Gene Symbol: HSF1
Description: stress-responsive transcription factor HSF1
Alias: EXA3, MAS3, stress-responsive transcription factor HSF1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Hahn J, Thiele D. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor under glucose starvation conditions by Snf1 protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5169-76 pubmed
    ..Although the mammalian stress-responsive HSF1 isoform is activated in response to a wide array of seemingly unrelated stresses, including heat shock, ..
  2. Lee P, Cho B, Joo H, Hahn J. Yeast Yak1 kinase, a bridge between PKA and stress-responsive transcription factors, Hsf1 and Msn2/Msn4. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:882-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Hsf1 and Msn2/Msn4 transcription factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae play important roles in cellular homeostasis by activating gene expression in response to multiple stresses including heat shock, oxidative stress and nutrient ..
  3. Nelson R, Heschl M, Craig E. Isolation and characterization of extragenic suppressors of mutations in the SSA hsp70 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1992;131:277-85 pubmed
    ..Suppression is due to mutations at nuclear loci designated EXA1, EXA2 and EXA3 for EXtragenic suppressor hsp70 subfamily A. Two of the four EXA1 alleles are dominant as is EXA3-1...
  4. Bandhakavi S, Xie H, O Callaghan B, Sakurai H, Kim D, Griffin T. Hsf1 activation inhibits rapamycin resistance and TOR signaling in yeast revealed by combined proteomic and genetic analysis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1598 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the stress regulators tested, we found that cells (hsf1-R206S, F256S and ssa1-3 ssa2-2) constitutively activated for heat shock transcription factor 1, Hsf1, inhibited ..
  5. Morano K, Santoro N, Koch K, Thiele D. A trans-activation domain in yeast heat shock transcription factor is essential for cell cycle progression during stress. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:402-11 pubmed
    ..Depletion of Hsp90 from yeast cells wild type for HSF results in cell cycle arrest in both G1/S and G2/M phases, suggesting a complex requirement for chaperone function in mitotic division during stress. ..
  6. Liu X, Morano K, Thiele D. The yeast Hsp110 family member, Sse1, is an Hsp90 cochaperone. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26654-60 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data establish Sse1 as an integral new component of the Hsp90 chaperone complex in yeast. ..
  7. Halladay J, Craig E. A heat shock transcription factor with reduced activity suppresses a yeast HSP70 mutant. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4890-7 pubmed
    ..J. Nelson, M. Heschl, and E.A. Craig, Genetics 131:277-285, 1992). Here we report that EXA3-1 is an allele of HSF1, which encodes the heat shock transcription factor (HSF)...
  8. Zarzov P, Boucherie H, Mann C. A yeast heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) mutant is defective in both Hsc82/Hsp82 synthesis and spindle pole body duplication. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 16):1879-91 pubmed
    ..We describe here our phenotypic analysis of two such mutants, hsf1-82 and ydj1-10, that affect the heat shock transcription factor and a yeast dnaj-like protein chaperone, ..
  9. Morano K, Thiele D. The Sch9 protein kinase regulates Hsp90 chaperone complex signal transduction activity in vivo. EMBO J. 1999;18:5953-62 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the evolutionarily conserved function of the Hsp90 chaperone complex as a signal transduction facilitator is modulated by a growth regulatory kinase. ..

More Information


  1. Imazu H, Sakurai H. Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor regulates cell wall remodeling in response to heat shock. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1050-6 pubmed
    The heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins and a variety of other proteins as well...
  2. Cho B, Hahn J. CK2-dependent phosphorylation positively regulates stress-induced activation of Msn2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017;1860:695-704 pubmed publisher
  3. Erkina T, Tschetter P, Erkine A. Different requirements of the SWI/SNF complex for robust nucleosome displacement at promoters of heat shock factor and Msn2- and Msn4-regulated heat shock genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1207-17 pubmed
  4. Kaida D, Toh e A, Kikuchi Y. Rsp5-Bul1/2 complex is necessary for the HSE-mediated gene expression in budding yeast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:1037-41 pubmed
    ..The protein level and phosphorylation state of the HSE-binding transcription factor, Hsf1, was not affected by these mutations...
  5. Kaplan Y, Kupiec M. A role for the yeast cell cycle/splicing factor Cdc40 in the G1/S transition. Curr Genet. 2007;51:123-40 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms of suppression by the cDNAs that imply cell cycle regulation by apparently unrelated processes, such as splicing, translation initiation and glycolysis. ..
  6. Pérez Landero S, Sandoval Motta S, Martínez Anaya C, Yang R, Folch Mallol J, Martínez L, et al. Complex regulation of Hsf1-Skn7 activities by the catalytic subunits of PKA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: experimental and computational evidences. BMC Syst Biol. 2015;9:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic analysis revealed complex regulatory interactions between the CS that influenced the inhibition of Hsf1/Skn7 transcription factors...
  7. Pincus D. Size doesn't matter in the heat shock response. Curr Genet. 2017;63:175-178 pubmed publisher
    Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is a transcription factor that is often described as the master regulator of the heat shock response in all eukaryotes...
  8. Lee P, Paik S, Shin C, Huh W, Hahn J. Regulation of yeast Yak1 kinase by PKA and autophosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 binding. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:633-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the binding of 14-3-3 proteins to Yak1 coincides with PKA activity, such regulatory mechanisms might allow cytoplasmic retention of an inactive form of Yak1 under high glucose conditions. ..
  9. Nwaka S, Mechler B, von Ahsen O, Holzer H. The heat shock factor and mitochondrial Hsp70 are necessary for survival of heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 1996;399:259-63 pubmed
    ..A HSF1 mutant (hsf1-m3) which does not induce the expression of some heat shock proteins at heat stress (37-40 degrees C) ..
  10. Smith B, Yaffe M. A mutation in the yeast heat-shock factor gene causes temperature-sensitive defects in both mitochondrial protein import and the cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:2647-55 pubmed
    Yeast cells containing the recessive mas3 mutation display temperature-sensitive defects in both mitochondrial protein import and the cell division cycle...
  11. Cohen A, Ross L, Nachman I, Bar Nun S. Aggregation of polyQ proteins is increased upon yeast aging and affected by Sir2 and Hsf1: novel quantitative biochemical and microscopic assays. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44785 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that two aging-related genes, SIR2 and HSF1, affect aggregation of the polyQ proteins...
  12. Raitt D, Johnson A, Erkine A, Makino K, Morgan B, Gross D, et al. The Skn7 response regulator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae interacts with Hsf1 in vivo and is required for the induction of heat shock genes by oxidative stress. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2335-47 pubmed
    ..g., in the induction of the thioredoxin gene in response to hydrogen peroxide. The yeast Heat Shock Factor, Hsf1, is central to the induction of another set of stress-inducible genes, namely the heat shock genes...
  13. Noguchi C, Watanabe D, Zhou Y, Akao T, Shimoi H. Association of constitutive hyperphosphorylation of Hsf1p with a defective ethanol stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Since HSF1 allele replacement did not significantly affect the HSE-mediated ethanol stress response or Hsf1p phosphorylation ..
  14. Haitani Y, Shimoi H, Takagi H. Rsp5 regulates expression of stress proteins via post-translational modification of Hsf1 and Msn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:3433-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the amounts of transcription factors Hsf1 and Msn4 were remarkably defective in the rsp5 mutant...
  15. Zander G, Hackmann A, Bender L, Becker D, Lingner T, Salinas G, et al. mRNA quality control is bypassed for immediate export of stress-responsive transcripts. Nature. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..The immediate co-transcriptional loading of Mex67 onto heat-shock mRNAs involves Hsf1, a heat-shock transcription factor that binds to heat-shock-promoter elements in stress-responsive genes...
  16. Hahn J, Neef D, Thiele D. A stress regulatory network for co-ordinated activation of proteasome expression mediated by yeast heat shock transcription factor. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:240-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, the overlapping transcriptional regulatory networks involving HSF, Yap1 and Pdr3 suggest a close linkage between stress responses and pleiotropic drug resistance. ..
  17. Conlin L, Nelson H. The natural osmolyte trehalose is a positive regulator of the heat-induced activity of yeast heat shock transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1505-15 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the transcriptional activity of Hsf1 during the heat shock response depends on trehalose...
  18. Truman A, Millson S, Nuttall J, Mollapour M, Prodromou C, Piper P. In the yeast heat shock response, Hsf1-directed induction of Hsp90 facilitates the activation of the Slt2 (Mpk1) mitogen-activated protein kinase required for cell integrity. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:744-52 pubmed
    Yeast is rendered temperature sensitive with loss of the C-terminal (CT) domain of heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1)...
  19. Kim S, Gross D. Mediator recruitment to heat shock genes requires dual Hsf1 activation domains and mediator tail subunits Med15 and Med16. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:12197-213 pubmed publisher
    ..Their residence is transient, returning to near-background levels within 90 min. Hsf1 (heat shock factor 1) plays a central role in recruiting Mediator, as indicated by the fact that truncation of ..
  20. Millson S, Piper P. Insights from yeast into whether the inhibition of heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) by rapamycin can prevent the Hsf1 activation that results from treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor. Oncotarget. 2014;5:5054-64 pubmed
    In human cells TORC1 mTOR (target of rapamycin) protein kinase complex renders heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) competent for stress activation...
  21. Haitani Y, Takagi H. Rsp5 is required for the nuclear export of mRNA of HSF1 and MSN2/4 under stress conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Cells. 2008;13:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of stress proteins, we analyzed the expression and localization of two major transcription factors, Hsf1 and Msn2/4, required for stress protein gene expression in S. cerevisiae...
  22. Zheng X, Krakowiak J, Patel N, Beyzavi A, Ezike J, Khalil A, et al. Dynamic control of Hsf1 during heat shock by a chaperone switch and phosphorylation. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    Heat shock factor (Hsf1) regulates the expression of molecular chaperones to maintain protein homeostasis. Despite its central role in stress resistance, disease and aging, the mechanisms that control Hsf1 activity remain unresolved...
  23. Yamamoto N, Maeda Y, Ikeda A, Sakurai H. Regulation of thermotolerance by stress-induced transcription factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:783-90 pubmed publisher
    The heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 and the general stress transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 (Msn2/4) are major regulators of the heat shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  24. Liu Y, Chang A. Heat shock response relieves ER stress. EMBO J. 2008;27:1049-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether heat shock response (HSR) can relieve ER stress. Using a constitutively active Hsf1 transcription factor to induce HSR without temperature shift, we find that HSR rescues growth of stressed ire1Delta ..
  25. Solís E, Pandey J, Zheng X, Jin D, Gupta P, Airoldi E, et al. Defining the Essential Function of Yeast Hsf1 Reveals a Compact Transcriptional Program for Maintaining Eukaryotic Proteostasis. Mol Cell. 2016;63:60-71 pubmed publisher
    Despite its eponymous association with the heat shock response, yeast heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is essential even at low temperatures...
  26. Cho B, Lee P, Hahn J. CK2-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation is relieved by Ppt1 phosphatase for the ethanol stress-specific activation of Hsf1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2014;93:306-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that CK2-dependent phosphorylation on S608 is an ethanol stress-specific repression mechanism of Hsf1, which does not affect the basal or heat-induced activity of Hsf1...
  27. Helfant A. Composition of the spindle pole body of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the proteins involved in its duplication. Curr Genet. 2002;40:291-310 pubmed
    ..In addition, genetic and biochemical studies have revealed the functional and physical relationships of certain spindle pole components and proteins important for SPB duplication. ..
  28. Silar P, Butler G, Thiele D. Heat shock transcription factor activates transcription of the yeast metallothionein gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:1232-8 pubmed
  29. Sakurai H, Ota A. Regulation of chaperone gene expression by heat shock transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: importance in normal cell growth, stress resistance, and longevity. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:2744-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, HSF-regulated changes in expression of these chaperone genes are necessary to maintain cell viability under various growth conditions. ..
  30. Bonner J, Carlson T, Fackenthal D, Paddock D, Storey K, Lea K. Complex regulation of the yeast heat shock transcription factor. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1739-51 pubmed
  31. Bulman A, Nelson H. Role of trehalose and heat in the structure of the C-terminal activation domain of the heat shock transcription factor. Proteins. 2005;58:826-35 pubmed
    ..Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSF1 has two functional transcriptional activation domains, located N- and C-terminal to the central core of the protein...
  32. Wang Y, Gibney P, West J, Morano K. The yeast Hsp70 Ssa1 is a sensor for activation of the heat shock response by thiol-reactive compounds. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3290-8 pubmed publisher
    The heat shock transcription factor HSF1 governs the response to heat shock, oxidative stresses, and xenobiotics through unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that diverse thiol-reactive molecules potently activate budding yeast Hsf1...
  33. Lin J, Lis J. Glycogen synthase phosphatase interacts with heat shock factor to activate CUP1 gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3237-45 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that the Glc7 phosphatase and its Gac1 regulatory subunit play positive roles in HSF activation of CUP1 transcription. ..
  34. Sakurai H, Hashikawa N, Imazu H, Fukasawa T. Carboxy-terminal region of the yeast heat shock factor contains two domains that make transcription independent of the TFIIH protein kinase. Genes Cells. 2003;8:951-61 pubmed
    ..is bypassed in certain genes such as SSA4 or CUP1, whose transcription is activated by the heat shock factor Hsf1. We show that C-terminal region of Hsf1, which consists of an activation domain AR2 and a regulatory domain CTM, ..
  35. Wiederrecht G, Seto D, Parker C. Isolation of the gene encoding the S. cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor. Cell. 1988;54:841-53 pubmed
    The yeast heat shock transcription factor gene, HSF1, has been isolated from an S. cerevisiae genomic expression library (in lambda gt11). The sequenced gene encodes an 833 amino acid protein having a mass of 93,218 daltons...
  36. Ball D, Mehta G, Salomon Kent R, Mazza D, Morisaki T, Mueller F, et al. Single molecule tracking of Ace1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae defines a characteristic residence time for non-specific interactions of transcription factors with chromatin. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:e160 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a framework for the reliable performance and analysis of single molecule TF experiments in yeast. ..
  37. Park K, Hahn J, Fan Q, Thiele D, Li L. De novo appearance and "strain" formation of yeast prion [PSI+] are regulated by the heat-shock transcription factor. Genetics. 2006;173:35-47 pubmed
    ..An hsf1 mutant lacking the amino-terminal activation domain inhibits the yeast prion [PSI+] formation whereas a mutant ..
  38. Lee P, Kim M, Paik S, Choi S, Cho B, Hahn J. Rim15-dependent activation of Hsf1 and Msn2/4 transcription factors by direct phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:3648-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Rim15 also induces expression of Hsf1 target genes upon glucose depletion by both transcriptional activation and stabilization of the transcripts...