Gene Symbol: MSH6
Description: mismatch repair ATPase MSH6
Alias: PMS3, PMS6, mismatch repair ATPase MSH6
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Habraken Y, Sung P, Prakash L, Prakash S. Binding of insertion/deletion DNA mismatches by the heterodimer of yeast mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MSH3. Curr Biol. 1996;6:1185-7 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies in S. cerevisiae have suggested that MSH2 functions with either MSH3 or MSH6 in mismatch repair, and, in the absence of the latter two genes, MSH2 is inactive [12,13]...
  2. Das Gupta R, Kolodner R. Novel dominant mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH6. Nat Genet. 2000;24:53-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations in MSH6 or MSH3 cause partial defects in MMR, with inactivation of MSH6 resulting in high rates of base-substitution ..
  3. Antony E, Hingorani M. Mismatch recognition-coupled stabilization of Msh2-Msh6 in an ATP-bound state at the initiation of DNA repair. Biochemistry. 2003;42:7682-93 pubmed
    Mismatch repair proteins correct errors in DNA via an ATP-driven process. In eukaryotes, the Msh2-Msh6 complex recognizes base pair mismatches and small insertion/deletions in DNA and initiates repair...
  4. Spell R, Jinks Robertson S. Role of mismatch repair in the fidelity of RAD51- and RAD59-dependent recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2003;165:1733-44 pubmed
    ..The nonequivalence of the regulatory patterns in the wild-type and mutant strains suggests an overlap between the roles of the RAD51 and RAD59 gene products in potential cooperative recombination mechanisms used in wild-type cells. ..
  5. Lau P, Kolodner R. Transfer of the MSH2.MSH6 complex from proliferating cell nuclear antigen to mispaired bases in DNA. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14-7 pubmed
    ..Studies showing that PCNA interacts with mispair-binding protein complexes, MSH2.MSH3 and MSH2.MSH6, and that PCNA enhances MSH2.MSH6 mispair binding specificity suggest PCNA may be involved in mispair recognition...
  6. Flores Rozas H, Clark D, Kolodner R. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Msh2p-Msh6p interact to form an active mispair recognition complex. Nat Genet. 2000;26:375-8 pubmed
    ..An msh6 mutation that eliminated the PCNA-binding site caused a mutator phenotype and a defect in the interaction with PCNA...
  7. Tran H, Gordenin D, Resnick M. The 3'-->5' exonucleases of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and the 5'-->3' exonuclease Exo1 have major roles in postreplication mutation avoidance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2000-7 pubmed
    ..exonuclease, mutants defective in the 5'-->3' exonuclease Exo1, and mismatch repair mutants (msh2, msh3, or msh6). These three exonucleases play an important role in mutation avoidance...
  8. Clark A, Valle F, Drotschmann K, Gary R, Kunkel T. Functional interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with MSH2-MSH6 and MSH2-MSH3 complexes. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36498-501 pubmed
    ..including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and heterodimers of MSH2 complexed with either MSH3 or MSH6. Here we report that MSH3 and MSH6, but not MSH2, contain N-terminal sequence motifs characteristic of proteins ..
  9. Bowers J, Tran P, Joshi A, Liskay R, Alani E. MSH-MLH complexes formed at a DNA mismatch are disrupted by the PCNA sliding clamp. J Mol Biol. 2001;306:957-68 pubmed
    ..In in vitro experiments, the mismatch binding specificity of the MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer is eliminated if ATP is present...

More Information


  1. Hombauer H, Campbell C, Smith C, Desai A, Kolodner R. Visualization of eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair reveals distinct recognition and repair intermediates. Cell. 2011;147:1040-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mispairs are primarily detected by the Msh2-Msh6 complex and corrected following recruitment of the Mlh1-Pms1 complex...
  2. Sokolsky T, Alani E. EXO1 and MSH6 are high-copy suppressors of conditional mutations in the MSH2 mismatch repair gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2000;155:589-99 pubmed
    ..inviability of two mutants, msh2-L560S pol3-01 and msh2-L910P pol3-01, was suppressed by overexpression of EXO1 and MSH6, respectively...
  3. Flores Rozas H, Kolodner R. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MLH3 gene functions in MSH3-dependent suppression of frameshift mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:12404-9 pubmed
    ..Combination of mutations in MLH3 and MSH6 caused a synergistic increase in the hom3-10 reversion rate, whereas the hom3-10 reversion rate in an mlh3 msh3 ..
  4. Chen C, Merrill B, Lau P, Holm C, Kolodner R. Saccharomyces cerevisiae pol30 (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) mutations impair replication fidelity and mismatch repair. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7801-15 pubmed
    ..The mutation rates of group A mutants were enhanced by a msh2 or a msh6 mutation, indicating that MMR deficiency is not the only mutagenic defect present...
  5. Shell S, Putnam C, Kolodner R. Chimeric Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh6 protein with an Msh3 mispair-binding domain combines properties of both proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10956-61 pubmed
    Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-Msh6 are two partially redundant mispair-recognition complexes that initiate mismatch repair in eukaryotes...
  6. Lau P, Flores Rozas H, Kolodner R. Isolation and characterization of new proliferating cell nuclear antigen (POL30) mutator mutants that are defective in DNA mismatch repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6669-80 pubmed
    ..C81R) in the monomer-monomer interface region and resulted in a partial general MMR defect and a defect in MSH2-MSH6 binding in vitro...
  7. Bowers J, Tran P, Liskay R, Alani E. Analysis of yeast MSH2-MSH6 suggests that the initiation of mismatch repair can be separated into discrete steps. J Mol Biol. 2000;302:327-38 pubmed
    The yeast MSH2-MSH6 complex is required to repair both base-pair and single base insertion/deletion mismatches. MSH2-MSH6 binds to mismatch substrates and displays an ATPase activity that is modulated by mispairs that are repaired in vivo...
  8. Bowers J, Sokolsky T, Quach T, Alani E. A mutation in the MSH6 subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2-MSH6 complex disrupts mismatch recognition. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16115-25 pubmed
    In yeast, MSH2 interacts with MSH6 to repair base pair mismatches and single nucleotide insertion/deletion mismatches and with MSH3 to recognize small loop insertion/deletion mismatches...
  9. Romanova N, Crouse G. Different roles of eukaryotic MutS and MutL complexes in repair of small insertion and deletion loops in yeast. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003920 pubmed publisher
    ..MutS? is present in many eukaryotic organisms, but not in prokaryotes. We suggest that the biased repair of deletion mispairs may reflect a critical eukaryotic function of MutS? in mismatch repair. ..
  10. Johnson R, Kovvali G, Prakash L, Prakash S. Requirement of the yeast MSH3 and MSH6 genes for MSH2-dependent genomic stability. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7285-8 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the role of the yeast GTBP homolog, MSH6, in mismatch repair. We show that both MSH6 and MSH3 genes are essential for normal genomic stability...
  11. Alani E. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2 and Msh6 proteins form a complex that specifically binds to duplex oligonucleotides containing mismatched DNA base pairs. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5604-15 pubmed
    ..In this study, the S. cerevisiae 109-kDa Msh2 and 140-kDa Msh6 proteins were cooverexpressed in S...
  12. Barber L, Ward T, Hartley J, McHugh P. DNA interstrand cross-link repair in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle: overlapping roles for PSO2 (SNM1) with MutS factors and EXO1 during S phase. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:2297-309 pubmed
    ..These findings have led to considerable clarification of the complex genetic relationship between various ICL repair pathways. ..
  13. Lee S, Alani E. Analysis of interactions between mismatch repair initiation factors and the replication processivity factor PCNA. J Mol Biol. 2006;355:175-84 pubmed
    ..These studies have shown that PCNA interacts directly with several MMR components, including MSH3, MSH6, MLH1, and EXO1...
  14. Hargreaves V, Shell S, Mazur D, Hess M, Kolodner R. Interaction between the Msh2 and Msh6 nucleotide-binding sites in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 complex. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9301-10 pubmed publisher
    Indirect evidence has suggested that the Msh2-Msh6 mispair-binding complex undergoes conformational changes upon binding of ATP and mispairs, resulting in the formation of Msh2-Msh6 sliding clamps and licensing the formation of Msh2-Msh6-..
  15. Greene C, Jinks Robertson S. Frameshift intermediates in homopolymer runs are removed efficiently by yeast mismatch repair proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2844-50 pubmed
    ..strain and in strains defective for defined components of the postreplicative mismatch repair system (msh2, msh3, msh6, msh3 msh6, pms1, and mih1 mutants)...
  16. Mendillo M, Mazur D, Kolodner R. Analysis of the interaction between the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2-MSH6 and MLH1-PMS1 complexes with DNA using a reversible DNA end-blocking system. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22245-57 pubmed
    ..The MSH2-MSH6 complex bound to a mispaired base was found to be converted by ATP binding to a form that showed rapid sliding ..
  17. Jaszczur M, Flis K, Rudzka J, Kraszewska J, Budd M, Polaczek P, et al. Dpb2p, a noncatalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon, contributes to the fidelity of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008;178:633-47 pubmed publisher
    ..mutants defective in the 3' --> 5' proofreading exonuclease (pol2-4) or to mutants defective in mismatch repair (msh6)...
  18. Srivatsan A, Bowen N, Kolodner R. Mispair-specific recruitment of the Mlh1-Pms1 complex identifies repair substrates of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh3 complex. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:9352-64 pubmed publisher
    DNA mismatch repair is initiated by either the Msh2-Msh6 or the Msh2-Msh3 mispair recognition heterodimer...
  19. Amin N, Nguyen M, Oh S, Kolodner R. exo1-Dependent mutator mutations: model system for studying functional interactions in mismatch repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5142-55 pubmed
    ..with the weak pms1 allele pms1-A130V, pms1-dependent mutator mutations were identified in MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, and EXO1...
  20. Marsischky G, Kolodner R. Biochemical characterization of the interaction between the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2-MSH6 complex and mispaired bases in DNA. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26668-82 pubmed
    The interaction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2-MSH6 complex with mispaired bases was analyzed using gel mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance methods...
  21. Li L, Murphy K, Kanevets U, Reha Krantz L. Sensitivity to phosphonoacetic acid: a new phenotype to probe DNA polymerase delta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;170:569-80 pubmed
    ..core MMR proteins-Msh2, Mlh1, or Pms1-and severe sensitivity to PAA is observed in the absence of the core proteins Msh6 or Exo1, but not Msh3...
  22. Lee S, Surtees J, Alani E. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2-MSH3 and MSH2-MSH6 complexes display distinct requirements for DNA binding domain I in mismatch recognition. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:53-66 pubmed
    In eukaryotic mismatch repair (MMR) MSH2-MSH6 initiates the repair of base-base and small insertion/deletion mismatches while MSH2-MSH3 repairs larger insertion/deletion mismatches...
  23. Mazur D, Mendillo M, Kolodner R. Inhibition of Msh6 ATPase activity by mispaired DNA induces a Msh2(ATP)-Msh6(ATP) state capable of hydrolysis-independent movement along DNA. Mol Cell. 2006;22:39-49 pubmed
    The Msh2-Msh6 heterodimer plays a key role in the repair of mispaired bases in DNA. Critical to its role in mismatch repair is the ATPase activity that resides within each subunit...
  24. Drotschmann K, Yang W, Kunkel T. Evidence for sequential action of two ATPase active sites in yeast Msh2-Msh6. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:743-53 pubmed
    ..The homologous Msh2-Msh6 complex in eukaryotes also has intrinsic ATPase activity that is essential for mismatch repair...
  25. Pochart P, Woltering D, Hollingsworth N. Conserved properties between functionally distinct MutS homologs in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:30345-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that one level of functional specificity between the mismatch repair and meiotic crossover MutS homologs in yeast is provided by the ability to form distinct hetero-oligomers. ..
  26. Biro F, Zhai J, Doucette C, Hingorani M. Application of stopped-flow kinetics methods to investigate the mechanism of action of a DNA repair protein. J Vis Exp. 2010;: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report application of stopped-flow kinetics to probe the mechanism of action of Msh2-Msh6, a eukaryotic DNA repair protein that recognizes base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops in DNA and ..
  27. Aksenova A, Volkov K, Maceluch J, Pursell Z, Rogozin I, Kunkel T, et al. Mismatch repair-independent increase in spontaneous mutagenesis in yeast lacking non-essential subunits of DNA polymerase ?. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001209 pubmed publisher
  28. Lühr B, Scheller J, Meyer P, Kramer W. Analysis of in vivo correction of defined mismatches in the DNA mismatch repair mutants msh2, msh3 and msh6 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;257:362-7 pubmed
    We have analysed the correction of defined mismatches in wild-type and msh2, msh3, msh6 and msh3 msh6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two different yeast strain backgrounds by transformation with plasmid heteroduplex DNA constructs...
  29. Kumar C, Piacente S, Sibert J, Bukata A, O Connor J, Alani E, et al. Multiple factors insulate Msh2-Msh6 mismatch repair activity from defects in Msh2 domain I. J Mol Biol. 2011;411:765-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In initial steps in MMR, Msh2-Msh6 binds mispairs and small insertion/deletion loops, and Msh2-Msh3 binds larger insertion/deletion loops...
  30. Williams L, Herr A, Preston B. Emergence of DNA polymerase ? antimutators that escape error-induced extinction in yeast. Genetics. 2013;193:751-70 pubmed publisher
    ..we observed synthetic lethality of pol2-4 with alleles that completely abrogate MMR (msh2?, mlh1?, msh3? msh6?, or pms1? mlh3?) but not with partial MMR loss (msh3?, msh6?, pms1?, or mlh3?), indicating that high levels of ..
  31. Schmidt K, Derry K, Kolodner R. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RRM3, a 5' to 3' DNA helicase, physically interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45331-7 pubmed
    ..The results presented here suggest that the RRM3 helicase functions at the replication fork. ..
  32. Clark A, Lujan S, Kissling G, Kunkel T. Mismatch repair-independent tandem repeat sequence instability resulting from ribonucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerase ε. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..deletion rates resulting from loss of RNH201 in the pol2-M644G strain are unaffected by concomitant loss of MSH3, MSH6, or both...
  33. Marsischky G, Lee S, Griffith J, Kolodner R. 'Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2/6 complex interacts with Holliday junctions and facilitates their cleavage by phage resolution enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:7200-6 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with the view that the MSH2/6 complex can function in both mismatch repair and the resolution of recombination intermediates as predicted by genetic studies. ..
  34. Iaccarino I, Palombo F, Drummond J, Totty N, Hsuan J, Modrich P, et al. MSH6, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein that binds to mismatches as a heterodimer with MSH2. Curr Biol. 1996;6:484-6 pubmed
    ..We show here that, as in human cells, the S. cerevisiae binding factor is composed of MSH2 and a new functional MutS homologue, MSH6, identified by its homology to GTBP.
  35. Labazi M, Jaafar L, Flores Rozas H. Modulation of the DNA-binding activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2-MSH6 complex by the high-mobility group protein NHP6A, in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In eukaryotes, the mismatch repair complex MSH2-MSH6 binds to mispairs with only slightly higher affinity than to fully paired DNA in vitro...
  36. Gorman J, Chowdhury A, Surtees J, Shimada J, Reichman D, Alani E, et al. Dynamic basis for one-dimensional DNA scanning by the mismatch repair complex Msh2-Msh6. Mol Cell. 2007;28:359-70 pubmed
    ..used single-molecule optical microscopy to answer the following question: how does the mismatch repair complex Msh2-Msh6 interrogate undamaged DNA? Here we show that Msh2-Msh6 slides along DNA via one-dimensional diffusion...
  37. Shell S, Putnam C, Kolodner R. The N terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh6 is an unstructured tether to PCNA. Mol Cell. 2007;26:565-78 pubmed
    The eukaryotic MutS homolog complexes, Msh2-Msh6 and Msh2-Msh3, recognize mismatched bases in DNA during mismatch repair (MMR)...
  38. Wieland M, Levin M, Hingorani K, Biro F, Hingorani M. Mechanism of cadmium-mediated inhibition of Msh2-Msh6 function in DNA mismatch repair. Biochemistry. 2009;48:9492-502 pubmed publisher
    The observation that Cadmium (Cd(2+)) inhibits Msh2-Msh6, which is responsible for identifying base pair mismatches and other discrepancies in DNA, has led to the proposal that selective targeting of this protein and consequent ..
  39. Ni T, Marsischky G, Kolodner R. MSH2 and MSH6 are required for removal of adenine misincorporated opposite 8-oxo-guanine in S. cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 1999;4:439-44 pubmed
    ..In S. cerevisiae, mutations in MSH2 or MSH6 caused a synergistic increase in mutation rate in combination with mutations in OGG1, which encodes a MutM homolog, ..
  40. Grabowska E, Wronska U, Denkiewicz M, Jaszczur M, Respondek A, Alabrudzinska M, et al. Proper functioning of the GINS complex is important for the fidelity of DNA replication in yeast. Mol Microbiol. 2014;92:659-80 pubmed publisher
  41. Goellner E, Smith C, Campbell C, Hombauer H, Desai A, Putnam C, et al. PCNA and Msh2-Msh6 activate an Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease pathway required for Exo1-independent mismatch repair. Mol Cell. 2014;55:291-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple mutant PCNA proteins had defects either in trimerization and Msh2-Msh6 binding or in activation of the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease that initiates excision during MMR...
  42. Hess M, Mendillo M, Mazur D, Kolodner R. Biochemical basis for dominant mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH6 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:558-63 pubmed
    ..mispair-binding, sliding clamp formation, and Mlh1-Pms1 complex interaction properties of dominant mutant Msh2-Msh6 complexes have been characterized. The results demonstrate two mechanisms for dominance...
  43. Chakraborty U, George C, Lyndaker A, Alani E. A Delicate Balance Between Repair and Replication Factors Regulates Recombination Between Divergent DNA Sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2016;202:525-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, we showed that modest overexpression of Msh6 results in a significant increase in heteroduplex rejection; this increase is due to a compromise in Msh2-Msh3 ..
  44. Studamire B, Quach T, Alani E. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2p and Msh6p ATPase activities are both required during mismatch repair. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:7590-601 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data support a model whereby Msh6p uses its ATP binding or hydrolysis activity to coordinate mismatch binding with additional mismatch repair components. ..
  45. Brown M, Kim Y, Williams G, Huck J, Surtees J, Finkelstein I. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10607 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Msh2-Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks...
  46. Vasilyeva A, Clodfelter J, Rector B, Hollis T, Scarpinato K, Salsbury F. Small molecule induction of MSH2-dependent cell death suggests a vital role of mismatch repair proteins in cell death. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of a small molecule to induce the cell-death pathway suggests a broader role for MMR proteins in cellular events, such as cell-death pathways, than previously suspected. ..
  47. Antony E, Khubchandani S, Chen S, Hingorani M. Contribution of Msh2 and Msh6 subunits to the asymmetric ATPase and DNA mismatch binding activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 mismatch repair protein. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:153-62 pubmed
    Previous analyses of both Thermus aquaticus MutS homodimer and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 heterodimer have revealed that the subunits in these protein complexes bind and hydrolyze ATP asymmetrically, emulating their asymmetric DNA ..
  48. Holmes S, Scarpinato K, McCulloch S, Schaaper R, Kunkel T. Specialized mismatch repair function of Glu339 in the Phe-X-Glu motif of yeast Msh6. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:293-303 pubmed
    The major eukaryotic mismatch repair (MMR) pathway requires Msh2-Msh6, which, like Escherichia coli MutS, binds to and participates in repair of the two most common replication errors, single base-base and single base insertion-deletion ..
  49. Dieckman L, Boehm E, Hingorani M, Washington M. Distinct structural alterations in proliferating cell nuclear antigen block DNA mismatch repair. Biochemistry. 2013;52:5611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the structural integrity of the ?-helices lining the central hole and this loop are both necessary to form productive complexes with MutS? and mismatch-containing DNA. ..
  50. Herr A, Kennedy S, Knowels G, Schultz E, Preston B. DNA replication error-induced extinction of diploid yeast. Genetics. 2014;196:677-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Pronounced loss of fitness occurs at mutation rates well below the lethal threshold, suggesting that mutator-driven cancers may be susceptible to drugs that exacerbate replication errors. ..
  51. Hayes A, Sevi L, Feldt M, Rose M, Gammie A. Reciprocal regulation of nuclear import of the yeast MutSalpha DNA mismatch repair proteins Msh2 and Msh6. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:739-51 pubmed publisher
    DNA mismatch recognition is performed in eukaryotes by two heterodimers known as MutSalpha (Msh2/Msh6) and MutSbeta (Msh2/Msh3) that must reside in the nucleus to function...
  52. Zamir L, Zaretsky M, Fridman Y, Ner Gaon H, Rubin E, Aharoni A. Tight coevolution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-partner interaction networks in fungi leads to interspecies network incompatibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the coevolution of PPI networks can form functional barriers between fungal species, and thus can promote and fix speciation...
  53. Ward T, Dudasova Z, Sarkar S, Bhide M, Vlasáková D, Chovanec M, et al. Components of a Fanconi-like pathway control Pso2-independent DNA interstrand crosslink repair in yeast. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002884 pubmed publisher
    ..Mgm101, a protein previously implicated in mitochondrial DNA repair, and the MutS? mismatch repair factor (Msh2-Msh6)...
  54. Drotschmann K, Topping R, Clodfelter J, Salsbury F. Mutations in the nucleotide-binding domain of MutS homologs uncouple cell death from cell survival. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:729-42 pubmed
    ..of the cell, ATPase processing is mostly dispensable for the cell death phenotype; only limited processing by the MSH6 subunit is required in DNA damage response...
  55. Kramer B, Kramer W, Williamson M, Fogel S. Heteroduplex DNA correction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mismatch specific and requires functional PMS genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:4432-40 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae DNA mismatch repair mutants pms1 and pms2. Low-efficiency repair also characterized pms3 strains, except that correction of single-nucleotide loops occurred with an efficiency close to that of PMS wild-..
  56. Reha Krantz L, Siddique M, Murphy K, Tam A, O Carroll M, Lou S, et al. Drug-sensitive DNA polymerase ? reveals a role for mismatch repair in checkpoint activation in yeast. Genetics. 2011;189:1211-24 pubmed publisher
  57. Larkin K, Schweizer M. Development of a yeast-based assay system for monitoring microsatellite instability. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;176:205-12 pubmed
    ..The development of this technology will allow monitoring of environmental and dietary influences on the genomic stability in the context of human disease. ..
  58. Gammie A, Erdeniz N, Beaver J, Devlin B, Nanji A, Rose M. Functional characterization of pathogenic human MSH2 missense mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;177:707-21 pubmed
    ..This analysis underscores the importance of functional characterization of missense alleles to ensure that they are the causative factor for disease. ..
  59. Argueso J, Kijas A, Sarin S, Heck J, Waase M, Alani E. Systematic mutagenesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MLH1 gene reveals distinct roles for Mlh1p in meiotic crossing over and in vegetative and meiotic mismatch repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:873-86 pubmed
  60. Stone J, Petes T. Analysis of the proteins involved in the in vivo repair of base-base mismatches and four-base loops formed during meiotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2006;173:1223-39 pubmed
    ..We also found that the frequency and position of local double-strand DNA breaks affect the ratio of mismatch repair events that lead to gene conversion vs. restoration of Mendelian segregation. ..
  61. Mudrak S, Welz Voegele C, Jinks Robertson S. The polymerase eta translesion synthesis DNA polymerase acts independently of the mismatch repair system to limit mutagenesis caused by 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5316-26 pubmed publisher
    ..SUP4-o forward-mutation assay was used to monitor GC --> TA mutation rates in strains defective in MMR (Msh2 or Msh6) and/or in Poleta activity...
  62. de Padula M, Slezak G, Auffret van Der Kemp P, Boiteux S. The post-replication repair RAD18 and RAD6 genes are involved in the prevention of spontaneous mutations caused by 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5003-10 pubmed
    ..Our current model suggests that the Rad6-Rad18 complex targets Poleta at DNA gaps that result from the MMR-mediated excision of adenine mispaired with 8-oxoG, allowing error-free dCMP incorporation opposite to this lesion. ..
  63. Campbell C, Hombauer H, Srivatsan A, Bowen N, Gries K, Desai A, et al. Mlh2 is an accessory factor for DNA mismatch repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004327 pubmed publisher
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential mismatch repair (MMR) endonuclease Mlh1-Pms1 forms foci promoted by Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3 in response to mispaired bases...
  64. Kadyrova L, Dahal B, Kadyrov F. Evidence that the DNA mismatch repair system removes 1-nucleotide Okazaki fragment flaps. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:24051-65 pubmed publisher
    ..ATPase and endonuclease mutants of MutLα are defective in the flap removal. These results suggest that the MMR system contributes to the removal of 1-nucleotide Okazaki fragment flaps. ..
  65. Herr A, Ogawa M, Lawrence N, Williams L, Eggington J, Singh M, et al. Mutator suppression and escape from replication error-induced extinction in yeast. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002282 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal the transient nature of eukaryotic mutators and show that mutator phenotypes are readily suppressed by genetic adaptation. This has implications for the role of mutator phenotypes in cancer. ..
  66. Mertz T, Sharma S, Chabes A, Shcherbakova P. Colon cancer-associated mutator DNA polymerase δ variant causes expansion of dNTP pools increasing its own infidelity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E2467-76 pubmed publisher