Gene Symbol: MID2
Description: Mid2p
Alias: KAI1, Mid2p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     MID2

Top Publications

  1. Straede A, Heinisch J. Functional analyses of the extra- and intracellular domains of the yeast cell wall integrity sensors Mid2 and Wsc1. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:4495-500 pubmed
    ..Chimers of the major plasma membrane sensors Wsc1 and Mid2 fused to GFP have been employed to show that intracellular and membrane distribution is only dependent on a ..
  2. Ketela T, Green R, Bussey H. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mid2p is a potential cell wall stress sensor and upstream activator of the PKC1-MPK1 cell integrity pathway. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3330-40 pubmed
    ..b>Mid2p and Wsc1p appear to have overlapping roles in maintaining cell integrity since mid2Delta wsc1Delta mutants are ..
  3. Reider A, Barker S, Mishra S, Im Y, Maldonado Baez L, Hurley J, et al. Syp1 is a conserved endocytic adaptor that contains domains involved in cargo selection and membrane tubulation. EMBO J. 2009;28:3103-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The transmembrane protein Mid2, earlier implicated in polarized Rho1 signalling, was identified as a cargo of the yeast adaptor protein...
  4. Philip B, Levin D. Wsc1 and Mid2 are cell surface sensors for cell wall integrity signaling that act through Rom2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho1. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:271-80 pubmed
    Wsc1 and Mid2 are highly O-glycosylated cell surface proteins that reside in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  5. Rajavel M, Philip B, Buehrer B, Errede B, Levin D. Mid2 is a putative sensor for cell integrity signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3969-76 pubmed
    ..We isolated the MID2 gene as a dosage suppressor of the cell lysis defect of an hcs77 null mutant...
  6. Hutzler F, Gerstl R, Lommel M, Strahl S. Protein N-glycosylation determines functionality of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall integrity sensor Mid2p. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1438-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane protein Mid2p is a putative mechanosensor that responds to cell wall stresses and morphological changes during pheromone ..
  7. Scrimale T, Didone L, de Mesy Bentley K, Krysan D. The unfolded protein response is induced by the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and is required for cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the cellular responses to ER and cell wall stress are coordinated to buffer the cell against these two related cellular stresses. ..
  8. Green R, Lesage G, Sdicu A, Menard P, Bussey H. A synthetic analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress sensor Mid2p, and identification of a Mid2p-interacting protein, Zeo1p, that modulates the PKC1-MPK1 cell integrity pathway. Microbiology. 2003;149:2487-99 pubmed
    b>Mid2p is a plasma membrane protein that functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a sensor of cell wall stress, activating the PKC1-MPK1 cell integrity pathway via the small GTPase Rho1p during exposure to mating pheromone, calcofluor ..
  9. Sekiya Kawasaki M, Abe M, Saka A, Watanabe D, Kono K, Minemura Asakawa M, et al. Dissection of upstream regulatory components of the Rho1p effector, 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2002;162:663-76 pubmed
    ..We have also found that MID2 acts positively on Pkc1p without affecting 1,3-beta-glucan synthesis...

More Information


  1. Manning B, Padmanabha R, Snyder M. The Rho-GEF Rom2p localizes to sites of polarized cell growth and participates in cytoskeletal functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1829-44 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, rom2 delta strains exhibit increased sensitivity to the microtubule depolymerizing drug benomyl. These results suggest a role for Rom2p in both polarized morphogenesis and functions of the microtubule cytoskeleton. ..
  2. Manjithaya R, Jain S, Farre J, Subramani S. A yeast MAPK cascade regulates pexophagy but not other autophagy pathways. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that pexophagy requires the simultaneous activation of this MAPK pathway and a hexose-sensing mechanism acting through protein kinase A and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. ..
  3. Audhya A, Emr S. Stt4 PI 4-kinase localizes to the plasma membrane and functions in the Pkc1-mediated MAP kinase cascade. Dev Cell. 2002;2:593-605 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that Stt4-Mss4 generates PI4,5P(2) at the plasma membrane, required to recruit/activate effector proteins such as Rom2. ..
  4. Chai B, Hsu J, Du J, Laurent B. Yeast RSC function is required for organization of the cellular cytoskeleton via an alternative PKC1 pathway. Genetics. 2002;161:575-84 pubmed
    ..Slg1p and Mid2p, two type I transmembrane stress sensors of cell wall integrity that function upstream of protein kinase C (Pkc1p),..
  5. de Bettignies G, Thoraval D, Morel C, Peypouquet M, Crouzet M. Overactivation of the protein kinase C-signaling pathway suppresses the defects of cells lacking the Rho3/Rho4-GAP Rgd1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;159:1435-48 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have revealed genetic interactions between RGD1 and the SLG1 and MID2 genes, encoding two putative sensors for cell integrity signaling, and VRP1 encoding an actin and myosin ..
  6. Ragni E, Piberger H, Neupert C, García Cantalejo J, Popolo L, Arroyo J, et al. The genetic interaction network of CCW12, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for cell wall integrity during budding and formation of mating projections. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:107 pubmed publisher
    ..The microarray data produced in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database and GSE22649 record was assigned. ..
  7. Vay H, Philip B, Levin D. Mutational analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of the Wsc1 cell wall stress sensor. Microbiology. 2004;150:3281-8 pubmed
    ..Mutational analysis of these residues supports a model in which Wsc1 interaction with Rom2 is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. ..
  8. Köck C, Arlt H, Ungermann C, Heinisch J. Yeast cell wall integrity sensors form specific plasma membrane microdomains important for signalling. Cell Microbiol. 2016;18:1251-67 pubmed publisher
    ..yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on the detection of cell surface stress by five sensors (Wsc1, Wsc2, Wsc3, Mid2, Mtl1)...
  9. Wright C, Fewell S, Sullivan M, Pipas J, Watkins S, Brodsky J. The Hsp40 molecular chaperone Ydj1p, along with the protein kinase C pathway, affects cell-wall integrity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;175:1649-64 pubmed
    ..ydj1delta yeast exhibit phenotypes consistent with cell-wall defects and that these phenotypes were improved by Mid2p or Pkc1p overexpression or by overexpression of activated downstream components in the PKC pathway...
  10. Stirling D, Stark M. Mutations in SPC110, encoding the yeast spindle pole body calmodulin-binding protein, cause defects in cell integrity as well as spindle formation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1499:85-100 pubmed
    ..reverse the primary spindle defect, or indirectly through increased extracellular osmolarity or high dosage of MID2 or SLG1/HCS77/WSC1 which preserve viability...
  11. Gualtieri T, Ragni E, Mizzi L, Fascio U, Popolo L. The cell wall sensor Wsc1p is involved in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in response to hypo-osmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2004;21:1107-20 pubmed
    ..We examined the actin cytoskeleton and the role of the cell wall sensors Wsc1p and Mid2p in these stress conditions...
  12. Imazu H, Sakurai H. Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor regulates cell wall remodeling in response to heat shock. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1050-6 pubmed
    ..Another class of suppressors encoded cell wall stress sensors, Wsc1, Wsc2, and Mid2, and the GDP/GTP exchange factor Rom2 that interacts with these cell wall sensors...
  13. Liu M, Huang C, Polu S, Schneiter R, Chang A. Regulation of sphingolipid synthesis through Orm1 and Orm2 in yeast. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2428-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sphingolipid synthesis and the UPR are coordinately regulated. ..
  14. Wang S, Xu B, Liou L, Ren Q, Huang S, Luo Y, et al. ?-Synuclein disrupts stress signaling by inhibiting polo-like kinase Cdc5/Plk2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The nine N-terminal amino acids of aSyn are essential for the interaction with polo-like kinases. The results support a unique mechanism of PD pathology. ..
  15. Rodicio R, Buchwald U, Schmitz H, Heinisch J. Dissecting sensor functions in cell wall integrity signaling in Kluyveromyces lactis. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008;45:422-35 pubmed
    ..In contrast to ScMID2, ScWSC1 complements in K. lactis. Functional studies with chimeric Mid2 constructs indicate that species specificity is mainly conferred by the extracellular domain...
  16. Surma M, Klose C, Klemm R, Ejsing C, Simons K. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast. Traffic. 2011;12:1139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma membrane (PM) proteins: Pma1p, Mid2p and Gap1*p as baits...
  17. Marcoux N, Bourbonnais Y, Charest P, Pallotta D. Overexpression of MID2 suppresses the profilin-deficient phenotype of yeast cells. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:515-26 pubmed
    ..A high-copy-number plasmid containing MID2, which encodes a potential transmembrane protein involved in cell cycle control, suppresses the abnormal growth, ..
  18. Lottersberger F, Panza A, Lucchini G, Piatti S, Longhese M. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins are required for the G1/S transition, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell wall integrity. Genetics. 2006;173:661-75 pubmed
    ..Both the protein kinase C1 (Pkc1) and its upstream regulators Wsc2 and Mid2 were found to act as high dosage suppressors of bmh mutants' temperature sensitivity, indicating a functional ..
  19. Merchan S, Bernal D, Serrano R, Yenush L. Response of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway to increases in internal turgor pressure caused by loss of Ppz protein phosphatases. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:100-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we present genetic evidence showing that both the Wsc1 and Mid2 branches of the Mpk1 pathway contribute to this response...
  20. Birkaya B, Maddi A, Joshi J, Free S, Cullen P. Role of the cell wall integrity and filamentous growth mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in cell wall remodeling during filamentous growth. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:1118-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Components of the cell wall integrity pathway including the cell surface proteins Slg1p/Wsc1p, Wsc2p, Mid2p, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Slt2p/Mpk1p contributed to multiple aspects of the FG response ..
  21. Lommel M, Bagnat M, Strahl S. Aberrant processing of the WSC family and Mid2p cell surface sensors results in cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae O-mannosylation mutants. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:46-57 pubmed
    ..Detailed analyses of the plasma membrane sensors of the PKC1 pathway revealed that Wsc1p, Wsc2p, and Mid2p are aberrantly processed in pmt mutants...
  22. Kosodo Y, Imai K, Hirata A, Noda Y, Takatsuki A, Adachi H, et al. Multicopy suppressors of the sly1 temperature-sensitive mutation in the ER-Golgi vesicular transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2001;18:1003-14 pubmed
    ..multifunctional suppressor, SSD1; (2) heat shock proteins, SSB1 and SSB2; (3) cell surface proteins, WSC1, WSC2 and MID2; (4) ER-Golgi transport proteins, USO1 and BET1; and (5) an as-yet-uncharacterized protein, HSD1 (high-copy ..
  23. Marcoux N, Cloutier S, Zakrzewska E, Charest P, Bourbonnais Y, Pallotta D. Suppression of the profilin-deficient phenotype by the RHO2 signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2000;156:579-92 pubmed
    ..We had previously shown that Mid2p, a transmembrane protein and a potential cell wall sensor, is an effective multicopy suppressor of the profilin-..
  24. Ahmadpour D, Maciaszczyk Dziubinska E, Babazadeh R, Dahal S, Migocka M, Andersson M, et al. The mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2 modulates arsenite transport through the aquaglyceroporin Fps1. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:3649-3659 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that Hog1 and Slt2 may affect each other's binding to Fps1, thereby controlling the opening and closing of the channel. ..
  25. Zanelli C, Valentini S. Pkc1 acts through Zds1 and Gic1 to suppress growth and cell polarity defects of a yeast eIF5A mutant. Genetics. 2005;171:1571-81 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data strongly support the correlated involvement of Pkc1 and eIF5A in establishing actin polarity, which is essential for bud formation and G1/S transition in S. cerevisiae. ..
  26. Claret S, Gatti X, Doignon F, Thoraval D, Crouzet M. The Rgd1p Rho GTPase-activating protein and the Mid2p cell wall sensor are required at low pH for protein kinase C pathway activation and cell survival in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1375-86 pubmed
    ..is activated during acidification of the extracellular environment, and this activation depends mainly on the Mid2p cell wall sensor...
  27. Andrews P, Stark M. Type 1 protein phosphatase is required for maintenance of cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 3):507-20 pubmed
    ..extra copies of genes encoding upstream components of the Pkc1p pathway such as ROM2, RHO2, HCS77/WSC1/SLG1 and MID2 also suppressed glc7-10 effectively...
  28. Jin C, Parshin A, Daly I, Strich R, Cooper K. The cell wall sensors Mtl1, Wsc1, and Mid2 are required for stress-induced nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of cyclin C and programmed cell death in yeast. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:320823 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrates that under low oxidative stress conditions, a combination of membrane sensors, Mtl1 and either Wsc1 or Mid2, are required jointly to transmit the oxidative stress signal to initiate cyclin C destruction...
  29. Chapa y Lazo B, Allwood E, Smaczynska de Rooij I, Snape M, Ayscough K. Yeast endocytic adaptor AP-2 binds the stress sensor Mid2 and functions in polarized cell responses. Traffic. 2014;15:546-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In an apm4 null mutant, the cell wall stress sensor Mid2 is unable to relocalize to the tip of a mating projection following pheromone addition, or to the mother bud neck ..
  30. de Bettignies G, Barthe C, Morel C, Peypouquet M, Doignon F, Crouzet M. RGD1 genetically interacts with MID2 and SLG1, encoding two putative sensors for cell integrity signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1999;15:1719-31 pubmed
    ..Study of one lethal mutant made it possible to identify the SLG1 and MID2 genes...