MMS2

Summary

Gene Symbol: MMS2
Description: E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein MMS2
Alias: E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein MMS2
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     MMS2

Top Publications

  1. Broomfield S, Chow B, Xiao W. MMS2, encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-like protein, is a member of the yeast error-free postreplication repair pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5678-83 pubmed
    ..We cloned the MMS2 gene from a yeast genomic library by functional complementation of the mms2-1 mutant [Prakash, L. & Prakash, S...
  2. Hoege C, Pfander B, Moldovan G, Pyrowolakis G, Jentsch S. RAD6-dependent DNA repair is linked to modification of PCNA by ubiquitin and SUMO. Nature. 2002;419:135-41 pubmed
    ..Two principal elements of this pathway are the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes RAD6 and the MMS2-UBC13 heterodimer, which are recruited to chromatin by the RING-finger proteins RAD18 and RAD5, respectively...
  3. Huang D, Piening B, Paulovich A. The preference for error-free or error-prone postreplication repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to low-dose methyl methanesulfonate is cell cycle dependent. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1515-27 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when PRR is restricted to the G2 phase, cells utilize REV3-dependent translesion synthesis, which requires a MEC1-dependent delay and results in significant hypermutability. ..
  4. Xiao W, Chow B, Broomfield S, Hanna M. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD6 group is composed of an error-prone and two error-free postreplication repair pathways. Genetics. 2000;155:1633-41 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggest that MMS2 and UBC13 play a key role in coordinating the response of the error-free subpathways; Mms2 and Ubc13 form a complex ..
  5. Hofmann R, Pickart C. In vitro assembly and recognition of Lys-63 polyubiquitin chains. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:27936-43 pubmed
    ..We showed previously that the products of the UBC13 and MMS2 genes function in error-free post-replicative DNA repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and form a complex ..
  6. Hofmann R, Pickart C. Noncanonical MMS2-encoded ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme functions in assembly of novel polyubiquitin chains for DNA repair. Cell. 1999;96:645-53 pubmed
    ..The MMS2-encoded UEV protein has been genetically implicated in error-free postreplicative DNA repair in Saccharomyces ..
  7. Broomfield S, Xiao W. Suppression of genetic defects within the RAD6 pathway by srs2 is specific for error-free post-replication repair but not for damage-induced mutagenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:732-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our observations link error-free PRR to homologous recombination through the helicase activity of Srs2. ..
  8. McKenna S, Spyracopoulos L, Moraes T, Pastushok L, Ptak C, Xiao W, et al. Noncovalent interaction between ubiquitin and the human DNA repair protein Mms2 is required for Ubc13-mediated polyubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40120-6 pubmed
    ..The MMS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes one such ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant that is involved in the ..
  9. Ball L, Zhang K, Cobb J, Boone C, Xiao W. The yeast Shu complex couples error-free post-replication repair to homologous recombination. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism appears to be conserved throughout eukaryotes. ..

More Information

Publications66

  1. Ulrich H. The srs2 suppressor of UV sensitivity acts specifically on the RAD5- and MMS2-dependent branch of the RAD6 pathway. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:3487-94 pubmed
    ..A sub-branch within the RAD6 pathway is mediated by RAD5, UBC13 and MMS2, and a comprehensive analysis of the srs2 effect on other known members of the RAD6 pathway reported here now ..
  2. Torres Ramos C, Prakash S, Prakash L. Requirement of RAD5 and MMS2 for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2419-26 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the contributions of the REV3, RAD30, RAD5, and MMS2 genes, all of which belong to the RAD6 epistasis group, to the postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA...
  3. Gangavarapu V, Prakash S, Prakash L. Requirement of RAD52 group genes for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7758-64 pubmed
    ..by Rad6-Rad18-dependent processes that include translesion synthesis by DNA polymerases eta and zeta and a Rad5-Mms2-Ubc13-controlled postreplicational repair (PRR) pathway which repairs the discontinuities in the newly synthesized ..
  4. Chang M, Bellaoui M, Boone C, Brown G. A genome-wide screen for methyl methanesulfonate-sensitive mutants reveals genes required for S phase progression in the presence of DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16934-9 pubmed
    ..These genes may promote replication fork stability or processivity during encounters between replication forks and DNA damage. ..
  5. Karras G, Fumasoni M, Sienski G, Vanoli F, Branzei D, Jentsch S. Noncanonical role of the 9-1-1 clamp in the error-free DNA damage tolerance pathway. Mol Cell. 2013;49:536-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus reveal unexpected cooperation in the error-free pathway between the two related clamps and indicate that 9-1-1 plays a broader role in the DNA damage response than previously assumed. ..
  6. Barbour L, Ball L, Zhang K, Xiao W. DNA damage checkpoints are involved in postreplication repair. Genetics. 2006;174:1789-800 pubmed
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae MMS2 encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant, belongs to the error-free branch of the RAD6 postreplication repair (PRR) pathway, and is parallel to the REV3-mediated mutagenesis branch...
  7. Gangavarapu V, Haracska L, Unk I, Johnson R, Prakash S, Prakash L. Mms2-Ubc13-dependent and -independent roles of Rad5 ubiquitin ligase in postreplication repair and translesion DNA synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7783-90 pubmed
    ..repair (PRR) of discontinuities that form in the newly synthesized DNA opposite from DNA lesions, mediated by the Mms2-Ubc13 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and Rad5...
  8. Ulrich H, Jentsch S. Two RING finger proteins mediate cooperation between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in DNA repair. EMBO J. 2000;19:3388-97 pubmed
    Two ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, RAD6 and the heteromeric UBC13-MMS2 complex, have been implicated in post-replicative DNA damage repair in yeast. Here we provide a mechanistic basis for cooperation between the two enzymes...
  9. Xiao W, Chow B, Fontanie T, Ma L, Bacchetti S, Hryciw T, et al. Genetic interactions between error-prone and error-free postreplication repair pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat Res. 1999;435:1-11 pubmed
    ..The MMS2 gene is the only known yeast gene involved in error-free PRR that, when mutated, significantly increases the ..
  10. Carlile C, Pickart C, Matunis M, Cohen R. Synthesis of free and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-bound polyubiquitin chains by the RING E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad5. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..moiety of monoubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (monoUb-PCNA) by the E2-E3 complex of (Ubc13-Mms2)-Rad5. This promotes error-free bypass of DNA damage lesions...
  11. Parker J, Ulrich H. Mechanistic analysis of PCNA poly-ubiquitylation by the ubiquitin protein ligases Rad18 and Rad5. EMBO J. 2009;28:3657-66 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism of poly-ubiquitylation of the replication clamp PCNA by two cooperating E2-E3 pairs, Rad6-Rad18 and Ubc13-Mms2-Rad5...
  12. Branzei D, Seki M, Onoda F, Enomoto T. The product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae WHIP/MGS1, a gene related to replication factor C genes, interacts functionally with DNA polymerase delta. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;268:371-86 pubmed
    ..Possible roles of Mgs1, DNA polymerase delta, Rad18 and Mms2 in replication and replication fork restart are discussed.
  13. Ulrich H. Protein-protein interactions within an E2-RING finger complex. Implications for ubiquitin-dependent DNA damage repair. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7051-8 pubmed
    The RING finger protein RAD5 interacts and cooperates with the UBC13-MMS2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in postreplication DNA damage repair in yeast...
  14. Choi K, Szakal B, Chen Y, Branzei D, Zhao X. The Smc5/6 complex and Esc2 influence multiple replication-associated recombination processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that three of these factors, Mph1, Mms2, and the Shu complex, can act independently to promote the formation of recombination intermediates during impaired ..
  15. Karras G, Jentsch S. The RAD6 DNA damage tolerance pathway operates uncoupled from the replication fork and is functional beyond S phase. Cell. 2010;141:255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that the RAD6 pathway acts on single-stranded gaps left behind newly restarted replication forks. ..
  16. Eddins M, Carlile C, Gomez K, Pickart C, Wolberger C. Mms2-Ubc13 covalently bound to ubiquitin reveals the structural basis of linkage-specific polyubiquitin chain formation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:915-20 pubmed
    ..We have determined the crystal structure of an Mms2-Ubc13-ubiquitin (UEV-E2-Ub) covalent intermediate with donor ubiquitin linked to the active site residue of Ubc13...
  17. Sharma N, Kochenova O, Shcherbakova P. The non-canonical protein binding site at the monomer-monomer interface of yeast proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) regulates the Rev1-PCNA interaction and Pol?/Rev1-dependent translesion DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The new mode of Rev1-PCNA binding described here suggests a mechanism by which Rev1 adopts a catalytically inactive configuration at the replication fork. ..
  18. Minesinger B, Jinks Robertson S. Roles of RAD6 epistasis group members in spontaneous polzeta-dependent translesion synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;169:1939-55 pubmed
    ..A third error-free pathway relies on the presence of Mms2, but may not require PCNA.
  19. Branzei D, Seki M, Enomoto T. Rad18/Rad5/Mms2-mediated polyubiquitination of PCNA is implicated in replication completion during replication stress. Genes Cells. 2004;9:1031-42 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that the Rad18/Rad5/Mms2 polyubiquitination pathway is important for replication completion, perhaps by promoting a template switch type of ..
  20. VanDemark A, Hofmann R, Tsui C, Pickart C, Wolberger C. Molecular insights into polyubiquitin chain assembly: crystal structure of the Mms2/Ubc13 heterodimer. Cell. 2001;105:711-20 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure of the Mms2/Ubc13 heterodimer shows the active site of Ubc13 at the intersection of two channels that are potential binding ..
  21. Xu X, Ball L, Chen W, Tian X, Lambrecht A, Hanna M, et al. The yeast Shu complex utilizes homologous recombination machinery for error-free lesion bypass via physical interaction with a Rad51 paralogue. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81371 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals the detailed steps of error-free lesion bypass and also brings to light an intrinsic interplay between error-free DDT and Srs2-mediated inhibition of HR. ..
  22. Vijeh Motlagh N, Seki M, Branzei D, Enomoto T. Mgs1 and Rad18/Rad5/Mms2 are required for survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with novel temperature/cold sensitive alleles of the DNA polymerase delta subunit, Pol31. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:1459-74 pubmed
    ..Deletion of RAD5 or MMS2 had an effect on pol31 ts/cs mutants similar to that of RAD18, whereas deletion of RAD30 or REV3 had no effect...
  23. Collura A, Kemp P, Boiteux S. Abasic sites linked to dUTP incorporation in DNA are a major cause of spontaneous mutations in absence of base excision repair and Rad17-Mec3-Ddc1 (9-1-1) DNA damage checkpoint clamp in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:294-303 pubmed publisher
  24. Gritenaite D, Princz L, Szakal B, Bantele S, Wendeler L, Schilbach S, et al. A cell cycle-regulated Slx4-Dpb11 complex promotes the resolution of DNA repair intermediates linked to stalled replication. Genes Dev. 2014;28:1604-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Dpb11-Slx4 integrates several cellular inputs and participates in the temporal program for activation of the JM-resolving nuclease Mus81. ..
  25. Wen R, Newton L, Li G, Wang H, Xiao W. Arabidopsis thaliana UBC13: implication of error-free DNA damage tolerance and Lys63-linked polyubiquitylation in plants. Plant Mol Biol. 2006;61:241-53 pubmed
    ..catalyzing the Lys63-linked polyubiquitylation reaction and this function requires interaction with the Ubc variant Mms2. No information is available on either Lys63-linked ubiquitylation or error-free damage tolerance in plants...
  26. Choi K, Batke S, Szakal B, Lowther J, Hao F, Sarangi P, et al. Concerted and differential actions of two enzymatic domains underlie Rad5 contributions to DNA damage tolerance. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:2666-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings delineate how two Rad5 enzymatic domains concertedly influence PCNA modification, and unveil their discrete contributions to stress tolerance. ..
  27. Halas A, Podlaska A, Derkacz J, McIntyre J, Skoneczna A, Sledziewska Gojska E. The roles of PCNA SUMOylation, Mms2-Ubc13 and Rad5 in translesion DNA synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2011;80:786-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Mms2, in concert with Ubc13 and Rad5, is responsible for polyubiquitination of replication processivity factor PCNA. This modification activates recombination-like DNA damage-avoidance mechanisms, which function in an error-free manner...
  28. Kim E, Siede W. The available SRL3 deletion strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a truncation of DNA damage tolerance protein Mms2: Implications for Srl3 and Mms2 functions. Internet J Microbiol. 2009;8:8 pubmed
    ..The mutation was identified as a C-terminal truncation of Mms2, an E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme involved in error-free replicative bypass of lesions...
  29. Lyndaker A, Goldfarb T, Alani E. Mutants defective in Rad1-Rad10-Slx4 exhibit a unique pattern of viability during mating-type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008;179:1807-21 pubmed publisher
  30. Erlich R, Fry R, Begley T, Daee D, Lahue R, Samson L. Anc1, a protein associated with multiple transcription complexes, is involved in postreplication repair pathway in S. cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3717 pubmed publisher
    ..Anc1's role in the PRR pathway, as well as its role in suppressing triplet repeats, point to a possible mechanism for a protein of potential medical interest. ..
  31. Godin S, Zhang Z, Herken B, Westmoreland J, Lee A, Mihalevic M, et al. The Shu complex promotes error-free tolerance of alkylation-induced base excision repair products. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:8199-215 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our work demonstrates that the Shu complex's promotion of Rad51 pre-synaptic filaments is critical for high-fidelity bypass of multiple replication-blocking lesion. ..
  32. Xu X, Lin A, Zhou C, Blackwell S, Zhang Y, Wang Z, et al. Involvement of budding yeast Rad5 in translesion DNA synthesis through physical interaction with Rev1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:5231-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that Rad5 plays a critical role in pathway choice between TLS and error-free DDT. ..
  33. Gonzalez Huici V, Szakal B, Urulangodi M, Psakhye I, Castellucci F, Menolfi D, et al. DNA bending facilitates the error-free DNA damage tolerance pathway and upholds genome integrity. EMBO J. 2014;33:327-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results suggest that replication-associated topological changes involving the molecular DNA bender, Hmo1, set the stage for dedicated repair reactions that limit errors during replication and impact on genome stability. ..
  34. Menolfi D, Delamarre A, Lengronne A, Pasero P, Branzei D. Essential Roles of the Smc5/6 Complex in Replication through Natural Pausing Sites and Endogenous DNA Damage Tolerance. Mol Cell. 2015;60:835-46 pubmed publisher
  35. Mural R, Liu Y, Rosebrock T, Brady J, Hamera S, Connor R, et al. The tomato Fni3 lysine-63-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and suv ubiquitin E2 variant positively regulate plant immunity. Plant Cell. 2013;25:3615-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Fni3/Sl-Ubc13-2 and Suv regulate the immune response mediated by Fen and other R proteins through Lys-63-linked ubiquitination. ..
  36. Daraba A, Gali V, Halmai M, Haracska L, Unk I. Def1 promotes the degradation of Pol3 for polymerase exchange to occur during DNA-damage--induced mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001771 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that TLS polymerases carry out DNA lesion bypass only after the Def1-assisted removal of Pol3 from the stalled replication fork...
  37. Johnson R, Yu S, Prakash S, Prakash L. A role for yeast and human translesion synthesis DNA polymerases in promoting replication through 3-methyl adenine. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7198-205 pubmed
    ..action of three Rad6-Rad18-dependent pathways that include translesion synthesis (TLS) by Pol(eta) or -zeta and an Mms2-Ubc13-Rad5-dependent pathway which presumably operates via template switching...
  38. Renaud Young M, Lloyd D, Chatfield Reed K, George I, Chua G, Cobb J. The NuA4 complex promotes translesion synthesis (TLS)-mediated DNA damage tolerance. Genetics. 2015;199:1065-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, disruption of HTZ1, which is a target of NuA4, also resulted in mutagenic rates of reversion on level with esa1-L254P and yng2Δ mutants, indicating that the histone variant H2A.Z functions in vivo on the TLS branch of DDT. ..
  39. Ball L, Hanna M, Lambrecht A, Mitchell B, Ziola B, Cobb J, et al. The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex is required for yeast DNA postreplication repair. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109292 pubmed publisher
  40. Gallego Sánchez A, Ufano S, Andrés S, Bueno A. Analysis of the tolerance to DNA alkylating damage in MEC1 and RAD53 checkpoint mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81108 pubmed publisher
  41. McIntyre J, Baranowska H, Skoneczna A, Halas A, Sledziewska Gojska E. The spectrum of spontaneous mutations caused by deficiency in proteasome maturase Ump1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2007;52:221-8 pubmed
    ..The same similarity has previously been reported for yeast deficient in Mms2, a protein involved in Rad6-dependent postreplication DNA repair (PRR)...
  42. Yin Y, Petes T. Recombination between homologous chromosomes induced by unrepaired UV-generated DNA damage requires Mus81p and is suppressed by Mms2p. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005026 pubmed publisher
    ..The error-free post-replication repair pathway mediated by Mms2p suppresses dimer-induced recombination between homologs, possibly by channeling replication-blocking lesions into recombination between sister chromatids. ..
  43. Pastushok L, Spyracopoulos L, Xiao W. Two Mms2 residues cooperatively interact with ubiquitin and are critical for Lys63 polyubiquitination in vitro and in vivo. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5343-8 pubmed
    Recent structural analyses support a model whereby Mms2 interacts with and orientates Ub to promote Ubc13-mediated Lys63 chain formation. However, residues of the hMms2-Ub interface have not been addressed...
  44. Chernenkov A, Gracheva L, Evstiukhina T, Koval tsova S, Peshekhonov V, Fedorova I, et al. [Interaction of gene HSM3 with genes of the epistatic RAD6 group in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Genetika. 2012;48:160-7 pubmed
    ..Mutations rad18, rev3, and mms2 controlling various stages of the RAD6 pathway are epistatic with mutation hsm3 that decreases UV-induced ..
  45. Huang M, Rio A, Galibert M, Galibert F. Pol32, a subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase delta, suppresses genomic deletions and is involved in the mutagenic bypass pathway. Genetics. 2002;160:1409-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations indicate that Pol32 is important in ensuring genome stability and in mutagenesis. ..
  46. Loring G, Christensen K, Gerber S, Brenner C. Yeast Chfr homologs retard cell cycle at G1 and G2/M via Ubc4 and Ubc13/Mms2-dependent ubiquitination. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:96-105 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Ubc13/Mms2 is required for G(2) delay and does not contribute to Chf protein turnover...
  47. Lazzaro F, Novarina D, Amara F, Watt D, Stone J, Costanzo V, et al. RNase H and postreplication repair protect cells from ribonucleotides incorporated in DNA. Mol Cell. 2012;45:99-110 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that postreplication repair (PRR) pathways-MMS2-dependent template switch and Pol ?-dependent bypass-are crucial for tolerating the presence of rNMPs in the ..
  48. Northam M, Moore E, Mertz T, Binz S, Stith C, Stepchenkova E, et al. DNA polymerases ? and Rev1 mediate error-prone bypass of non-B DNA structures. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:290-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The results emphasize the pivotal role of noncanonical DNA structures in mutagenesis and reveal the long-sought-after mechanism of complex mutations that represent a unique signature of Pol ?...
  49. Bi X, Yu Q, Siler J, Li C, Khan A. Functions of Fun30 chromatin remodeler in regulating cellular resistance to genotoxic stress. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121341 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, we show that Fun30 deletion suppresses the MMS- and HU-sensitivity of cells lacking the Rad5/Mms2/Ubc13-dependent error-free DNA damage tolerance mechanism...
  50. Lehner K, Jinks Robertson S. Shared genetic pathways contribute to the tolerance of endogenous and low-dose exogenous DNA damage in yeast. Genetics. 2014;198:519-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications when considering what constitutes a safe and acceptable level of exogenous DNA damage. ..
  51. Das Bradoo S, Nguyen H, Wood J, Ricke R, Haworth J, Bielinsky A. Defects in DNA ligase I trigger PCNA ubiquitylation at Lys 107. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:74-9; sup pp 1-20 pubmed publisher
    ..4) nor the ubiquitin ligase (E3) Rad18 (ref. 5), but requires the E2 variant Mms2 (ref. 6) in conjunction with Ubc4 (ref. 7) and the E3 Rad5 (Refs 8, 9). Surprisingly, DNA ligase I-deficient S...
  52. O Neill B, Hanway D, Winzeler E, Romesberg F. Coordinated functions of WSS1, PSY2 and TOF1 in the DNA damage response. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:6519-30 pubmed
    ..Tof1 is known to be involved in stabilizing stalled replication forks and our data suggest that Wss1 and Psy2 similarly function to stabilize or process stalled or collapsed replication forks. ..
  53. Tsui C, Raguraj A, Pickart C. Ubiquitin binding site of the ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) protein Mms2 is required for DNA damage tolerance in the yeast RAD6 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19829-35 pubmed
    ..Chain formation is catalyzed by the Mms2/Ubc13 conjugating enzyme variant/conjugating enzyme (UEV.E2) complex together with the Rad5 ubiquitin ligase...
  54. Santa Maria S, Gangavarapu V, Johnson R, Prakash L, Prakash S. Requirement of Nse1, a subunit of the Smc5-Smc6 complex, for Rad52-dependent postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8409-18 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, postreplication repair (PRR) of UV-damaged DNA occurs by a Rad6-Rad18- and an Mms2-Ubc13-Rad5-dependent pathway or by a Rad52-dependent pathway...
  55. Scheller J, Schürer A, Rudolph C, Hettwer S, Kramer W. MPH1, a yeast gene encoding a DEAH protein, plays a role in protection of the genome from spontaneous and chemically induced damage. Genetics. 2000;155:1069-81 pubmed
    ..were carried out with representative mutants from various repair pathways (msh6, mag1, apn1, rad14, rad52, rad6, mms2, and rev3)...
  56. Wen R, Torres Acosta J, Pastushok L, Lai X, Pelzer L, Wang H, et al. Arabidopsis UEV1D promotes Lysine-63-linked polyubiquitination and is involved in DNA damage response. Plant Cell. 2008;20:213-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and the Ubc enzyme variant (Uev) methyl methanesulfonate2 (Mms2) are required for this process...
  57. Li J, Wen R, Andersen P, Liang Y, Li Q, Xiao W, et al. Zebrafish Ubc13 is required for Lys63-linked polyubiquitination and DNA damage tolerance. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;343:173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..target proteins via Lys63-linked chains, and this activity absolutely requires a Ubc variant (Uev or Mms2) as a co-factor...