Gene Symbol: KSS1
Description: mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase KSS1
Alias: mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase KSS1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     KSS1

Top Publications

  1. Bardwell A, Flatauer L, Matsukuma K, Thorner J, Bardwell L. A conserved docking site in MEKs mediates high-affinity binding to MAP kinases and cooperates with a scaffold protein to enhance signal transmission. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10374-86 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated previously that the yeast MAPKs Kss1 and Fus3 bind with high affinity to the N terminus of the MEK Ste7, and proposed that a conserved motif in Ste7, ..
  2. Sabbagh W, Flatauer L, Bardwell A, Bardwell L. Specificity of MAP kinase signaling in yeast differentiation involves transient versus sustained MAPK activation. Mol Cell. 2001;8:683-91 pubmed
    ..Specificity has been thought to result from specialized roles for the two MAP kinases, Kss1 and Fus3, and because Fus3 prevents Kss1 from gaining access to the mating pathway...
  3. Lee B, Elion E. The MAPKKK Ste11 regulates vegetative growth through a kinase cascade of shared signaling components. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:12679-84 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, we found that Ste11, together with Ste20, Ste7, Ste12, and the IG MAPK Kss1, functions in a third pathway that promotes vegetative growth and is essential in an och1 mutant that does not ..
  4. Kusari A, Molina D, Sabbagh W, Lau C, Bardwell L. A conserved protein interaction network involving the yeast MAP kinases Fus3 and Kss1. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:267-77 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) Fus3 and Kss1 bind to multiple regulators and substrates...
  5. Andersson J, Simpson D, Qi M, Wang Y, Elion E. Differential input by Ste5 scaffold and Msg5 phosphatase route a MAPK cascade to multiple outcomes. EMBO J. 2004;23:2564-76 pubmed
    ..In yeast, it is not known how the same MAPK cascade activates Kss1 MAPK to promote invasive growth (IG) and proliferation, and both Fus3 and Kss1 MAPKs to promote mating...
  6. Bardwell L, Cook J, Chang E, Cairns B, Thorner J. Signaling in the yeast pheromone response pathway: specific and high-affinity interaction of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Kss1 and Fus3 with the upstream MAP kinase kinase Ste7. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3637-50 pubmed
    b>Kss1 and Fus3 are mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs or ERKs), and Ste7 is their activating MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), in the pheromone response pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  7. Tedford K, Kim S, Sa D, Stevens K, Tyers M. Regulation of the mating pheromone and invasive growth responses in yeast by two MAP kinase substrates. Curr Biol. 1997;7:228-38 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae by directly inhibiting Ste12. Activation of Fus3 or Kss1 may cause phosphorylation-dependent release of Ste12 from Rst1/Rst2 and thereby activate Ste12-dependent ..
  8. Marin M, Flandez M, Bermejo C, Arroyo J, Martín H, Molina M. Different modulation of the outputs of yeast MAPK-mediated pathways by distinct stimuli and isoforms of the dual-specificity phosphatase Msg5. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;281:345-59 pubmed publisher
    ..the MAPKs of mating and cell integrity pathways, Fus3 and Slt2, respectively, but its action on the MAPK Kss1 is unclear. Here we analyse the global impact of Msg5 on the yeast transcriptome...
  9. Farley F, Satterberg B, Goldsmith E, Elion E. Relative dependence of different outputs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway on the MAP kinase Fus3p. Genetics. 1999;151:1425-44 pubmed
    ..Finally, suppression analysis argues that Kss1p contributes to the overall pheromone response in a wild-type strain, but that Fus3p is the critical kinase for all of the outputs tested. ..

More Information


  1. Bharucha N, Ma J, Dobry C, Lawson S, Yang Z, Kumar A. Analysis of the yeast kinome reveals a network of regulated protein localization during filamentous growth. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2708-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the localization of Ksp1p and the other kinases identified here is tightly controlled during filamentous growth, representing an overlooked regulatory component of this stress response. ..
  2. Choi K, Satterberg B, Lyons D, Elion E. Ste5 tethers multiple protein kinases in the MAP kinase cascade required for mating in S. cerevisiae. Cell. 1994;78:499-512 pubmed
    ..By two-hybrid analysis, Ste11, Ste7, and Fus3 associate with different domains of Ste5, while Kss1, another MAPK, associates with the same domain as Fus3, thus implying that Ste5 simultaneously binds a MEKK, MEK, ..
  3. Roberts R, Fink G. Elements of a single MAP kinase cascade in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediate two developmental programs in the same cell type: mating and invasive growth. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2974-85 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a novel developmental model to study the dynamics of signal transduction, with implications for higher eukaryotes. ..
  4. Cook J, Bardwell L, Kron S, Thorner J. Two novel targets of the MAP kinase Kss1 are negative regulators of invasive growth in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2831-48 pubmed
    ..Both developmental alternatives to vegetative proliferation require the MAP kinase Kss1 and the transcriptional transactivator Ste12...
  5. Bardwell L, Cook J, Voora D, Baggott D, Martinez A, Thorner J. Repression of yeast Ste12 transcription factor by direct binding of unphosphorylated Kss1 MAPK and its regulation by the Ste7 MEK. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2887-98 pubmed
    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Kss1 has a dual role in regulating filamentous (invasive) growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  6. Cherkasova V, Lyons D, Elion E. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Genetics. 1999;151:989-1004 pubmed
    ..Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition. ..
  7. Printen J, Sprague G. Protein-protein interactions in the yeast pheromone response pathway: Ste5p interacts with all members of the MAP kinase cascade. Genetics. 1994;138:609-19 pubmed
    ..Finally, we detected an interaction between one of the MAP kinases, Kss1p, and a presumptive target, the transcription factor Ste12p. We failed to detect interactions of Ste4p or Ste20p with any other component of the response pathway. ..
  8. Madhani H, Styles C, Fink G. MAP kinases with distinct inhibitory functions impart signaling specificity during yeast differentiation. Cell. 1997;91:673-84 pubmed
    ..The Fus3 MAPK regulates mating, whereas the Kss1 MAPK regulates filamentation and invasion...
  9. Remenyi A, Good M, Bhattacharyya R, Lim W. The role of docking interactions in mediating signaling input, output, and discrimination in the yeast MAPK network. Mol Cell. 2005;20:951-62 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the role of docking interactions in determining connectivity of the yeast MAPKs Fus3 and Kss1. These closely related kinases are activated by the common upstream MAPK kinase Ste7 yet generate distinct output ..
  10. Strickfaden S, Pryciak P. Distinct roles for two Galpha-Gbeta interfaces in cell polarity control by a yeast heterotrimeric G protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:181-97 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer can function in a partially dissociated state, tethered by the N-terminal interface. ..
  11. van Dyk D, Pretorius I, Bauer F. Mss11p is a central element of the regulatory network that controls FLO11 expression and invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;169:91-106 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data strongly suggest a central role for Mss11p in the regulatory network controlling FLO11 expression, invasive growth, and pseudohyphal differentiation. ..
  12. Chen R, Thorner J. Systematic epistasis analysis of the contributions of protein kinase A- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling to nutrient limitation-evoked responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2010;185:855-70 pubmed publisher
    ..nutrient limitation induces morphological changes that depend on the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and the Kss1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
  13. Yamamoto K, Tatebayashi K, Tanaka K, Saito H. Dynamic control of yeast MAP kinase network by induced association and dissociation between the Ste50 scaffold and the Opy2 membrane anchor. Mol Cell. 2010;40:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..CR-A binds Ste50 constitutively and can transmit signals to both the Hog1 and Fus3/Kss1 MAPKs...
  14. Good M, Tang G, Singleton J, Remenyi A, Lim W. The Ste5 scaffold directs mating signaling by catalytically unlocking the Fus3 MAP kinase for activation. Cell. 2009;136:1085-97 pubmed publisher
    ..in vitro, we find that Fus3 is an intrinsically poor substrate for Ste7, although the related filamentation MAPK, Kss1, is an excellent substrate...
  15. O Rourke S, Herskowitz I. The Hog1 MAPK prevents cross talk between the HOG and pheromone response MAPK pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2874-86 pubmed
    ..Finally, we have found that pseudohyphal growth exhibited by wild-type (HOG1) strains depends on SHO1, suggesting that Sho1p may be a receptor that feeds into the pseudohyphal growth pathway. ..
  16. Pitoniak A, Chavel C, Chow J, Smith J, Camara D, Karunanithi S, et al. Cdc42p-interacting protein Bem4p regulates the filamentous-growth mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:417-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Bem4p also interacted with the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) Ste11p. Thus, Bem4p is a new regulator of the filamentous-growth MAPK pathway and binds to general proteins, like Cdc42p and Ste11p, to promote a pathway-specific response. ..
  17. Yang H, Tatebayashi K, Yamamoto K, Saito H. Glycosylation defects activate filamentous growth Kss1 MAPK and inhibit osmoregulatory Hog1 MAPK. EMBO J. 2009;28:1380-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the FG-specific Kss1 MAPK is activated by a combination of an O-glycosylation defect caused by disruption of the gene encoding the ..
  18. Breitkreutz A, Boucher L, Breitkreutz B, Sultan M, Jurisica I, Tyers M. Phenotypic and transcriptional plasticity directed by a yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase network. Genetics. 2003;165:997-1015 pubmed
    ..interface between this MAPK module and the transcriptional machinery consists of a network of two MAPKs, Fus3 and Kss1; two regulators, Rst1 and Rst2 (a.k.a. Dig1 and Dig2); and two transcription factors, Ste12 and Tec1...
  19. Palacios L, Dickinson R, Sacristán Reviriego A, Didmon M, Marin M, Martín H, et al. Distinct docking mechanisms mediate interactions between the Msg5 phosphatase and mating or cell integrity mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42037-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Msg5 interacts not only with Fus3, Kss1, and Slt2 but also with the pseudokinase Slt2 paralog Mlp1...
  20. Song Q, Johnson C, Wilson T, Kumar A. Pooled segregant sequencing reveals genetic determinants of yeast pseudohyphal growth. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004570 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this work identifies new determinants of pseudohyphal growth, while highlighting the coevolution of protein complexes and organelle structures within a given genome in specifying complex phenotypes. ..
  21. Nishimura A, Yamamoto K, Oyama M, Kozuka Hata H, Saito H, Tatebayashi K. Scaffold Protein Ahk1, Which Associates with Hkr1, Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2, Inhibits Cross Talk Signaling from the Hkr1 Osmosensor to the Kss1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1109-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although osmotic stimulation of Hkr1 does not activate the Kss1 MAPK, deletion of AHK1 allowed Hkr1 to activate Kss1 by cross talk...
  22. Furukawa K, Sidoux Walter F, Hohmann S. Expression of the yeast aquaporin Aqy2 affects cell surface properties under the control of osmoregulatory and morphogenic signalling pathways. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1272-86 pubmed publisher
    ..the protein kinase A pathway derepresses AQY2 expression through the Sfl1 repressor, and the filamentous growth Kss1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway represses AQY2 expression in a Kss1 activity-independent manner...
  23. Shock T, Thompson J, Yates J, Madhani H. Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) interrupts signal transduction between the Kss1 MAPK and the Tec1 transcription factor to maintain pathway specificity. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:606-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that HOG pathway activation results in phosphorylation of the FG MAPK, Kss1, and the MAPKK, Ste7...
  24. Slaughter B, Schwartz J, Li R. Mapping dynamic protein interactions in MAP kinase signaling using live-cell fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20320-5 pubmed
    ..using EGFP and mCherry-tagged protein pairs observed the interactions of Ste7 (MAPK kinase) with the MAPKs, Fus3 or Kss1, and of the scaffold protein, Ste5, with Ste7 and Ste11 (MAPK kinase kinase) in the cytosol, providing in vivo ..
  25. Courchesne W, Kunisawa R, Thorner J. A putative protein kinase overcomes pheromone-induced arrest of cell cycling in S. cerevisiae. Cell. 1989;58:1107-19 pubmed
    ..The KSS1 gene, when overexpressed, suppresses this adaptation defect...
  26. Cappell S, Dohlman H. Selective regulation of MAP kinase signaling by an endomembrane phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14852-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Pik1 is required for full activation of the MAP kinases Fus3 and Hog1 and represses activation of Kss1. Further, we show by genetic epistasis analysis that Pik1 likely regulates Ste11 and Ste50, components shared by ..
  27. Nie W, He F, Yuan S, Jia Z, Wang R, Gao X. Roles of an N-terminal coiled-coil-containing domain in the localization and function of Bem3, a Rho GTPase-activating protein in budding yeast. Fungal Genet Biol. 2017;99:40-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that the longer version of TD2 interacts with Kss1, a MAPK involved in filamentous growth. Kss1 is reported to localize mainly in the nucleus...
  28. Perez J, Arcones I, Gomez A, Casquero V, Roncero C. Phosphorylation of Bni4 by MAP kinases contributes to septum assembly during yeast cytokinesis. FEMS Yeast Res. 2016;16: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify new multicopy suppressors of this lethality including Kss1, Pcl1 and Sph1, none of which seems to be linked to the upregulation of chitin synthesis...
  29. Burchett S, Flanary P, Aston C, Jiang L, Young K, Uetz P, et al. Regulation of stress response signaling by the N-terminal dishevelled/EGL-10/pleckstrin domain of Sst2, a regulator of G protein signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22156-67 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Vps36 and Sst2 have opposite and opposing effects on the pheromone and stress response pathways, with Vps36 acting downstream of the G protein and independently of Sst2 RGS activity. ..
  30. Maleri S, Ge Q, Hackett E, Wang Y, Dohlman H, Errede B. Persistent activation by constitutive Ste7 promotes Kss1-mediated invasive growth but fails to support Fus3-dependent mating in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9221-38 pubmed
    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-Ste11 (MAPKKK-Ste11), MAPKK-Ste7, and MAPK-Kss1 mediate pheromone-induced mating differentiation and nutrient-responsive invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  31. Law M, Ciccaglione K. Fine-tuning of histone H3 Lys4 methylation during pseudohyphal differentiation by the CDK submodule of RNA polymerase II. Genetics. 2015;199:435-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, deleting known FLO11 activators including FLO8, MSS11, MFG1, TEC1, SNF1, KSS1, and GCN4 results in a range of phenotypic suppression...
  32. Ma D, Cook J, Thorner J. Phosphorylation and localization of Kss1, a MAP kinase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:889-909 pubmed
    b>Kss1 protein kinase, and the homologous Fus3 kinase, are required for pheromone signal transduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  33. Elion E, Brill J, Fink G. FUS3 represses CLN1 and CLN2 and in concert with KSS1 promotes signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:9392-6 pubmed
    FUS3 is functionally redundant with KSS1, a homologous yeast protein kinase, for a step(s) in signal transduction between the beta subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), STE4, and the mating type-specific ..
  34. Davenport K, Williams K, Ullmann B, Gustin M. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae filamentation/invasion pathway by osmotic stress in high-osmolarity glycogen pathway mutants. Genetics. 1999;153:1091-103 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the cellular projections formed by a pbs2-3 mutant on high osmolarity are absent in strains lacking KSS1 or STE7...
  35. Pryciak P, Hartwell L. AKR1 encodes a candidate effector of the G beta gamma complex in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway and contributes to control of both cell shape and signal transduction. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2614-26 pubmed
  36. Karunanithi S, Cullen P. The filamentous growth MAPK Pathway Responds to Glucose Starvation Through the Mig1/2 transcriptional repressors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2012;192:869-87 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway including the cytosolic domain of the signaling mucin Msb2, the MAP kinase kinase Ste7, and the MAP kinase Kss1. As for Opy2, Mig1 overproduction dampened the pheromone response pathway, which implicates Mig1 and Opy2 as ..
  37. Wang X, Sheff M, Simpson D, Elion E. Ste11p MEKK signals through HOG, mating, calcineurin and PKC pathways to regulate the FKS2 gene. BMC Mol Biol. 2011;12:51 pubmed publisher
    ..The patterns of control by Ste11p targets revealed novel functional linkages, cross-regulation, redundancy and compensation. ..
  38. Lee S, Park S, Na J, Kim Y. Osmolarity hypersensitivity of hog1 deleted mutants is suppressed by mutation in KSS1 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;209:9-14 pubmed
    ..5 M NaCl at 37 degrees C. Our data indicate that the spontaneous mutation in YJY45 mutant was mapped in KSS1, which is one of the MAPK family...
  39. Schrick K, Garvik B, Hartwell L. Mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of the pheromone signal transduction pathway in the chemotropic response to pheromone. Genetics. 1997;147:19-32 pubmed
    ..Cells mutant for components of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade (ste5, ste20, ste11, ste7 or fus3 kss1) formed diploids at a frequency 1% that of the wild-type control, but formed prezygotes as efficiently as the wild-..
  40. Breitkreutz A, Boucher L, Tyers M. MAPK specificity in the yeast pheromone response independent of transcriptional activation. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1266-71 pubmed
    ..upstream components of the mating pheromone and filamentous growth pathways activate two related MAPKs, Fus3 and Kss1, which in turn regulate programs of gene expression via the transcription factor Ste12...
  41. Cullen P, Sabbagh W, Graham E, Irick M, van Olden E, Neal C, et al. A signaling mucin at the head of the Cdc42- and MAPK-dependent filamentous growth pathway in yeast. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1695-708 pubmed
    ..called Msb2, is a FG-pathway-specific factor that promotes differential activation of the MAPK for the FG pathway, Kss1. Msb2 is localized to polarized sites on the cell surface and interacts with Cdc42 and with the osmosensor for the ..
  42. Cherkasova V, McCully R, Wang Y, Hinnebusch A, Elion E. A novel functional link between MAP kinase cascades and the Ras/cAMP pathway that regulates survival. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1220-6 pubmed
    ..In S. cerevisiae, Ras regulates the Kss1 MAPK cascade that promotes filamentous growth and cell integrity, but its major function is to activate adenylyl ..
  43. Chen T, Kurjan J. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mpt5p interacts with Sst2p and plays roles in pheromone sensitivity and recovery from pheromone arrest. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3429-39 pubmed
    ..We discuss these results with respect to a model in which Sst2p plays a role in pheromone sensitivity and recovery that acts through Mpt5p in addition to a role as a G alpha GAP suggested by the analysis of the Sst2p homologs. ..
  44. Kim J, Rose M. Stable Pseudohyphal Growth in Budding Yeast Induced by Synergism between Septin Defects and Altered MAP-kinase Signaling. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005684 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings show that budding yeast can access a stable constitutive pseudohyphal growth state with very few genetic and regulatory changes. ..
  45. Bruckner S, Köhler T, Braus G, Heise B, Bolte M, Mösch H. Differential regulation of Tec1 by Fus3 and Kss1 confers signaling specificity in yeast development. Curr Genet. 2004;46:331-42 pubmed
    ..In budding yeast, Fus3 and Kss1 are two MAP kinases that control two distinct developmental programs-mating and invasive growth...
  46. Yang X, Hawle P, Bebelman J, Meenhuis A, Siderius M, van der Vies S. Cdc37p is involved in osmoadaptation and controls high osmolarity-induced cross-talk via the MAP kinase Kss1p. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007;7:796-807 pubmed
    ..We utilized this phenotype to isolate suppressor genes such as KSS1 that encodes a MAP kinase that functions in the FG pathway. We report that Kss1p interacts physically with Cdc37p...