Gene Symbol: KAR3
Description: Kar3p
Alias: OSR11, Kar3p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Hoepfner D, Schaerer F, Brachat A, Wach A, Philippsen P. Reorientation of mispositioned spindles in short astral microtubule mutant spc72Delta is dependent on spindle pole body outer plaque and Kar3 motor protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:1366-80 pubmed
    ..suggested that reorientation was dependent on the SPB outer plaque and the astral microtubule motor function of Kar3 but not Kip2/Kip3/Dhc1, or the cortex components Kar9/Num1...
  2. Molk J, Salmon E, Bloom K. Nuclear congression is driven by cytoplasmic microtubule plus end interactions in S. cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:27-39 pubmed
    ..The MT plus end-binding proteins Kar3p, a class 14 COOH-terminal kinesin, and Bik1p, the CLIP-170 orthologue, localize to plus ends in the shmoo tip and ..
  3. Sproul L, Anderson D, Mackey A, Saunders W, Gilbert S. Cik1 targets the minus-end kinesin depolymerase kar3 to microtubule plus ends. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1420-7 pubmed
    b>Kar3, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kinesin-14, is essential for karyogamy and meiosis I but also has specific functions during vegetative growth...
  4. Allingham J, Sproul L, Rayment I, Gilbert S. Vik1 modulates microtubule-Kar3 interactions through a motor domain that lacks an active site. Cell. 2007;128:1161-72 pubmed
    ..We present an analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kar3/Vik1, a heterodimeric C-terminal Kinesin-14 containing catalytic Kar3 and the nonmotor protein Vik1...
  5. Saunders W, Hornack D, Lengyel V, Deng C. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-related motor Kar3p acts at preanaphase spindle poles to limit the number and length of cytoplasmic microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:417-31 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-related motor Kar3p, though known to be required for karyogamy, plays a poorly defined, nonessential role during vegetative growth...
  6. Saunders W, Lengyel V, Hoyt M. Mitotic spindle function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires a balance between different types of kinesin-related motors. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1025-33 pubmed
    ..A third kinesin-related motor, Kar3p, may act antagonistically to Cin8p and Kip1p since loss of Kar3p partially suppresses the spindle collapse in cin8 ..
  7. Severin F, Habermann B, Huffaker T, Hyman T. Stu2 promotes mitotic spindle elongation in anaphase. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:435-42 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a balance of activity between evolutionally conserved microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing factors is essential for correct spindle elongation during anaphase B. ..
  8. Cottingham F, Hoyt M. Mitotic spindle positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accomplished by antagonistically acting microtubule motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:1041-53 pubmed
    ..The observation that deletion of KIP2 could also suppress the inviability of dyn1Delta kar3Delta cells suggests that kinesin-related Kar3p also contributes to spindle positioning.
  9. Tirnauer J, O TOOLE E, Berrueta L, Bierer B, Pellman D. Yeast Bim1p promotes the G1-specific dynamics of microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:993-1007 pubmed
    ..together with data from electron microscopy and a synthetic interaction with the gene encoding the kinesin Kar3p, suggests that Bim1p acts at the microtubule plus end...

More Information


  1. Chu H, Yun M, Anderson D, Sage H, Park H, Endow S. Kar3 interaction with Cik1 alters motor structure and function. EMBO J. 2005;24:3214-23 pubmed
    b>Kar3, a kinesin-14 motor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for mitosis and karyogamy, reportedly interacts with Cik1, a nonmotor protein, via its central, predicted coiled coil...
  2. Cottingham F, Gheber L, Miller D, Hoyt M. Novel roles for saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle motors. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:335-50 pubmed
    ..This study reveals that kinesin-related Kar3p and Kip3p are unique in that they perform roles both inside and outside the nucleus...
  3. Gardner M, Haase J, Mythreye K, Molk J, Anderson M, Joglekar A, et al. The microtubule-based motor Kar3 and plus end-binding protein Bim1 provide structural support for the anaphase spindle. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:91-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that cell survival after dicentric chromosome activation requires the MT-binding proteins Kar3p, Bim1p, and Ase1p...
  4. Manning B, Barrett J, Wallace J, Granok H, Snyder M. Differential regulation of the Kar3p kinesin-related protein by two associated proteins, Cik1p and Vik1p. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:1219-33 pubmed
    ..The kinesin-related protein, Kar3p, has been implicated in many microtubule functions in yeast...
  5. Manning B, Padmanabha R, Snyder M. The Rho-GEF Rom2p localizes to sites of polarized cell growth and participates in cytoskeletal functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1829-44 pubmed
    ..number plasmids containing either ROM2 or RHO2 suppress the temperature-sensitive growth defects of cik1 delta and kar3 delta strains. KAR3 encodes a kinesin-related protein that interacts with Cik1p...
  6. DeZwaan T, Ellingson E, Pellman D, Roof D. Kinesin-related KIP3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for a distinct step in nuclear migration. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:1023-40 pubmed
    ..Simultaneous loss of KIP3 and kinesin-related KAR3 function, or of KIP3 and dynein function, is lethal but does not block any additional detectable movement...
  7. Middleton K, Carbon J. KAR3-encoded kinesin is a minus-end-directed motor that functions with centromere binding proteins (CBF3) on an in vitro yeast kinetochore. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7212-6 pubmed
    ..A fourth required component was identified as the motor protein Kar3p, a previously reported yeast kinesin known to be involved in karyogamy and mitosis...
  8. Meluh P, Rose M. KAR3, a kinesin-related gene required for yeast nuclear fusion. Cell. 1990;60:1029-41 pubmed
    The KAR3 gene is essential for yeast nuclear fusion during mating, and its expression is strongly induced by alpha factor. The predicted KAR3 protein sequence contains two globular domains separated by an alpha-helical coiled coil...
  9. Benanti J, Matyskiela M, Morgan D, Toczyski D. Functionally distinct isoforms of Cik1 are differentially regulated by APC/C-mediated proteolysis. Mol Cell. 2009;33:581-90 pubmed publisher
    Cik1, in association with the kinesin Kar3, controls both the mitotic spindle and nuclear fusion during mating...
  10. Chen C, Rayment I, Gilbert S. Kinesin Kar3Cik1 ATPase pathway for microtubule cross-linking. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29261-72 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Kar3 contains both an ATP- and a MT-binding site, yet there is no evidence of a nucleotide-binding site in Cik1...
  11. Jones M, Bachant J, Castillo A, Giddings T, Winey M. Yeast Dam1p is required to maintain spindle integrity during mitosis and interacts with the Mps1p kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:2377-91 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this phenotype, DAM1 displays genetic interactions with STU1, CIN8, and KAR3, genes encoding proteins involved in spindle function...
  12. Barrett J, Manning B, Snyder M. The Kar3p kinesin-related protein forms a novel heterodimeric structure with its associated protein Cik1p. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2373-85 pubmed
    ..Extraction experiments demonstrate that Kar3p and Cik1p are tightly associated...
  13. Maekawa H, Usui T, Knop M, Schiebel E. Yeast Cdk1 translocates to the plus end of cytoplasmic microtubules to regulate bud cortex interactions. EMBO J. 2003;22:438-49 pubmed
    ..Cdc28 activity is required to concentrate Kar9 at the plus end of CMs and hence to establish contacts with the bud cortex. The Cdc28-regulated localization of Kar9 is therefore an integral part of the program that aligns spindles. ..
  14. Page B, Satterwhite L, Rose M, Snyder M. Localization of the Kar3 kinesin heavy chain-related protein requires the Cik1 interacting protein. J Cell Biol. 1994;124:507-19 pubmed
    The Kar3 protein (Kar3p), a protein related to kinesin heavy chain, and the Cik1 protein (Cik1p) appear to participate in the same cellular processes in S. cerevisiae...
  15. Saunders W, Hoyt M. Kinesin-related proteins required for structural integrity of the mitotic spindle. Cell. 1992;70:451-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, anaphase spindles were apparently resistant to collapse. Deletion of kinesin-related KAR3 partially suppressed the phenotypes associated with loss of Cin8p/Kip1p function...
  16. Zeng X, Kahana J, Silver P, Morphew M, McIntosh J, Fitch I, et al. Slk19p is a centromere protein that functions to stabilize mitotic spindles. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:415-25 pubmed
    ..Strains with a deletion of SLK19 (synthetic lethal Kar3p gene) exhibit abnormally short mitotic spindles, increased numbers of astral microtubules, and require the ..
  17. Tanaka K, Kitamura E, Kitamura Y, Tanaka T. Molecular mechanisms of microtubule-dependent kinetochore transport toward spindle poles. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:269-81 pubmed
    ..First, kinetochores slide along the microtubule lateral surface, which is mainly and probably exclusively driven by Kar3, a kinesin-14 family member that localizes at kinetochores...
  18. Hoyt M, He L, Totis L, Saunders W. Loss of function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-related CIN8 and KIP1 is suppressed by KAR3 motor domain mutations. Genetics. 1993;135:35-44 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that despite an antagonistic relationship between Cin8p/Kip1p and Kar3p, aspects of their mitotic roles may be similar.
  19. Lee M, Spencer F. Bipolar orientation of chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is monitored by Mad1 and Mad2, but not by Mad3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10655-60 pubmed
    ..Cells without MAD3 were checkpoint-proficient. We conclude that Mad1 and Mad2 are required to detect bipolar orientation and/or tension at kinetochores, whereas Mad3 is not. ..
  20. Mackey A, Sproul L, Sontag C, Satterwhite L, Correia J, Gilbert S. Mechanistic analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin Kar3. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51354-61 pubmed
    b>Kar3 is a minus-end-directed microtubule motor that is implicated in meiotic and mitotic spindle function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  21. Hardwick K, Li R, Mistrot C, Chen R, Dann P, Rudner A, et al. Lesions in many different spindle components activate the spindle checkpoint in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1999;152:509-18 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the cell cycle arrest caused by mutations that induce DNA damage (cdc13), inactivate the cyclin proteolysis machinery (cdc16 and cdc23), or arrest cells in anaphase (cdc15) is independent of the spindle checkpoint. ..
  22. Song H, Endow S. Decoupling of nucleotide- and microtubule-binding sites in a kinesin mutant. Nature. 1998;396:587-90 pubmed
    ..Here we report that a mutation in the motor domain of the microtubule motor proteins Kar3 and Ncd uncouples nucleotide- and microtubule-binding by the proteins, preventing activation of the motor ATPase by ..
  23. Makhnevych T, Wong P, Pogoutse O, Vizeacoumar F, Greenblatt J, Emili A, et al. Hsp110 is required for spindle length control. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:623-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a model whereby the Hsp70-Hsp110 chaperone complex antagonizes Cin8 plus-end motility and prevents premature spindle elongation in S phase. ..
  24. Duan D, Jia Z, Joshi M, Brunton J, Chan M, Drew D, et al. Neck rotation and neck mimic docking in the noncatalytic Kar3-associated protein Vik1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40292-301 pubmed publisher
    Kar3Vik1 is a heterodimeric kinesin with one catalytic subunit (Kar3) and one noncatalytic subunit (Vik1). Vik1 experiences conformational changes in regions analogous to the force-producing elements in catalytic kinesins...
  25. Gelin Licht R, Paliwal S, Conlon P, Levchenko A, Gerst J. Scp160-dependent mRNA trafficking mediates pheromone gradient sensing and chemotropism in yeast. Cell Rep. 2012;1:483-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of ligand-activated RNA targeting in the development of a simple eukaryote. ..
  26. Rank K, Chen C, Cope J, Porche K, Hoenger A, Gilbert S, et al. Kar3Vik1, a member of the kinesin-14 superfamily, shows a novel kinesin microtubule binding pattern. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:957-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Kinesin-14 Kar3 forms a heterodimer with either Vik1 or Cik1...
  27. Jin F, Liu H, Li P, Yu H, Wang Y. Loss of function of the Cik1/Kar3 motor complex results in chromosomes with syntelic attachment that are sensed by the tension checkpoint. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002492 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that the loss of function of a motor protein complex Cik1/Kar3 in budding yeast leads to syntelic attachments...
  28. Gandhi S, Gierlinski M, Mino A, Tanaka K, Kitamura E, Clayton L, et al. Kinetochore-dependent microtubule rescue ensures their efficient and sustained interactions in early mitosis. Dev Cell. 2011;21:920-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, kinetochore-dependent microtubule rescue ensures efficient and sustained kinetochore-microtubule interactions in early mitosis. ..
  29. Chung D, Chan J, Strecker J, Zhang W, Ebrahimi Ardebili S, Lu T, et al. Perinuclear tethers license telomeric DSBs for a broad kinesin- and NPC-dependent DNA repair process. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7742 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the kinesin-14 motor protein complex (Cik1-Kar3) cooperates with chromatin remodellers to mediate interactions between subtelomeric DSBs and the Nup84 nuclear pore ..
  30. Hepperla A, Willey P, Coombes C, Schuster B, Gerami Nejad M, McClellan M, et al. Minus-end-directed Kinesin-14 motors align antiparallel microtubules to control metaphase spindle length. Dev Cell. 2014;31:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..fluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy, we now find that the budding yeast kinesin-14 molecular motor Kar3-Cik1 can efficiently align spindle microtubules along the spindle axis...
  31. Gibeaux R, Politi A, Nedelec F, Antony C, Knop M. Spindle pole body-anchored Kar3 drives the nucleus along microtubules from another nucleus in preparation for nuclear fusion during yeast karyogamy. Genes Dev. 2013;27:335-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Congression involves a specific regulation of the microtubule minus end-directed kinesin-14 motor Kar3 and a rearrangement of the cytoplasmic microtubule attachment sites at the spindle pole bodies (SPBs)...
  32. Chen C, Porche K, Rayment I, Gilbert S. The ATPase pathway that drives the kinesin-14 Kar3Vik1 powerstroke. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36673-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Kar3, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae microtubule minus-end-directed kinesin-14, dimerizes with either Vik1 or Cik1...
  33. Havens K, Gardner M, Kamieniecki R, Dresser M, Dawson D. Slk19p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates anaphase spindle dynamics through two independent mechanisms. Genetics. 2010;186:1247-60 pubmed publisher
  34. Zaichick S, Metodiev M, Nelson S, Durbrovskyi O, Draper E, Cooper J, et al. The mating-specific Galpha interacts with a kinesin-14 and regulates pheromone-induced nuclear migration in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2820-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The Kar3 kinesin-like motor protein is then thought to stimulate plus-end depolymerization of these microtubules, thus ..
  35. Shanks R, Kamieniecki R, Dawson D. The Kar3-interacting protein Cik1p plays a critical role in passage through meiosis I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;159:939-51 pubmed
    Meiosis I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent upon the motor protein Kar3. Absence of Kar3p in meiosis results in an arrest in prophase I...
  36. Sheu Y, Santos B, Fortin N, Costigan C, Snyder M. Spa2p interacts with cell polarity proteins and signaling components involved in yeast cell morphogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4053-69 pubmed
    ..We thus propose that Spa2p, Pea2p, and Bud6p function together, perhaps as a complex, to promote polarized morphogenesis through regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and signaling pathways. ..
  37. Mieck C, Molodtsov M, Drzewicka K, van der Vaart B, Litos G, Schmauss G, et al. Non-catalytic motor domains enable processive movement and functional diversification of the kinesin-14 Kar3. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the yeast kinesin-14 Kar3 generates processive movement as a heterodimer with the non-motor proteins Cik1 or Vik1...
  38. Mayer M, Pot I, Chang M, Xu H, Aneliunas V, Kwok T, et al. Identification of protein complexes required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1736-45 pubmed
    ..Mass spectrometric analysis of immunoprecipitated complexes identified a physical association between Kar3p and Vik1p and an interaction between Csm3p and Tof1p that we confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation from cell extracts...
  39. Caudron F, Denarier E, Thibout Quintana J, Brocard J, Andrieux A, Fourest Lieuvin A. Mutation of Ser172 in yeast ? tubulin induces defects in microtubule dynamics and cell division. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13553 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the two ? tubulin mutations exhibited synthetic lethal interactions with Bik1p, Bim1p or Kar3p, which are effectors of cytoplasmic and spindle MTs...
  40. Strawn L, True H. Deletion of RNQ1 gene reveals novel functional relationship between divergently transcribed Bik1p/CLIP-170 and Sfi1p in spindle pole body separation. Curr Genet. 2006;50:347-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Bik1p has a previously uncharacterized function in the separation of duplicated SPBs. ..
  41. Gonzalez M, Cope J, Rank K, Chen C, Tittmann P, Rayment I, et al. Common mechanistic themes for the powerstroke of kinesin-14 motors. J Struct Biol. 2013;184:335-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Kar3 represents a canonical kinesin motor domain that interacts with microtubules under the control of ATP-hydrolysis...
  42. Shanks R, Bascom Slack C, Dawson D. Analysis of the kar3 meiotic arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Cycle. 2004;3:363-71 pubmed
    The motor protein Kar3p and its associated protein Cik1p are essential for passage through meiosis I. In the absence of either protein, meiotic cells arrest in prophase I...