Gene Symbol: MSN4
Description: stress-responsive transcriptional activator MSN4
Alias: stress-responsive transcriptional activator MSN4
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Boy Marcotte E, Perrot M, Bussereau F, Boucherie H, Jacquet M. Msn2p and Msn4p control a large number of genes induced at the diauxic transition which are repressed by cyclic AMP in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1044-52 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pattern of protein synthesis of the msn2 msn4 double mutant and compared it with that of the wild-type strain during exponential growth phase and at the diauxic ..
  2. Kandror O, Bretschneider N, Kreydin E, Cavalieri D, Goldberg A. Yeast adapt to near-freezing temperatures by STRE/Msn2,4-dependent induction of trehalose synthesis and certain molecular chaperones. Mol Cell. 2004;13:771-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, below 10 degrees C, yeast show an adaptive response that sustains viability at low or freezing temperatures, which are commonly encountered in natural environments and laboratory refrigerators. ..
  3. Hasan R, Leroy C, Isnard A, Labarre J, Boy Marcotte E, Toledano M. The control of the yeast H2O2 response by the Msn2/4 transcription factors. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:233-41 pubmed
    ..Strains deleted for MSN2 and MSN4 are hypersensitive to H2O2, although they can still adapt to this oxidant...
  4. Moskvina E, Schuller C, Maurer C, Mager W, Ruis H. A search in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genes regulated via stress response elements. Yeast. 1998;14:1041-50 pubmed
    ..Double mutants (msn2 msn4) deficient in these transcription factors have been shown to be hypersensitive to severe stress conditions...
  5. Estruch F, Carlson M. Two homologous zinc finger genes identified by multicopy suppression in a SNF1 protein kinase mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:3872-81 pubmed
    ..Deletion of MSN2 caused no phenotype. A second similar zinc finger gene, MSN4, was isolated, and deletion of both genes caused phenotypic defects related to carbon utilization...
  6. Schmitt A, McEntee K. Msn2p, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is the transcriptional activator of the multistress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5777-82 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that the MSN2 homolog, MSN4, can partially replace MSN2 for transcriptional activation following stress...
  7. Vendrell A, Martínez Pastor M, Gonzalez Novo A, Pascual Ahuir A, Sinclair D, Proft M, et al. Sir2 histone deacetylase prevents programmed cell death caused by sustained activation of the Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1062-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations of the SCF(CDC4) ubiquitin ligase complex suppress cell death by preventing the degradation of Msn2 and Msn4 transcription factors...
  8. Smith A, Ward M, Garrett S. Yeast PKA represses Msn2p/Msn4p-dependent gene expression to regulate growth, stress response and glycogen accumulation. EMBO J. 1998;17:3556-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Msn2p/Msn4p-dependent gene expression may account for all, or at least most, of the pleiotropic effects of yeast PKA, including growth regulation, response to stress and carbohydrate store accumulation. ..
  9. Gasch A, Spellman P, Kao C, Carmel Harel O, Eisen M, Storz G, et al. Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:4241-57 pubmed
    ..Physiological themes in the genomic responses to specific environmental stresses provided insights into the effects of those stresses on the cell...

More Information


  1. Erkina T, Tschetter P, Erkine A. Different requirements of the SWI/SNF complex for robust nucleosome displacement at promoters of heat shock factor and Msn2- and Msn4-regulated heat shock genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1207-17 pubmed
    ..Out of the three promoters, the double deletion of MSN2 and MSN4 eliminates both chromatin remodeling and HSF binding only at the HSP12 promoter, suggesting that Msn2/4 activators ..
  2. Medvedik O, Lamming D, Kim K, Sinclair D. MSN2 and MSN4 link calorie restriction and TOR to sirtuin-mediated lifespan extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e261 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that TOR and sirtuins may be part of the same longevity pathway in higher organisms, and that they may promote genomic stability during aging. ..
  3. Fabrizio P, Pozza F, Pletcher S, Gendron C, Longo V. Regulation of longevity and stress resistance by Sch9 in yeast. Science. 2001;292:288-90 pubmed
    ..Stress-resistance transcription factors Msn2/Msn4 and protein kinase Rim15 were required for this life-span extension...
  4. Jacquet M, Renault G, Lallet S, De Mey J, Goldbeter A. Oscillatory nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the general stress response transcriptional activators Msn2 and Msn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:497-505 pubmed
    Msn2 and Msn4 are two related transcriptional activators that mediate a general response to stress in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliciting the expression of specific sets of genes...
  5. Wei M, Fabrizio P, Hu J, Ge H, Cheng C, Li L, et al. Life span extension by calorie restriction depends on Rim15 and transcription factors downstream of Ras/PKA, Tor, and Sch9. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the anti-aging effect caused by the inactivation of both pathways is much more potent than that caused by CR. ..
  6. Takatsume Y, Ohdate T, Maeta K, Nomura W, Izawa S, Inoue Y. Calcineurin/Crz1 destabilizes Msn2 and Msn4 in the nucleus in response to Ca(2+) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2010;427:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment with Ca2+ and is dependent on the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) Hog1 protein and the Msn2/Msn4 transcription factors...
  7. Sadeh A, Movshovich N, Volokh M, Gheber L, Aharoni A. Fine-tuning of the Msn2/4-mediated yeast stress responses as revealed by systematic deletion of Msn2/4 partners. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:3127-38 pubmed publisher
    The Msn2 and Msn4 transcription factors play major roles in the yeast general stress response by mediating the transcription of hundreds of genes...
  8. Martinez Pastor M, Marchler G, Schuller C, Marchler Bauer A, Ruis H, Estruch F. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae zinc finger proteins Msn2p and Msn4p are required for transcriptional induction through the stress response element (STRE). EMBO J. 1996;15:2227-35 pubmed
    The MSN2 and MSN4 genes encode homologous and functionally redundant Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins...
  9. Fabrizio P, Pletcher S, Minois N, Vaupel J, Longo V. Chronological aging-independent replicative life span regulation by Msn2/Msn4 and Sod2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2004;557:136-42 pubmed
    ..However, the triple deletion of stress-resistance genes MSN2/MSN4 and RIM15, which causes a major decrease in chronological life span, extends replicative life span...
  10. Görner W, Durchschlag E, Martinez Pastor M, Estruch F, Ammerer G, Hamilton B, et al. Nuclear localization of the C2H2 zinc finger protein Msn2p is regulated by stress and protein kinase A activity. Genes Dev. 1998;12:586-97 pubmed
    ..We propose stress and cAMP-regulated intracellular localization of Msn2p to be a key step in STRE-dependent transcription and in the general stress response. ..
  11. Causton H, Ren B, Koh S, Harbison C, Kanin E, Jennings E, et al. Remodeling of yeast genome expression in response to environmental changes. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:323-37 pubmed
    ..The results of expression analysis with MSN2/MSN4 mutants support the model that the Msn2/Msn4 activators induce the common response to environmental change...
  12. Bohovych I, Kastora S, Christianson S, Topil D, Kim H, Fangman T, et al. Oma1 Links Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control and TOR Signaling To Modulate Physiological Plasticity and Cellular Stress Responses. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2300-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during logarithmic growth and reduced stress signaling via the TORC1-Rim15-Msn2/Msn4 axis...
  13. Yadav K, Singh N, Rajvanshi P, Rajasekharan R. The RNA polymerase I subunit Rpa12p interacts with the stress-responsive transcription factor Msn4p to regulate lipid metabolism in budding yeast. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:3559-3573 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that Rpa12p functions as a negative regulator of lipid metabolism by modulating nonpolar lipid biosynthesis through its interaction with Msn4p. ..
  14. Casado C, González A, Platara M, Ruiz A, Arino J. The role of the protein kinase A pathway in the response to alkaline pH stress in yeast. Biochem J. 2011;438:523-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Alkaline pH causes rapid nuclear localization of the PKA-regulated Msn2 transcription factor which, together with Msn4, mediates a general stress response by binding with STRE (stress response element) sequences in many promoters...
  15. Zähringer H, Thevelein J, Nwaka S. Induction of neutral trehalase Nth1 by heat and osmotic stress is controlled by STRE elements and Msn2/Msn4 transcription factors: variations of PKA effect during stress and growth. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:397-406 pubmed
    ..elements (STREs, CCCCT) in the NTH1 promoter suggested that the transcriptional activator proteins Msn2 and Msn4, as well as the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), control the stress-induced expression of Nth1...
  16. Gatti X, de Bettignies G, Claret S, Doignon F, Crouzet M, Thoraval D. RGD1, encoding a RhoGAP involved in low-pH survival, is an Msn2p/Msn4p regulated gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 2005;351:159-69 pubmed
    ..The general stress-activated transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p as well as the HOG pathway were shown to mainly act on the basal RGD1 transcriptional level in normal and stress conditions. ..
  17. Watanabe D, Wu H, Noguchi C, Zhou Y, Akao T, Shimoi H. Enhancement of the initial rate of ethanol fermentation due to dysfunction of yeast stress response components Msn2p and/or Msn4p. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:934-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that dysfunction of MSN2 and/or MSN4 contributes to the higher initial rate of ethanol fermentation in both sake and laboratory yeasts...
  18. Mirisola M, Taormina G, Fabrizio P, Wei M, Hu J, Longo V. Serine- and threonine/valine-dependent activation of PDK and Tor orthologs converge on Sch9 to promote aging. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004113 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the conserved pro-aging role of nutrient and growth signaling pathways in higher eukaryotes, these results raise the possibility that similar mechanisms contribute to aging in mammals...
  19. Liu Y, Liu N, Wu D, Bi Q, Meng S. The longevity of tor1Δ, sch9Δ, and ras2Δ mutants depends on actin dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Biosci. 2015;5:18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the longevity of tor1Δ, sch9Δ, and ras2Δ mutants is dependent on actin dynamics. ..
  20. Umekawa M, Ujihara M, Makishima K, Yamamoto S, Takematsu H, Wakayama M. The signaling pathways underlying starvation-induced upregulation of α-mannosidase Ams1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1860:1192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The signaling molecules responsible for regulation of Ams1 were also clarified. ..
  21. Yamamoto N, Maeda Y, Ikeda A, Sakurai H. Regulation of thermotolerance by stress-induced transcription factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:783-90 pubmed publisher
    The heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 and the general stress transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 (Msn2/4) are major regulators of the heat shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  22. Stanhill A, Schick N, Engelberg D. The yeast ras/cyclic AMP pathway induces invasive growth by suppressing the cellular stress response. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7529-38 pubmed
    ..In this respect, invasiveness in yeast is reminiscent of the property of ras-transformed fibroblasts to invade soft agar. ..
  23. Lee Y, Shi R, Witt S. The small molecule triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP and increases resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64337 pubmed publisher
    ..Msn2 and Msn4 are responsible for activating the transcription of numerous genes that encode proteins that protect cells from ..
  24. Haitani Y, Takagi H. Rsp5 is required for the nuclear export of mRNA of HSF1 and MSN2/4 under stress conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Cells. 2008;13:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that, in response to environmental stresses, Rsp5 primarily regulates the expression of Hsf1 and Msn2/4 at the post-transcriptional level and is involved in the repair system of stress-induced abnormal proteins. ..
  25. Quan Z, Cao L, Tang Y, Yan Y, Oliver S, Zhang N. The Yeast GSK-3 Homologue Mck1 Is a Key Controller of Quiescence Entry and Chronological Lifespan. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005282 pubmed publisher
    ..One involves the negative regulation of the effectors of G0 entry such as Mck1 and Rim15, while the other likely to involve its functions in promoting respiratory growth, a phenotype also contributed by Mck1 and Rim15. ..
  26. Ruiz Roig C, Viéitez C, Posas F, de Nadal E. The Rpd3L HDAC complex is essential for the heat stress response in yeast. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1049-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that the large, but not the small Rpd3 complex regulated cell adaptation in response to heat stress. ..
  27. Malcher M, Schladebeck S, Mösch H. The Yak1 protein kinase lies at the center of a regulatory cascade affecting adhesive growth and stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;187:717-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that Yak1 is at the center of a regulatory cascade for adhesive growth and stress resistance, which is under dual control of Whi3 and the PKA subunit Tpk1. ..
  28. Cho B, Hahn J. CK2-dependent phosphorylation positively regulates stress-induced activation of Msn2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017;1860:695-704 pubmed publisher
  29. Jimenez A, Lisa Santamaría P, García Marino M, Escribano Bailon M, Rivas Gonzalo J, Revuelta J. The biological activity of the wine anthocyanins delphinidin and petunidin is mediated through Msn2 and Msn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010;10:858-69 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae in an Msn2-, Msn4-dependent manner, indicating that the stress regulators Msn2 and Msn4 participate in the xenohormetic activity of ..
  30. Welch A, Gibney P, Botstein D, Koshland D. TOR and RAS pathways regulate desiccation tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:115-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that reduction of a specific intermediate in 60S biogenesis, resulting from conditions such as heat shock and nutrient deprivation, increases desiccation tolerance. ..
  31. Li L, Miles S, Breeden L. A Genetic Screen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants That Fail to Enter Quiescence. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:1783-95 pubmed publisher
    ..thermotolerance is also a common property, and we show that the stress-response transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 promote quiescence...
  32. Thorne T, Ho H, Huvet M, Haynes K, Stumpf M. Prediction of putative protein interactions through evolutionary analysis of osmotic stress response in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We do find that correlated evolution provides some useful information for the prediction of protein-protein interactions, but that these alone are not sufficient to explain detectable patterns of correlated evolution. ..
  33. Domitrovic T, Fernandes C, Boy Marcotte E, Kurtenbach E. High hydrostatic pressure activates gene expression through Msn2/4 stress transcription factors which are involved in the acquired tolerance by mild pressure precondition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6033-8 pubmed
    Msn2 and Msn4 transcription factors activate expression of stress-responsive element (STRE) controlled genes in response to various stresses triggering the environmental stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  34. Horan S, Bourges I, Meunier B. Transcriptional response to nitrosative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2006;23:519-35 pubmed
    ..We showed also that Msn2/4p and Yap1p, key regulators of the response to general stress and oxidative stress, respectively, played a role in mediating the RNS-induced response. ..
  35. Ha C, Kim K, Chang Y, Kim B, Huh W. The ?-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gas1 regulates Sir2-mediated rDNA stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:8486-99 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems that nuclear-localized Msn2/4 stimulate the expression of Pnc1, thereby enhancing the association of Sir2 with rDNA and promoting rDNA stability. ..
  36. Izawa S, Ikeda K, Ohdate T, Inoue Y. Msn2p/Msn4p-activation is essential for the recovery from freezing stress in yeast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;352:750-5 pubmed
    ..Since almost no expression of Msn2p/Msn4p-target genes was induced before thawing, these results indicate that Msn2p and Msn4p play a role during the recovery process from freezing. ..
  37. Gauci V, Beckhouse A, Lyons V, Beh E, Rogers P, Dawes I, et al. Zinc starvation induces a stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is mediated by the Msn2p and Msn4p transcriptional activators. FEMS Yeast Res. 2009;9:1187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..a distinct regulon consisting of STRE-containing genes whose zinc-responsive expression was abolished in an msn2 msn4 double mutant...
  38. Calahan D, Dunham M, Desevo C, Koshland D. Genetic analysis of desiccation tolerance in Sachharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;189:507-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study of these regulators and their targets should provide important clues to the sensors and effectors of desiccation tolerance. ..
  39. Erkina T, Lavrova M, Erkin A. [Alternative ways of stress regulation in cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: transcriptional activators Msn2 and Msn4]. Tsitologiia. 2009;51:271-8 pubmed
    ..this gene activation is determined by the action of two types of activators--HSF and partially redundant Msn2 and Msn4. While HSF activation mechanisms are relatively well established during the last decade, the mechanisms of ..
  40. Martínez Montañés F, Rienzo A, Poveda Huertes D, Pascual Ahuir A, Proft M. Activator and repressor functions of the Mot3 transcription factor in the osmostress response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:636-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These Mot3-activated stress genes also depend on the general stress activators Msn2 and Msn4. We confirm that both Mot3 and Msn4 bind directly to some promoter regions of this gene group...
  41. Shor E, Fox C, Broach J. The yeast environmental stress response regulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003680 pubmed publisher
  42. Alejandro Osorio A, Huebert D, Porcaro D, Sonntag M, Nillasithanukroh S, Will J, et al. The histone deacetylase Rpd3p is required for transient changes in genomic expression in response to stress. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate Rpd3p as an important co-factor in the Environmental Stress Response regulatory network, and suggest the importance of histone modification in producing transient changes in gene expression triggered by stress. ..
  43. Molina Serrano D, Schiza V, Demosthenous C, Stavrou E, Oppelt J, Kyriakou D, et al. Loss of Nat4 and its associated histone H4 N-terminal acetylation mediates calorie restriction-induced longevity. EMBO Rep. 2016;17:1829-1843 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings establish histone N-acH4 as a regulator of cellular lifespan that links CR to increased stress resistance and longevity. ..
  44. Schüller C, Mamnun Y, Mollapour M, Krapf G, Schuster M, Bauer B, et al. Global phenotypic analysis and transcriptional profiling defines the weak acid stress response regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:706-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that combining functional assays with transcriptome profiling allows for the identification of key components in large datasets such as those generated by global microarray analysis...
  45. Inoue Y, Tsujimoto Y, Kimura A. Expression of the glyoxalase I gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by high osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in osmotic stress response. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:2977-83 pubmed
    ..A double mutant of the MSN2 and MSN4 gene was unable to induce expression of the GLO1 gene under highly osmotic conditions...
  46. Zhang N, Quan Z, Rash B, Oliver S. Synergistic effects of TOR and proteasome pathways on the yeast transcriptome and cell growth. Open Biol. 2013;3:120137 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the proteasome and the TOR signalling pathway synergistically regulate a significant portion of the genome to coordinate cell growth and starvation response. ..
  47. Lis P, Jurkiewicz P, Cal BÄ…kowska M, Ko Y, Pedersen P, Goffeau A, et al. Screening the yeast genome for energetic metabolism pathways involved in a phenotypic response to the anti-cancer agent 3-bromopyruvate. Oncotarget. 2016;7:10153-73 pubmed publisher
  48. AkhavanAghdam Z, Sinha J, Tabbaa O, Hao N. Dynamic control of gene regulatory logic by seemingly redundant transcription factors. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..we study the yeast general stress response transcription factor Msn2 and its seemingly redundant homolog Msn4. We find that gene regulation by these two factors is analogous to logic gate systems...
  49. Li L, Kaplan J, Ward D. The glucose sensor Snf1 and the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 regulate transcription of the vacuolar iron importer gene CCC1 and iron resistance in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:15577-15586 pubmed publisher
    ..The Snf1 complex is known to activate the general stress transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. We show that Msn2 and Msn4 contribute to Snf1-mediated CCC1 transcription...
  50. Lai L, Kosorukoff A, Burke P, Kwast K. Dynamical remodeling of the transcriptome during short-term anaerobiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: differential response and role of Msn2 and/or Msn4 and other factors in galactose and glucose media. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4075-91 pubmed both catabolite-repressed (glucose) and derepressed (galactose) cells, assessed the specific role that Msn2 and Msn4 play in mediating the response, and identified gene networks using a novel clustering approach...
  51. Batenchuk C, Tepliakova L, Kaern M. Identification of response-modulated genetic interactions by sensitivity-based epistatic analysis. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:493 pubmed publisher
    ..While the method was developed for growth phenotype, it should apply equally well for other phenotypes, including the expression of fluorescent reporters. ..
  52. Versele M, Thevelein J, Van Dijck P. The high general stress resistance of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fil1 adenylate cyclase mutant (Cyr1Lys1682) is only partially dependent on trehalose, Hsp104 and overexpression of Msn2/4-regulated genes. Yeast. 2004;21:75-86 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the transcription factor genes MSN2 and MSN4, which are required for the expression of STRE-regulated genes, resulted in a dramatic drop in heat resistance in ..
  53. Reiter W, Klopf E, De Wever V, Anrather D, Petryshyn A, Roetzer A, et al. Yeast protein phosphatase 2A-Cdc55 regulates the transcriptional response to hyperosmolarity stress by regulating Msn2 and Msn4 chromatin recruitment. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1057-72 pubmed publisher required for full activation of the environmental stress response mediated by the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. We show that PP2A-Cdc55 contributes to sustained nuclear accumulation of Msn2 and Msn4 during hyperosmolarity ..
  54. Baranwal S, Azad G, Singh V, Tomar R. Signaling of chloroquine-induced stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the Hog1 and Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58:5552-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our findings define the multiple biological pathways targeted by CQ that might be useful for understanding the toxicity modulated by this pharmacologically important molecule. ..
  55. Hosiner D, Lempiäinen H, Reiter W, Urban J, Loewith R, Ammerer G, et al. Arsenic toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a consequence of inhibition of the TORC1 kinase combined with a chronic stress response. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1048-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, we show that arsenic activates the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 both of which are targets of TORC1 and protein kinase A (PKA)...
  56. Haitani Y, Shimoi H, Takagi H. Rsp5 regulates expression of stress proteins via post-translational modification of Hsf1 and Msn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:3433-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the amounts of transcription factors Hsf1 and Msn4 were remarkably defective in the rsp5 mutant...
  57. Reddi A, Culotta V. Regulation of manganese antioxidants by nutrient sensing pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;189:1261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observed roles for nutrient and stress response kinases and transcription factors in regulating the Mn antioxidant underscore its physiological importance in aerobic fitness. ..
  58. Schade B, Jansen G, Whiteway M, Entian K, Thomas D. Cold adaptation in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5492-502 pubmed
    ..This implies that the cold-specific early response is mediated by a different and as yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanism. ..
  59. Rajvanshi P, Arya M, Rajasekharan R. The stress-regulatory transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 regulate fatty acid oxidation in budding yeast. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:18628-18643 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 (multicopy suppressor of SNF1 mutation proteins 2 and 4) bind the stress-response element in gene promoters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae However, the roles of Msn2/4 in ..