ..
  6. Vanacova S, Wolf J, Martin G, Blank D, Dettwiler S, Friedlein A, et al. A new yeast poly(A) polymerase complex involved in RNA quality control. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e189 pubmed
    ..This polyadenylation-mediated RNA surveillance resembles the role of polyadenylation in bacterial RNA turnover. ..
  7. Hilleren P, McCarthy T, Rosbash M, Parker R, Jensen T. Quality control of mRNA 3'-end processing is linked to the nuclear exosome. Nature. 2001;413:538-42 pubmed
    ..In exosome mutants, hypo- as well as hyperadenylated mRNAs are released and translated. These observations suggest that the exosome contributes to a checkpoint that monitors proper 3'-end formation of mRNA. ..
  8. Ezeokonkwo C, Ghazy M, Zhelkovsky A, Yeh P, Moore C. Novel interactions at the essential N-terminus of poly(A) polymerase that could regulate poly(A) addition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:1173-8 pubmed publisher
    Addition of poly(A) to the 3' ends of cleaved pre-mRNA is essential for mRNA maturation and is catalyzed by Pap1 in yeast...
  9. Onishi M, Ko N, Nishihama R, Pringle J. Distinct roles of Rho1, Cdc42, and Cyk3 in septum formation and abscission during yeast cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:311-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests a general role for the catalytically inactive transglutaminases of fungi and animals, some of which have previously been implicated in cytokinesis. ..

More Information


  1. Briggs M, Butler J. RNA polymerase III defects suppress a conditional-lethal poly(A) polymerase mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;143:1149-61 pubmed
    We isolated spontaneous extragenic suppressors of a temperature-sensitive, lethal poly(A) polymerase mutation (pap1-1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that restore growth at the restrictive temperature of 30 degrees...
  2. Zhao J, Kessler M, Helmling S, O Connor J, Moore C. Pta1, a component of yeast CF II, is required for both cleavage and poly(A) addition of mRNA precursor. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7733-40 pubmed
    ..Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the CF II in extract can be found in a stable complex containing Pap1, CF II, and the Fip1 and Yth1 subunits of polyadenylation factor I...
  3. Medler S, Al Husini N, Raghunayakula S, Mukundan B, Aldea A, Ansari A. Evidence for a complex of transcription factor IIB with poly(A) polymerase and cleavage factor 1 subunits required for gene looping. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33709-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide evidence that poly(A) polymerase (Pap1) as well as CF1 subunits Rna14 and Pcf11 are also required for loop formation of MET16 and INO1 genes...
  4. Ito Y, Kitagawa T, Yamanishi M, Katahira S, Izawa S, Irie K, et al. Enhancement of protein production via the strong DIT1 terminator and two RNA-binding proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36997 pubmed publisher
    ..Further understanding and improvement of this system will facilitate inexpensive and stable production of complicated organism-derived drugs worldwide. ..
  5. Kelly S, Leung S, Apponi L, Bramley A, Tran E, Chekanova J, et al. Recognition of polyadenosine RNA by the zinc finger domain of nuclear poly(A) RNA-binding protein 2 (Nab2) is required for correct mRNA 3'-end formation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:26022-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide strong evidence that Nab2 binding to RNA is critical for proper control of poly(A) tail length. ..
  6. Wiederkehr T, Prétôt R, Minvielle Sebastia L. Synthetic lethal interactions with conditional poly(A) polymerase alleles identify LCP5, a gene involved in 18S rRNA maturation. RNA. 1998;4:1357-72 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae, we carried out a screen for synthetic lethal mutants with the conditional poly(A) polymerase allele, pap1-7...
  7. Castelnuovo M, Rahman S, Guffanti E, Infantino V, Stutz F, Zenklusen D. Bimodal expression of PHO84 is modulated by early termination of antisense transcription. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:851-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that PHO84 silencing results from antisense transcription through the promoter rather than the static accumulation of antisense RNAs at the repressed gene. ..
  8. Lee S, Moore C. Efficient mRNA polyadenylation requires a ubiquitin-like domain, a zinc knuckle, and a RING finger domain, all contained in the Mpe1 protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3955-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with a role for Mpe1 in ubiquitination, mutation of Mpe1 decreases the association of ubiquitin with Pap1, the poly(A) polymerase, and suppressors of mpe1 mutants are linked to ubiquitin ligases...
  9. Luke B, Panza A, Redon S, Iglesias N, Li Z, Lingner J. The Rat1p 5' to 3' exonuclease degrades telomeric repeat-containing RNA and promotes telomere elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2008;32:465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, telomeric transcription combined with Rat1p-dependent TERRA degradation is important for regulating telomerase in yeast. Telomere transcription is conserved in different kingdoms of the eukaryotic domain. ..
  10. Lingner J, Kellermann J, Keller W. Cloning and expression of the essential gene for poly(A) polymerase from S. cerevisiae. Nature. 1991;354:496-8 pubmed
    ..Poly(A) polymerase purified from recombinant Escherichia coli has the same physical and biochemical properties as the yeast enzyme. The yeast poly(A) polymerase shares features of sequence with its mammalian homologue. ..
  11. Balbo P, Bohm A. Mechanism of poly(A) polymerase: structure of the enzyme-MgATP-RNA ternary complex and kinetic analysis. Structure. 2007;15:1117-31 pubmed
    ..Thermodynamic considerations of the data are discussed as they pertain to domain closure, substrate specificity, and catalytic strategies utilized by PAP. ..
  12. Zhelkovsky A, Helmling S, Moore C. Processivity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A) polymerase requires interactions at the carboxyl-terminal RNA binding domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:5942-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the unique specificity of PAP for ribose and base, and thus the extent and type of activity with different substrates, depends on interactions at multiple nucleotide binding sites. ..
  13. Zhang D, Mosley A, Ramisetty S, Rodríguez Molina J, Washburn M, Ansari A. Ssu72 phosphatase-dependent erasure of phospho-Ser7 marks on the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain is essential for viability and transcription termination. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:8541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..An inability to remove these marks prevents Pol II from terminating efficiently and will likely impede subsequent assembly into the pre-initiation complex. ..
  14. Wu J, Xia Z, Cao Z, Ao S. Cloning and Expression of a Novel PHO85 Associated Protein PAP1 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 1998;30:14-20 pubmed
    ..Using PHO85 as target, we have cloned from the yeast two-hybrid genomic library a novel gene (PAP1) with product which can asscociate with the PHO85 protein...
  15. Vo L, Minet M, Schmitter J, Lacroute F, Wyers F. Mpe1, a zinc knuckle protein, is an essential component of yeast cleavage and polyadenylation factor required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8346-56 pubmed
    ..These results show that Mpe1p plays a crucial role in 3' end formation probably by promoting the specific link between the CFI/CPF complex and pre-mRNA. ..
  16. Ezeokonkwo C, Zhelkovsky A, Lee R, Bohm A, Moore C. A flexible linker region in Fip1 is needed for efficient mRNA polyadenylation. RNA. 2011;17:652-64 pubmed publisher
    Synthesis of the poly(A) tail of mRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires recruitment of the polymerase Pap1 to the 3' end of cleaved pre-mRNA...
  17. Mandart E, Parker R. Effects of mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA14, RNA15, and PAP1 genes on polyadenylation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6979-86 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the RNA14, RNA15, and PAP1 proteins are involved in poly(A) site choice...
  18. Kurischko C, Kuravi V, Herbert C, Luca F. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Ssd1 defines the destiny of its bound mRNAs. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:831-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data support the model that Ssd1 functions analogously to hnRNPs, which bind mRNA co-transcriptionally, are exported to the cytoplasm and target mRNAs to sites of localized translation and P-bodies. ..
  19. Minvielle Sebastia L, Preker P, Keller W. RNA14 and RNA15 proteins as components of a yeast pre-mRNA 3'-end processing factor. Science. 1994;266:1702-5 pubmed
    ..Here, mutations in the PAP1 gene were shown to be synergistically lethal with previously identified mutations in the RNA14 and RNA15 genes, ..
  20. Ghazy M, He X, Singh B, Hampsey M, Moore C. The essential N terminus of the Pta1 scaffold protein is required for snoRNA transcription termination and Ssu72 function but is dispensable for pre-mRNA 3'-end processing. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the amino terminus of Pta1 has an inhibitory effect and that this effect can be neutralized through the interaction with Ssu72. ..
  21. He X, Khan A, Cheng H, Pappas D, Hampsey M, Moore C. Functional interactions between the transcription and mRNA 3' end processing machineries mediated by Ssu72 and Sub1. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1030-42 pubmed
  22. Wu J, Xia Z, Cao Z, Ao S. Phosphorylation of PHO4 Protein by the PHO85-PAP1 Kinase Complex. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 1998;30:63-69 pubmed
    Homology comparison of the novel PAP1 protein indicated that PAP1 protein is highly homologous to PHO85-associated protein PHO80, PCL1 and PCL2...
  23. Helmling S, Zhelkovsky A, Moore C. Fip1 regulates the activity of Poly(A) polymerase through multiple interactions. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2026-37 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae polyadenylation machinery and the only protein known to interact directly with poly(A) polymerase (Pap1)...
  24. Yang F, Hsu P, Lee S, Yang W, Hoskinson D, Xu W, et al. The C terminus of Pcf11 forms a novel zinc-finger structure that plays an essential role in mRNA 3'-end processing. RNA. 2017;23:98-107 pubmed
    ..These findings provide further insight into this important protein and its multiple functional roles during cotranscriptional RNA processing. ..
  25. Grzechnik P, Kufel J. Polyadenylation linked to transcription termination directs the processing of snoRNA precursors in yeast. Mol Cell. 2008;32:247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A large cleavage and polyadenylation complex containing the major poly(A) polymerase Pap1 produces mRNA 3' ends, whereas those of nonpolyadenylated snoRNAs in yeast are formed either by endonucleolytic ..
  26. Schreieck A, Easter A, Etzold S, Wiederhold K, Lidschreiber M, Cramer P, et al. RNA polymerase II termination involves C-terminal-domain tyrosine dephosphorylation by CPF subunit Glc7. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:175-179 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that transcription termination involves Tyr1 dephosphorylation of the CTD and indicate that pre-mRNA processing by CPF and transcription termination are coupled via Glc7-dependent Pol II-Tyr1 dephosphorylation. ..
  27. del Olmo M, Mizrahi N, Gross S, Moore C. The Uba2 and Ufd1 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae interact with poly(A) polymerase and affect the polyadenylation activity of cell extracts. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;255:209-18 pubmed
    ..we have identified two proteins which interact specifically with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A) polymerase, Pap1. Uba2 is a homolog of ubiquitin-activating (E1) enzymes and Ufd1 is a protein whose function is probably also ..
  28. Blair L, Liu Z, Labitigan R, Wu L, Zheng D, Xia Z, et al. KDM5 lysine demethylases are involved in maintenance of 3'UTR length. Sci Adv. 2016;2:e1501662 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, both KDM5A and KDM5B are involved in the lengthening of DICER1. Our findings suggest both a novel role for this family of demethylases and a novel targetable mechanism for 3'UTR processing. ..
  29. Meinke G, Ezeokonkwo C, Balbo P, STAFFORD W, Moore C, Bohm A. Structure of yeast poly(A) polymerase in complex with a peptide from Fip1, an intrinsically disordered protein. Biochemistry. 2008;47:6859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the Fip1 sequence is highly divergent, and residues on both Pap1 and Fip1 at the observed interaction surface are poorly conserved...
  30. Proweller A, Butler J. Ribosomal association of poly(A)-binding protein in poly(A)-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10859-65 pubmed
    ..We discuss these conclusions with respect to current models suggesting a multifunctional binding capacity of Pabp. ..
  31. Burkard K, Butler J. A nuclear 3'-5' exonuclease involved in mRNA degradation interacts with Poly(A) polymerase and the hnRNA protein Npl3p. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:604-16 pubmed
    Inactivation of poly(A) polymerase (encoded by PAP1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells carrying the temperature-sensitive, lethal pap1-1 mutation results in reduced levels of poly(A)(+) mRNAs...