Gene Symbol: HTB2
Description: histone H2B
Alias: histone H2B
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     HTB2

Top Publications

  1. VanDemark A, Blanksma M, Ferris E, Heroux A, Hill C, Formosa T. The structure of the yFACT Pob3-M domain, its interaction with the DNA replication factor RPA, and a potential role in nucleosome deposition. Mol Cell. 2006;22:363-74 pubmed
    ..These results support the model that the FACT family has an essential role in constructing nucleosomes during DNA replication, and suggest that RPA contributes to this process. ..
  2. Westermann S, Cheeseman I, Anderson S, Yates J, Drubin D, Barnes G. Architecture of the budding yeast kinetochore reveals a conserved molecular core. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:215-22 pubmed
    ..We propose that a molecular core consisting of CENP-A, -C, -H, and Ndc80/HEC has been conserved from yeast to humans to link centromeres to spindle microtubules. ..
  3. White C, Suto R, Luger K. Structure of the yeast nucleosome core particle reveals fundamental changes in internucleosome interactions. EMBO J. 2001;20:5207-18 pubmed
    ..Finally, the yeast nucleosome core particle provides a structural context by which to interpret genetic data obtained from yeast. Coordinates have been deposited with the Protein Data Bank under accession number 1ID3. ..
  4. Park Y, Sudhoff K, Andrews A, Stargell L, Luger K. Histone chaperone specificity in Rtt109 activation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:957-64 pubmed
    ..Nap1 and Vps75 interact with histones and Rtt109 with comparable affinities. However, only Vps75 stimulates Rtt109 enzymatic activity. Our data highlight the functional specificity of Vps75 in Rtt109 activation. ..
  5. Camahort R, Shivaraju M, Mattingly M, Li B, Nakanishi S, Zhu D, et al. Cse4 is part of an octameric nucleosome in budding yeast. Mol Cell. 2009;35:794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our experimental evidence supports the model that the Cse4 nucleosome is an octamer, containing two copies each of Cse4, H2A, H2B, and H4. ..
  6. Ahn S, Cheung W, Hsu J, Diaz R, Smith M, Allis C. Sterile 20 kinase phosphorylates histone H2B at serine 10 during hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. Cell. 2005;120:25-36 pubmed
    Apoptosis is a highly coordinated cell suicide mechanism in vertebrates. Phosphorylation of serine 14 of histone H2B, catalyzed by Mst1 kinase, has been linked to chromatin compaction during apoptosis...
  7. Wyce A, Xiao T, Whelan K, Kosman C, Walter W, Eick D, et al. H2B ubiquitylation acts as a barrier to Ctk1 nucleosomal recruitment prior to removal by Ubp8 within a SAGA-related complex. Mol Cell. 2007;27:275-88 pubmed
    Histone modifications play an important role in transcription. We previously studied histone H2B ubiquitylation on lysine 123 and subsequent deubiquitylation by SAGA-associated Ubp8...
  8. D Arcy S, Martin K, Panchenko T, Chen X, Bergeron S, Stargell L, et al. Chaperone Nap1 shields histone surfaces used in a nucleosome and can put H2A-H2B in an unconventional tetrameric form. Mol Cell. 2013;51:662-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The organization of the complex reveals that Nap1 competes with histone-DNA and interhistone interactions observed in the nucleosome, thereby regulating the availability of histones for chromatin assembly. ..
  9. Chandrasekharan M, Huang F, Sun Z. Ubiquitination of histone H2B regulates chromatin dynamics by enhancing nucleosome stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16686-91 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism by which ubiquitination of histone H2B (H2Bub1) regulates H3-K4 and -K79 methylation and the histone H2A-H2B chaperone Spt16-mediated nucleosome dynamics during transcription is not fully understood...

More Information


  1. Geng F, Tansey W. Polyubiquitylation of histone H2B. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3616-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The prototypical example of histone ubiquitylation is that of histone H2B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  2. Grant P, Eberharter A, John S, Cook R, Turner B, Workman J. Expanded lysine acetylation specificity of Gcn5 in native complexes. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5895-900 pubmed
    ..Furthermore Ada and SAGA have overlapping, yet distinct, patterns of acetylation, suggesting that the association of specific subunits determines site specificity. ..
  3. Liu H, Zhang M, He W, Zhu Z, Teng M, Gao Y, et al. Structural insights into yeast histone chaperone Hif1: a scaffold protein recruiting protein complexes to core histones. Biochem J. 2014;462:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..By binding to the core histone complex Hif1 may recruit functional protein complexes to modify histones during chromatin reassembly. ..
  4. Dechassa M, Wyns K, Luger K. Scm3 deposits a (Cse4-H4)2 tetramer onto DNA through a Cse4-H4 dimer intermediate. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:5532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that Cse4 and H3 are structurally compatible to be incorporated in the same nucleosome to form heterotypic particles. Our data shed light on the mechanism of Scm3-mediated nucleosome assembly at the centromere. ..
  5. Leung A, Cajigas I, Jia P, Ezhkova E, Brickner J, Zhao Z, et al. Histone H2B ubiquitylation and H3 lysine 4 methylation prevent ectopic silencing of euchromatic loci important for the cellular response to heat. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2741-53 pubmed publisher
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ubiquitylation of histone H2B signals methylation of histone H3 at lysine residues 4 (K4) and 79...
  6. Kim J, Guermah M, McGinty R, Lee J, Tang Z, Milne T, et al. RAD6-Mediated transcription-coupled H2B ubiquitylation directly stimulates H3K4 methylation in human cells. Cell. 2009;137:459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies establish the natural H2B ubiquitylation factors in human cells and also detail the mechanistic basis for H2B ubiquitylation and function during transcription. ..
  7. Ahn S, Diaz R, Grunstein M, Allis C. Histone H2B deacetylation at lysine 11 is required for yeast apoptosis induced by phosphorylation of H2B at serine 10. Mol Cell. 2006;24:211-20 pubmed
    ..Apoptotic chromatin condensation has been causally linked to the phosphorylation of histone H2B (serine 14 in human; serine 10 in yeast, H2BS10ph) in human and yeast cells...
  8. Xu F, Zhang K, Grunstein M. Acetylation in histone H3 globular domain regulates gene expression in yeast. Cell. 2005;121:375-85 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that histone H3 K56 acetylation at the entry-exit gate enables recruitment of the SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeling complex and so regulates gene activity. ..
  9. McCullough L, Rawlins R, Olsen A, Xin H, Stillman D, Formosa T. Insight into the mechanism of nucleosome reorganization from histone mutants that suppress defects in the FACT histone chaperone. Genetics. 2011;188:835-46 pubmed publisher
  10. Hansen D, Zhou Z, Feng H, Miller Jenkins L, Bai Y, Kay L. Binding kinetics of histone chaperone Chz1 and variant histone H2A.Z-H2B by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy. J Mol Biol. 2009;387:1-9 pubmed
    ..Z-H2B to the chromatin remodeling complex, and the faster-than-diffusion association rate, 10(8) +/- 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), establishes the importance of attractive electrostatic interactions that form the chaperone-histone complex. ..
  11. Rothenbusch U, Sawatzki M, Chang Y, Caesar S, Schlenstedt G. Sumoylation regulates Kap114-mediated nuclear transport. EMBO J. 2012;31:2461-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, sumoylation of Kap114 greatly stimulates cargo dissociation in vitro. We propose that sumoylation occurs at the site of Kap114 cargo function and that SUMO is a cargo release factor involved in intranuclear targeting. ..
  12. Boeger H, Griesenbeck J, Strattan J, Kornberg R. Removal of promoter nucleosomes by disassembly rather than sliding in vivo. Mol Cell. 2004;14:667-73 pubmed
    ..Whereas sliding would conserve the number of nucleosomes on the circle, we found that the number was diminished, demonstrating chromatin remodeling by nucleosome disassembly. ..
  13. Hornung P, Troć P, Malvezzi F, Maier M, Demianova Z, Zimniak T, et al. A cooperative mechanism drives budding yeast kinetochore assembly downstream of CENP-A. J Cell Biol. 2014;206:509-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This two-step mechanism may protect against inappropriate kinetochore assembly similar to rate-limiting nucleation steps used by cytoskeletal polymers. ..
  14. Wang A, Aristizabal M, Ryan C, Krogan N, Kobor M. Key functional regions in the histone variant H2A.Z C-terminal docking domain. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3871-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Z(1-114) truncation still bound the H2A.Z deposition complex SWR1-C, the histone chaperone Chz1, and histone H2B. These data are consistent with a model in which retaining the variant in chromatin after its deposition by ..
  15. Song Y, Ahn S. A Bre1-associated protein, large 1 (Lge1), promotes H2B ubiquitylation during the early stages of transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2361-7 pubmed publisher
    Transcription activation has been proposed to require both ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation of histone H2B. Here, we show that Lge1 (Large 1) is found in a complex containing Rad6...
  16. Onishi M, Liou G, Buchberger J, Walz T, Moazed D. Role of the conserved Sir3-BAH domain in nucleosome binding and silent chromatin assembly. Mol Cell. 2007;28:1015-28 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations suggest that the SIR complex associates with an extended chromatin fiber through interactions with two different regions in the nucleosome. ..
  17. Grunstein M. Histone function in transcription. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1990;6:643-78 pubmed
  18. Syntichaki P, Thireos G. The Gcn5.Ada complex potentiates the histone acetyltransferase activity of Gcn5. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:24414-9 pubmed
    ..Because Ada2 is required for the assembly of Gcn5, we conclude that one role for components of the Gcn5.Ada complex is the potentiation of its HAT activity. ..
  19. Mao P, Meas R, Dorgan K, Smerdon M. UV damage-induced RNA polymerase II stalling stimulates H2B deubiquitylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12811-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Histone H2B monoubiquitylation plays an important role in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation. Whether this modification responds to RNAPII stalling is not yet known...
  20. Van Oss S, Shirra M, Bataille A, Wier A, Yen K, Vinayachandran V, et al. The Histone Modification Domain of Paf1 Complex Subunit Rtf1 Directly Stimulates H2B Ubiquitylation through an Interaction with Rad6. Mol Cell. 2016;64:815-825 pubmed publisher
    ..yeast Paf1 complex (Paf1C) regulates all stages of transcription and is critical for the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub), a modification that broadly influences chromatin structure and eukaryotic transcription...
  21. Zheng S, Crickard J, Srikanth A, Reese J. A highly conserved region within H2B is important for FACT to act on nucleosomes. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:303-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We have uncovered a previously unappreciated role for the HBR domain in regulating chromatin structure and have provided insight into how FACT acts on nucleosomes. ..
  22. Fukuma M, Hiraoka Y, Sakurai H, Fukasawa T. Purification of yeast histones competent for nucleosome assembly in vitro. Yeast. 1994;10:319-31 pubmed
    ..The length of DNA fragment wrapping around a core histone particle and the molar ratio of histone components in an assembled nucleosome particle were estimated to be 150 +/- 10 bp long and H2A:H2B:H3:H4 = 1.0:0.9:0:9:1.0, respectively. ..
  23. Shukla A, Stanojevic N, Duan Z, Shadle T, Bhaumik S. Functional analysis of H2B-Lys-123 ubiquitination in regulation of H3-Lys-4 methylation and recruitment of RNA polymerase II at the coding sequences of several active genes in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19045-54 pubmed
    Previous biochemical studies have demonstrated that Lys-123 ubiquitination of histone H2B is globally required for up-regulation of mono-, di, and trimethylation of Lys-4 of histone H3...
  24. Calvert M, Keck K, Ptak C, Shabanowitz J, Hunt D, Pemberton L. Phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 regulates Nap1 localization and function. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1313-25 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data show that Nap1 phosphorylation by CK2 appears to regulate Nap1 localization and is required for normal progression through S phase. ..
  25. Kyriss M, Jin Y, Gallegos I, Sanford J, Wyrick J. Novel functional residues in the core domain of histone H2B regulate yeast gene expression and silencing and affect the response to DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3503-18 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have identified novel modifications in the core fold domain of histone H2B, but relatively little is known about the function of these putative histone modification sites...
  26. Tian R, Hoa X, Lambert J, Pezacki J, Veres T, Figeys D. Development of a multiplexed microfluidic proteomic reactor and its application for studying protein-protein interactions. Anal Chem. 2011;83:4095-102 pubmed publisher
  27. Mitsumori R, Shinmyozu K, Nakayama J, Uchida H, Oki M. Gic1 is a novel heterochromatin boundary protein in vivo. Genes Genet Syst. 2016;91:151-159 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we performed domain analysis to identify domain(s) of Gic1 that are important for its boundary activity, and identified two minimum domains, which are located outside its Cdc42-binding domain. ..
  28. Köhler A, Zimmerman E, Schneider M, Hurt E, Zheng N. Structural basis for assembly and activation of the heterotetrameric SAGA histone H2B deubiquitinase module. Cell. 2010;141:606-17 pubmed publisher
    ..the SAGA complex and, together with Sgf11, Sus1, and Sgf73, forms a DUB module responsible for deubiquitinating histone H2B during gene expression...
  29. Lee J, Garrett A, Yen K, Takahashi Y, Hu D, Jackson J, et al. Codependency of H2B monoubiquitination and nucleosome reassembly on Chd1. Genes Dev. 2012;26:914-9 pubmed publisher
    Monoubiquitination of histone H2B on Lys 123 (H2BK123ub) is a transient histone modification considered to be essential for establishing H3K4 and H3K79 trimethylation by Set1/COMPASS and Dot1, respectively...
  30. Tomson B, Davis C, Warner M, Arndt K. Identification of a role for histone H2B ubiquitylation in noncoding RNA 3'-end formation through mutational analysis of Rtf1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;188:273-89 pubmed publisher conserved from yeast to humans, which we termed the histone modification domain, resulted in the loss of histone H2B ubiquitylation and impaired histone H3 methylation...
  31. Klöckner C, Schneider M, Lutz S, Jani D, Kressler D, Stewart M, et al. Mutational uncoupling of the role of Sus1 in nuclear pore complex targeting of an mRNA export complex and histone H2B deubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:12049-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Sus1 mediates its different roles as a component of both the histone H2B deubiquitinating module (Sus1-Sgf11-Ubp8-Sgf73) of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase) transcriptional co-..
  32. Yang X, Zaurin R, Beato M, Peterson C. Swi3p controls SWI/SNF assembly and ATP-dependent H2A-H2B displacement. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:540-7 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that H2A-H2B dimer loss is not an obligatory consequence of ATP-dependent DNA translocation, and furthermore they suggest that SWI/SNF is composed of at least four interdependent modules. ..
  33. Morillo Huesca M, Maya D, Muñoz Centeno M, Singh R, Oreal V, Reddy G, et al. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000964 pubmed publisher
  34. Mekhail K, Seebacher J, Gygi S, Moazed D. Role for perinuclear chromosome tethering in maintenance of genome stability. Nature. 2008;456:667-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore reveal an ancient mechanism in which interactions between INM proteins and chromosomal proteins ensure genome stability. ..
  35. Baboshina O, Haas A. Novel multiubiquitin chain linkages catalyzed by the conjugating enzymes E2EPF and RAD6 are recognized by 26 S proteasome subunit 5. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2823-31 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the linkage specificity exhibited by these E2 isozymes depends on their catalytic context with respect to isopeptide ligase. ..
  36. Park Y, Luger K. The structure of nucleosome assembly protein 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1248-53 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first structure of a member of the large NAP family of proteins and suggests a mechanism by which the shuttling of histones to and from the nucleus is regulated. ..
  37. Stevens J, O Donnell A, Perry T, Benjamin J, Barnes C, Johnston G, et al. FACT, the Bur kinase pathway, and the histone co-repressor HirC have overlapping nucleosome-related roles in yeast transcription elongation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25644 pubmed publisher
  38. Gilbert T, McDaniel S, Byrum S, Cades J, Dancy B, Wade H, et al. A PWWP domain-containing protein targets the NuA3 acetyltransferase complex via histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation to coordinate transcriptional elongation at coding regions. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13:2883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies define a new form of the NuA3 complex that associates with H3K36me3 to effect transcriptional elongation. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001156. ..
  39. Emre N, Ingvarsdottir K, Wyce A, Wood A, Krogan N, Henry K, et al. Maintenance of low histone ubiquitylation by Ubp10 correlates with telomere-proximal Sir2 association and gene silencing. Mol Cell. 2005;17:585-94 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that these H2B-deubiquitylating enzymes have distinct genomic functions. ..
  40. Wu W, Alami S, Luk E, Wu C, Sen S, Mizuguchi G, et al. Swc2 is a widely conserved H2AZ-binding module essential for ATP-dependent histone exchange. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:1064-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, the C-terminal alpha-helix of H2AZ is crucial for its recognition by SWR1. These findings provide insight on the initial events of histone exchange. ..
  41. Chittuluru J, Chaban Y, Monnet Saksouk J, Carrozza M, Sapountzi V, Selleck W, et al. Structure and nucleosome interaction of the yeast NuA4 and Piccolo-NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:1196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results provide an understanding of the NuA4 subunit organization and the NuA4-NCP interactions. ..
  42. McDonough M, Sangan P, Gonda D. Characterization of novel yeast RAD6 (UBC2) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme mutants constructed by charge-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:580-5 pubmed
  43. Chandrasekharan M, Huang F, Chen Y, Sun Z. Histone H2B C-terminal helix mediates trans-histone H3K4 methylation independent of H2B ubiquitination. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3216-32 pubmed publisher
  44. Köhler A, Schneider M, Cabal G, Nehrbass U, Hurt E. Yeast Ataxin-7 links histone deubiquitination with gene gating and mRNA export. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:707-15 pubmed publisher
    ..10), the yeast orthologue of human Ataxin-7 (ref. 11), as a regulator of histone H2B ubiquitin levels, a modification linked to both transcription initiation and elongation...
  45. Zhang X, Kolaczkowska A, Devaux F, Panwar S, Hallstrom T, Jacq C, et al. Transcriptional regulation by Lge1p requires a function independent of its role in histone H2B ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2759-70 pubmed
    ..Lge1p is a nuclear protein that has been found to play a role in ubiquitination of histone H2B at Lys(123)...
  46. Giannattasio M, Lazzaro F, Plevani P, Muzi Falconi M. The DNA damage checkpoint response requires histone H2B ubiquitination by Rad6-Bre1 and H3 methylation by Dot1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9879-86 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that ubiquitination of histone H2B on lysine 123 by the Rad6-Bre1 complex, is necessary for activation of Rad53 kinase and cell cycle arrest...
  47. Keogh M, Kim J, Downey M, Fillingham J, Chowdhury D, Harrison J, et al. A phosphatase complex that dephosphorylates gammaH2AX regulates DNA damage checkpoint recovery. Nature. 2006;439:497-501 pubmed
    ..The dephosphorylation of gammaH2AX by the HTP-C is necessary for efficient recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint. ..
  48. Mizuguchi G, Shen X, Landry J, Wu W, Sen S, Wu C. ATP-driven exchange of histone H2AZ variant catalyzed by SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex. Science. 2004;303:343-8 pubmed
    ..These findings define a previously unknown role for the adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling machinery. ..
  49. Turco E, Gallego L, Schneider M, Köhler A. Monoubiquitination of histone H2B is intrinsic to the Bre1 RING domain-Rad6 interaction and augmented by a second Rad6-binding site on Bre1. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:5298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..The yeast RING E3 ligase Bre1 combines with the E2 Rad6 to monoubiquitinate histone H2B during transcription...
  50. Luk E, Vu N, Patteson K, Mizuguchi G, Wu W, Ranjan A, et al. Chz1, a nuclear chaperone for histone H2AZ. Mol Cell. 2007;25:357-68 pubmed
    ..The presence of this motif in other metazoan proteins suggests that H2AZ-specific chaperones may be widely conserved. ..
  51. Buttner S, Eisenberg T, Carmona Gutierrez D, Ruli D, Knauer H, Ruckenstuhl C, et al. Endonuclease G regulates budding yeast life and death. Mol Cell. 2007;25:233-46 pubmed
    ..Instead, the permeability transition pore, karyopherin Kap123p, and histone H2B interact with Nuc1p and are required for cell death upon Nuc1p overexpression, suggesting a pathway in which ..
  52. Cucinotta C, Young A, Klucevsek K, Arndt K. The Nucleosome Acidic Patch Regulates the H2B K123 Monoubiquitylation Cascade and Transcription Elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005420 pubmed publisher
    ..In S. cerevisiae, the mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B on lysine 123 (H2B K123ub) affects nucleosome stability, broadly influences gene expression and other DNA-..
  53. Mirzaei H, Rogers R, Grimes B, Eng J, Aderem A, Aebersold R. Characterizing the connectivity of poly-ubiquitin chains by selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Mol Biosyst. 2010;6:2004-14 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae. We then applied the method to detect toxin induced changes in the poly-ubiquitination profile in complex and enriched protein samples. ..
  54. Wu W, Wu C, Ladurner A, Mizuguchi G, Wei D, Xiao H, et al. N terminus of Swr1 binds to histone H2AZ and provides a platform for subunit assembly in the chromatin remodeling complex. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that one SWR1 enzyme might be capable of binding two H2AZ-H2B dimers, and provide further insight on the hierarchy and interdependency of molecular interactions within the SWR1 complex. ..