Gene Symbol: IKI3
Description: Elongator subunit IKI3
Alias: ELP1, KTI7, TOT1, Elongator subunit IKI3
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     IKI3

Top Publications

  1. Otero G, Fellows J, Li Y, de Bizemont T, Dirac A, Gustafsson C, et al. Elongator, a multisubunit component of a novel RNA polymerase II holoenzyme for transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell. 1999;3:109-18 pubmed
    ..The gene encoding the largest subunit of elongator, ELP1, was cloned...
  2. Chen C, Huang B, Eliasson M, Ryden P, Byström A. Elongator complex influences telomeric gene silencing and DNA damage response by its role in wobble uridine tRNA modification. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002258 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this notion, we found that expression of Sir4, a silent information regulator required for assembly of silent chromatin at telomeres, was decreased in the elp3? mutants. ..
  3. Winkler G, Petrakis T, Ethelberg S, Tokunaga M, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. RNA polymerase II elongator holoenzyme is composed of two discrete subcomplexes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32743-9 pubmed
    ..is a labile six-subunit factor composed of two discrete subcomplexes: one comprised of the previously identified Elp1, Elp2, and Elp3 proteins and another comprised of three novel polypeptides, termed Elp4, Elp5, and Elp6...
  4. Krogan N, Greenblatt J. Characterization of a six-subunit holo-elongator complex required for the regulated expression of a group of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8203-12 pubmed
    ..with elongating RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was originally reported to have three subunits, Elp1, Elp2, and Elp3...
  5. Fichtner L, Jablonowski D, Schierhorn A, Kitamoto H, Stark M, Schaffrath R. Elongator's toxin-target (TOT) function is nuclear localization sequence dependent and suppressed by post-translational modification. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:1297-307 pubmed
    ..Similarly, KAP120 deletion rescues cells from zymocin, suggesting that Elongator's TOT function requires NLS- and karyopherin-dependent nuclear import. ..
  6. Huang B, Lu J, Byström A. A genome-wide screen identifies genes required for formation of the wobble nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RNA. 2008;14:2183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Like the absence of the mcm(5) side chain, the lack of the s(2) group renders tRNA(mcm5s2UUC Glu) less sensitive to gamma-toxin, reinforcing the importance of the wobble nucleoside mcm(5)s(2)U for tRNA cleavage by gamma-toxin. ..
  7. Frohloff F, Fichtner L, Jablonowski D, Breunig K, Schaffrath R. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator mutations confer resistance to the Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin. EMBO J. 2001;20:1993-2003 pubmed
    ..Of these we identified the TOT1, TOT2 and TOT3 genes (isoallelic with ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3, respectively) coding for the histone acetyltransferase (..
  8. Winkler G, Kristjuhan A, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Svejstrup J. Elongator is a histone H3 and H4 acetyltransferase important for normal histone acetylation levels in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3517-22 pubmed
    ..By using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that the levels of multiply acetylated histone H3 and H4 in chromatin are decreased in vivo in yeast cells lacking ELP3. ..
  9. Rahl P, Chen C, Collins R. Elp1p, the yeast homolog of the FD disease syndrome protein, negatively regulates exocytosis independently of transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell. 2005;17:841-53 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify a null allele of ELP1 as a suppressor of a mutant in a Rab guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p...

More Information


  1. Wittschieben B, Fellows J, Du W, Stillman D, Svejstrup J. Overlapping roles for the histone acetyltransferase activities of SAGA and elongator in vivo. EMBO J. 2000;19:3060-8 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate functional redundancy among transcription-associated HAT and deacetylase activities, and indicate the importance of a fine-tuned acetylation-deacetylation balance during transcription in vivo. ..
  2. Glatt S, Létoquart J, Faux C, Taylor N, Seraphin B, Müller C. The Elongator subcomplex Elp456 is a hexameric RecA-like ATPase. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:314-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a role of Elongator in tRNA modification, explain the importance of each of the Elp4, Elp5 and Elp6 subunits for complex integrity and suggest a model for the overall architecture of the holo-Elongator complex. ..
  3. Fichtner L, Frohloff F, Jablonowski D, Stark M, Schaffrath R. Protein interactions within Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator, a complex essential for Kluyveromyces lactis zymocicity. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:817-26 pubmed
    mTn3-tagging identified Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin target genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as TOT1-3/ELP1-3 coding for the RNA polymerase II (pol II) Elongator histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex...
  4. Di Santo R, Bandau S, Stark M. A conserved and essential basic region mediates tRNA binding to the Elp1 subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator complex. Mol Microbiol. 2014;92:1227-42 pubmed publisher
    ..eukaryotes is required for normal growth and development and a mutation in the largest subunit of human Elongator (Elp1) causes familial dysautonomia, a severe recessive neuropathy...
  5. Mehlgarten C, Jablonowski D, Breunig K, Stark M, Schaffrath R. Elongator function depends on antagonistic regulation by casein kinase Hrr25 and protein phosphatase Sit4. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:869-81 pubmed publisher
    ..role for the Elongator complex in tRNA anticodon modification is affected by phosphorylation of Elongator subunit Elp1. Thus, hyperphosphorylation of Elp1 due to inactivation of protein phosphatase Sit4 correlates with Elongator-minus ..
  6. Greenwood C, Selth L, Dirac Svejstrup A, Svejstrup J. An iron-sulfur cluster domain in Elp3 important for the structural integrity of elongator. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our data support the idea that the Elp3 FeS cluster is essential for normal Elongator function in vivo primarily as a structural, rather than catalytic, domain. ..
  7. Jablonowski D, Fichtner L, Stark M, Schaffrath R. The yeast elongator histone acetylase requires Sit4-dependent dephosphorylation for toxin-target capacity. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1459-69 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Elongator is a phospho-complex. Phosphorylation of its largest subunit Tot1 (Elp1) is supported by Kti11, an Elongator-interactor essential for zymocin action...
  8. Fichtner L, Frohloff F, Bürkner K, Larsen M, Breunig K, Schaffrath R. Molecular analysis of KTI12/TOT4, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin action. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:783-91 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae, is encoded by TOT1-7, six loci of which are isoallelic to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) Elongator genes (ELP1-6)...
  9. Linderholm A, Findleton C, Kumar G, Hong Y, Bisson L. Identification of genes affecting hydrogen sulfide formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:1418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In most cases, creation of multiple deletions of the 16 mutations in the same strain did not lead to a further increase in H(2)S production, instead often resulting in decreased levels. ..
  10. Zhang H, Richardson D, Roberts D, Utley R, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. The Yaf9 component of the SWR1 and NuA4 complexes is required for proper gene expression, histone H4 acetylation, and Htz1 replacement near telomeres. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9424-36 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that Yaf9 may function in NuA4 and SWR1 complexes to help antagonize silencing near telomeres. ..
  11. Laribee R, Krogan N, Xiao T, Shibata Y, Hughes T, Greenblatt J, et al. BUR kinase selectively regulates H3 K4 trimethylation and H2B ubiquitylation through recruitment of the PAF elongation complex. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1487-93 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal a novel function for the BUR kinase in transcriptional regulation through the selective control of histone modifications. ..
  12. Schäfer T, Strauss D, Petfalski E, Tollervey D, Hurt E. The path from nucleolar 90S to cytoplasmic 40S pre-ribosomes. EMBO J. 2003;22:1370-80 pubmed
    ..Our data provide an initial biochemical map of the pre-40S ribosomal subunit on its path from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. This pathway involves fewer changes in composition than seen during 60S biogenesis. ..
  13. Eisenberg T, Knauer H, Schauer A, Buttner S, Ruckenstuhl C, Carmona Gutierrez D, et al. Induction of autophagy by spermidine promotes longevity. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that enhanced autophagy is crucial for polyamine-induced suppression of necrosis and enhanced longevity...
  14. Dong C, Lin Z, Diao W, Li D, Chu X, Wang Z, et al. The Elp2 subunit is essential for elongator complex assembly and functional regulation. Structure. 2015;23:1078-86 pubmed publisher
    Elongator is a highly conserved multiprotein complex composed of six subunits (Elp1-6)...
  15. Li Y, Takagi Y, Jiang Y, Tokunaga M, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. A multiprotein complex that interacts with RNA polymerase II elongator. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29628-31 pubmed
    ..Preferential interaction of the Hap complex with free rather than RNA polymerase II-associated Elongator suggests a role in the regulation of Elongator activity. ..
  16. Abdel Fattah W, Jablonowski D, Di Santo R, Thüring K, Scheidt V, Hammermeister A, et al. Phosphorylation of Elp1 by Hrr25 is required for elongator-dependent tRNA modification in yeast. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004931 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous work, we showed that Elongator's largest subunit (Elp1; also known as Iki3) was phosphorylated and implicated the yeast casein kinase I Hrr25 in Elongator function...
  17. Lin Z, Dong M, Zhang Y, Lee E, Lin H. Cbr1 is a Dph3 reductase required for the tRNA wobble uridine modification. Nat Chem Biol. 2016;12:995-997 pubmed publisher
    ..The NADH- and Cbr1-dependent reduction of Dph3 may provide a regulatory linkage between cellular metabolic state and protein translation. ..
  18. Xu H, Bygdell J, Wingsle G, Byström A. Yeast Elongator protein Elp1p does not undergo proteolytic processing in exponentially growing cells. Microbiologyopen. 2015;4:867-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, our results indicate that N-terminal truncation of Elp1p is not likely to regulate Elongator complex activity. ..
  19. Xu H, Lin Z, Li F, Diao W, Dong C, Zhou H, et al. Dimerization of elongator protein 1 is essential for Elongator complex assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:10697-702 pubmed publisher
    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which is composed of six subunits elongator protein 1 (Elp1 to -6), plays vital roles in gene regulation...
  20. Setiaputra D, Cheng D, Lu S, Hansen J, Dalwadi U, Lam C, et al. Molecular architecture of the yeast Elongator complex reveals an unexpected asymmetric subunit arrangement. EMBO Rep. 2017;18:280-291 pubmed publisher
    ..Conserved from yeast to humans, Elongator is assembled from two copies of six unique subunits (Elp1 to Elp6)...
  21. Fellows J, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Svejstrup J. The Elp2 subunit of elongator and elongating RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a WD40 repeat protein. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12896-9 pubmed
    ..Generally, different combinations of double and triple ELP gene deletions cause the same phenotypes as single ELP1, ELP2, or ELP3 deletion, providing genetic evidence that the ELP gene products work together in a complex.
  22. Chin J, Bashkirov V, Heyer W, Romesberg F. Esc4/Rtt107 and the control of recombination during replication. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:618-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that Esc4 associates with ssDNA of stalled forks and acts as a scaffolding protein to recruit and/or modulate the function of other proteins required to reinitiate DNA synthesis. ..
  23. Jona G, Wittschieben B, Svejstrup J, Gileadi O. Involvement of yeast carboxy-terminal domain kinase I (CTDK-I) in transcription elongation in vivo. Gene. 2001;267:31-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that CTDK-I plays an important role in transcriptional elongation in vivo, possibly by creating a form of RNA polymerase that is less prone to transcriptional arrest. ..
  24. Xue Y, Kowalska A, Grabowska K, Przybyt K, Cichewicz M, Del Rosario B, et al. Histone chaperones Nap1 and Vps75 regulate histone acetylation during transcription elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1645-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This work sheds further light on the importance of histone chaperones as general regulators of transcription elongation. ..
  25. James A, Cocheme H, Murai M, Miyoshi H, Murphy M. Complementation of coenzyme Q-deficient yeast by coenzyme Q analogues requires the isoprenoid side chain. FEBS J. 2010;277:2067-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we suggest that CoQ or its redox state may be a signal for growth during the shift to respiration. ..
  26. Zabel R, Bär C, Mehlgarten C, Schaffrath R. Yeast alpha-tubulin suppressor Ats1/Kti13 relates to the Elongator complex and interacts with Elongator partner protein Kti11. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:175-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, our data suggest that Kti13 and Kti11 support Elongator functions and that they both share Elongator-independent role(s) that are important for cell viability. ..
  27. Nourani A, Utley R, Allard S, Cote J. Recruitment of the NuA4 complex poises the PHO5 promoter for chromatin remodeling and activation. EMBO J. 2004;23:2597-607 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that, before induction, NuA4 complex recruitment by Pho2 is an essential event that presets the PHO5 promoter for subsequent binding by Pho4, chromatin remodeling and transcription. ..
  28. Daudén M, Kosinski J, Kolaj Robin O, Desfosses A, Ori A, Faux C, et al. Architecture of the yeast Elongator complex. EMBO Rep. 2017;18:264-279 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex is formed by six individual subunits (Elp1-6) that are all equally important for its tRNA modification activity...