Gene Symbol: HO
Description: Hop
Alias: Hop
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Kaplun L, Tzirkin R, Bakhrat A, Shabek N, Ivantsiv Y, Raveh D. The DNA damage-inducible UbL-UbA protein Ddi1 participates in Mec1-mediated degradation of Ho endonuclease. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5355-62 pubmed
    b>Ho endonuclease initiates a mating type switch by making a double-strand break at the mating type locus, MAT. Ho is marked by phosphorylation for rapid destruction by functions of the DNA damage response, MEC1, RAD9, and CHK1...
  2. Kaplun L, Ivantsiv Y, Bakhrat A, Raveh D. DNA damage response-mediated degradation of Ho endonuclease via the ubiquitin system involves its nuclear export. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48727-34 pubmed
    Yeast mating switch Ho endonuclease is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin system and this depends on the DNA damage response functions, MEC1, RAD9, and CHK1. A PEST sequence marks Ho for degradation...
  3. Yarrington R, Rudd J, Stillman D. Spatiotemporal cascade of transcription factor binding required for promoter activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:688-98 pubmed publisher
    Promoters often contain multiple binding sites for a single factor. The yeast HO gene contains nine highly conserved binding sites for the SCB (Swi4/6-dependent cell cycle box) binding factor (SBF) complex (composed of Swi4 and Swi6) in ..
  4. Haber J. Lucky breaks: analysis of recombination in Saccharomyces. Mutat Res. 2000;451:53-69 pubmed
  5. Bakhrat A, Baranes Bachar K, Reshef D, Voloshin O, Krichevsky O, Raveh D. Nuclear export of Ho endonuclease of yeast via Msn5. Curr Genet. 2008;54:271-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Msn5, the yeast ortholog, exports primarily phosphorylated cargoes including Ho endonuclease and a number of transcription factors and regulatory proteins...
  6. Zhang Q, Yoon Y, Yu Y, Parnell E, Garay J, Mwangi M, et al. Stochastic expression and epigenetic memory at the yeast HO promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14012-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we address this question by mutating multiple factors in the regulatory pathway of the yeast HO promoter (HOpr) and probing the corresponding promoter activity in single cells using time-lapse fluorescence ..
  7. Bakhrat A, Baranes K, Krichevsky O, Rom I, Schlenstedt G, Pietrokovski S, et al. Nuclear import of ho endonuclease utilizes two nuclear localization signals and four importins of the ribosomal import system. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12218-26 pubmed
    Activity of Ho, the yeast mating switch endonuclease, is restricted to a narrow time window of the cell cycle. Ho is unstable and despite being a nuclear protein is exported to the cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation...
  8. Yosefzon Y, Koh Y, Chritton J, Lande A, Leibovich L, Barziv L, et al. Divergent RNA binding specificity of yeast Puf2p. RNA. 2011;17:1479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This study expands the repertoire of cis elements bound by PUF proteins and suggests new modes by which PUF proteins recognize their mRNA targets. ..
  9. Takahata S, Yu Y, Stillman D. FACT and Asf1 regulate nucleosome dynamics and coactivator binding at the HO promoter. Mol Cell. 2009;34:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of the yeast HO gene follows the sequential binding of both sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins and coactivators during the cell ..

More Information


  1. Miller M, Higgin J, Hall T. Basis of altered RNA-binding specificity by PUF proteins revealed by crystal structures of yeast Puf4p. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Using structural information and sequence comparisons, we created a mutant Puf4p protein that preferentially binds to an 8-nt target RNA sequence over a 9-nt sequence and restores binding of each protein repeat to one RNA base. ..
  2. Voloshin O, Bakhrat A, Herrmann S, Raveh D. Transfer of Ho endonuclease and Ufo1 to the proteasome by the UbL-UbA shuttle protein, Ddi1, analysed by complex formation in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39210 pubmed publisher
    The F-box protein, Ufo1, recruits Ho endonuclease to the SCF(Ufo1) complex for ubiquitylation...
  3. Mitra D, Parnell E, Landon J, Yu Y, Stillman D. SWI/SNF binding to the HO promoter requires histone acetylation and stimulates TATA-binding protein recruitment. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:4095-110 pubmed
    ..assays to show that the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase in SAGA is required for SWI/SNF association with the HO promoter and that binding of SWI/SNF and SAGA are interdependent...
  4. Houshmandi S, Olivas W. Yeast Puf3 mutants reveal the complexity of Puf-RNA binding and identify a loop required for regulation of mRNA decay. RNA. 2005;11:1655-66 pubmed
    ..Each of these amino acid changes in Puf3p enhanced binding to the Puf5p target HO RNA, suggesting a different mode of binding to this target...
  5. Parnell E, Yu Y, Lucena R, Yoon Y, Bai L, Kellogg D, et al. The Rts1 regulatory subunit of PP2A phosphatase controls expression of the HO endonuclease via localization of the Ace2 transcription factor. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:35431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..examine expression of Ace2 and Swi5 target genes and find that an rts1 mutation markedly reduces expression of the HO gene...
  6. Strathern J, Klar A, Hicks J, Abraham J, Ivy J, Nasmyth K, et al. Homothallic switching of yeast mating type cassettes is initiated by a double-stranded cut in the MAT locus. Cell. 1982;31:183-92 pubmed
    ..Cutting is observed in exponentially growing cells of genotype HO HML alpha MAT alpha HMR alpha or HO HMLa MATa HMRa, which switch continuously, but not in a/alpha HO/HO diploid ..
  7. Blewett N, Goldstrohm A. A eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein promotes mRNA decapping and is required for PUF repression. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4181-94 pubmed
    ..The implication of these findings is that a 4E-BP can repress protein expression by promoting specific mRNA degradation steps in addition to or in lieu of inhibiting translation initiation. ..
  8. Mathias J, Hanlon S, O Flanagan R, Sengupta A, Vershon A. Repression of the yeast HO gene by the MATalpha2 and MATa1 homeodomain proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:6469-78 pubmed
    The HO gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by a large and complex promoter that is similar to promoters in higher order eukaryotes...
  9. Kostriken R, Strathern J, Klar A, Hicks J, Heffron F. A site-specific endonuclease essential for mating-type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell. 1983;35:167-74 pubmed
    ..The second endonuclease, which we refer to as Sce II, is present in all strains of S. cerevisiae we have examined. The cleavage site of Sce II has been determined and proves to be unrelated to the cleavage site of YZ endo. ..