Gene Symbol: HIR1
Description: Hir1p
Alias: Hir1p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     HIR1

Top Publications

  1. Sharp J, Fouts E, Krawitz D, Kaufman P. Yeast histone deposition protein Asf1p requires Hir proteins and PCNA for heterochromatic silencing. Curr Biol. 2001;11:463-73 pubmed
    ..Also, Asf1p bound to the Hir1p and Hir2p proteins in vitro and in cell extracts...
  2. Krawitz D, Kama T, Kaufman P. Chromatin assembly factor I mutants defective for PCNA binding require Asf1/Hir proteins for silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:614-25 pubmed
    ..We also observed a weak interaction between Asf1p and Cac2p in vitro, and we hypothesize that this interaction underlies the functional synergy between these histone deposition proteins. ..
  3. Kaufman P, Cohen J, Osley M. Hir proteins are required for position-dependent gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the absence of chromatin assembly factor I. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4793-806 pubmed
  4. Amin A, Dimova D, Ferreira M, Vishnoi N, Hancock L, Osley M, et al. The mitotic Clb cyclins are required to alleviate HIR-mediated repression of the yeast histone genes at the G1/S transition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1819:16-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIR complex, comprised of Hir1, Hir2, Hir3 and Hpc2, regulates three of the four histone gene loci...
  5. Harkness T, Arnason T, Legrand C, Pisclevich M, Davies G, Turner E. Contribution of CAF-I to anaphase-promoting-complex-mediated mitotic chromatin assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:673-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, increased expression of genes encoding Asf1p, Hir1p, and Hir2p suppressed the apc5(CA) Ts- defect in a CAF-I-dependent manner...
  6. Meijsing S, Ehrenhofer Murray A. The silencing complex SAS-I links histone acetylation to the assembly of repressed chromatin by CAF-I and Asf1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2001;15:3169-82 pubmed
  7. Lopes da Rosa J, Holik J, Green E, Rando O, Kaufman P. Overlapping regulation of CenH3 localization and histone H3 turnover by CAF-1 and HIR proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;187:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated broader distribution of Cse4 outside of centromeres in cac1? hir1? double mutant cells that lack both CAF-1 and HIR complexes than in either single mutant...
  8. Miele A, Bystricky K, Dekker J. Yeast silent mating type loci form heterochromatic clusters through silencer protein-dependent long-range interactions. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000478 pubmed publisher
  9. Lin L, Minard L, Johnston G, Singer R, Schultz M. Asf1 can promote trimethylation of H3 K36 by Set2. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1116-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This function of Asf1 promotes the switch from di- to trimethylation of H3 K36 at that gene. These results support the view that Set2 function in chromatin metabolism can intimately involve histone chaperone Asf1. ..

More Information


  1. Dimova D, Nackerdien Z, Furgeson S, Eguchi S, Osley M. A role for transcriptional repressors in targeting the yeast Swi/Snf complex. Mol Cell. 1999;4:75-83 pubmed
    ..We show that Swi/Snf is required for expression of the yeast histone HTA1-HTB1 locus because of the role of Hir1p and Hir2p corepressors in negatively regulating transcription...
  2. Prather D, Krogan N, Emili A, Greenblatt J, Winston F. Identification and characterization of Elf1, a conserved transcription elongation factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10122-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, purification of Elf1 suggests an association with casein kinase II, previously implicated in roles in transcription. Together, these results suggest an important role for Elf1 in the regulation of transcription elongation. ..
  3. Fennessy R, Owen Hughes T. Establishment of a promoter-based chromatin architecture on recently replicated DNA can accommodate variable inter-nucleosome spacing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:7189-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that the chromatin remodelling enzymes responsible for spacing nucleosomes are capable of organizing nucleosomes with a range of different linker DNA lengths. ..
  4. deSilva H, Lee K, Osley M. Functional dissection of yeast Hir1p, a WD repeat-containing transcriptional corepressor. Genetics. 1998;148:657-67 pubmed
    ..Although Hir1p and Hir2p are physically associated in yeast, Hir1p is able to function independently of Hir2p when it is ..
  5. Sharp J, Franco A, Osley M, Kaufman P. Chromatin assembly factor I and Hir proteins contribute to building functional kinetochores in S. cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2002;16:85-100 pubmed
    ..Finally, CAF-I subunits and Hir1 are enriched at centromeres, indicating that these proteins make a direct contribution to centromeric chromatin ..
  6. Spector M, Raff A, deSilva H, Lee K, Osley M. Hir1p and Hir2p function as transcriptional corepressors to regulate histone gene transcription in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:545-52 pubmed
    ..When Hir1p and Hir2p were artificially tethered to yeast promoters, each protein repressed transcription, suggesting that ..
  7. Reis C, Campbell J. Contribution of Trf4/5 and the nuclear exosome to genome stability through regulation of histone mRNA levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;175:993-1010 pubmed
    ..These results identify TRF4, TRF5, and RRP6 as new players in the regulation of histone mRNA levels in yeast. To our knowledge, the histone transcripts are the first mRNAs that are upregulated in Trf mutants. ..
  8. Green E, Antczak A, Bailey A, Franco A, Wu K, Yates J, et al. Replication-independent histone deposition by the HIR complex and Asf1. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2044-9 pubmed
    ..In yeast, Asf1 is required for the contribution of the Hir proteins to gene silencing . Here, we demonstrate that Hir1, Hir2, Hir3, and Hpc2 comprise the HIR complex, which copurifies with the histone deposition protein Asf1...
  9. Prochasson P, Florens L, Swanson S, Washburn M, Workman J. The HIR corepressor complex binds to nucleosomes generating a distinct protein/DNA complex resistant to remodeling by SWI/SNF. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2534-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Hir1, Hir2, Hir3, and Hpc2 proteins form a stable HIR repressor complex...
  10. Sutton A, Bucaria J, Osley M, Sternglanz R. Yeast ASF1 protein is required for cell cycle regulation of histone gene transcription. Genetics. 2001;158:587-96 pubmed
    ..except HTA2-HTB2, this repression requires several trans-acting factors, including the products of the HIR genes, HIR1, HIR2, and HIR3...
  11. Nourani A, Robert F, Winston F. Evidence that Spt2/Sin1, an HMG-like factor, plays roles in transcription elongation, chromatin structure, and genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1496-509 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest a direct link for Spt2 with transcription elongation, chromatin dynamics, and genome stability. ..
  12. Sharp J, Rizki G, Kaufman P. Regulation of histone deposition proteins Asf1/Hir1 by multiple DNA damage checkpoint kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;171:885-99 pubmed
    ..Restoration of silencing to cac1Delta cells required both Hir1 and Asf1, suggesting that Mec1 counteracts functional sequestration of the Asf1/Hir1 complex by Rad53...
  13. Mazzoni C, Palermo V, Torella M, Falcone C. HIR1, the co-repressor of histone gene transcription of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acts as a multicopy suppressor of the apoptotic phenotypes of the LSM4 mRNA degradation mutant. FEMS Yeast Res. 2005;5:1229-35 pubmed
    ..One of these clones carried a DNA fragment containing the HIR1 gene that encodes a transcriptional co-repressor of histone genes...
  14. Palermo V, Cundari E, Mangiapelo E, Falcone C, Mazzoni C. Yeast lsm pro-apoptotic mutants show defects in S-phase entry and progression. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:3991-6 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of the HIR1 gene (Histone transcriptional repressor), previously isolated as a multicopy suppressor of the apoptotic phenotypes ..
  15. Galdieri L, Zhang T, Rogerson D, Vancura A. Reduced Histone Expression or a Defect in Chromatin Assembly Induces Respiration. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1064-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data indicate that altered chromatin structure relieves glucose repression of mitochondrial respiration by inducing transcription of the TCA cycle and OXPHOS genes carried by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. ..
  16. Wyse B, Oshidari R, Rowlands H, Abbasi S, Yankulov K. RRM3 regulates epigenetic conversions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in conjunction with Chromatin Assembly Factor I. Nucleus. 2016;7:405-14 pubmed publisher
    ..which are involved in the reassembly of nucleosomes behind replication forks, but not on the histone chaperone HIR1. We also show that the deletion of RRM3 increases the spontaneous mutation rates in conjunction with CAF-I and ASF1,..
  17. Gradolatto A, Rogers R, Lavender H, Taverna S, Allis C, Aitchison J, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yta7 regulates histone gene expression. Genetics. 2008;179:291-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests a mechanism in which Yta7 is localized to chromatin to establish regions of transcriptional silencing, and that one facet of this cellular mechanism is to modulate transcription of histone genes. ..
  18. Vishnoi N, Flaherty K, Hancock L, Ferreira M, Amin A, Prochasson P. Separation-of-function mutation in HPC2, a member of the HIR complex in S. cerevisiae, results in derepression of the histone genes but does not confer cryptic TATA phenotypes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1809:557-66 pubmed publisher
    The HIR complex, which is comprised of the four proteins Hir1, Hir2, Hir3 and Hpc2, was first characterized as a repressor of three of the four histone gene loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  19. Fillingham J, Kainth P, Lambert J, van Bakel H, Tsui K, Pena Castillo L, et al. Two-color cell array screen reveals interdependent roles for histone chaperones and a chromatin boundary regulator in histone gene repression. Mol Cell. 2009;35:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that this pathway may represent a chromatin regulatory mechanism that is broadly used across the genome. ..
  20. Formosa T, Ruone S, Adams M, Olsen A, Eriksson P, Yu Y, et al. Defects in SPT16 or POB3 (yFACT) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause dependence on the Hir/Hpc pathway: polymerase passage may degrade chromatin structure. Genetics. 2002;162:1557-71 pubmed
    ..was found to be intolerable when combined with a mutation in any member of the set of functionally related genes HIR1, HIR2/SPT1, HIR3/HPC1, or HPC2...
  21. Feser J, Truong D, Das C, Carson J, KIEFT J, Harkness T, et al. Elevated histone expression promotes life span extension. Mol Cell. 2010;39:724-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that maintenance of the fundamental chromatin structure is critical for slowing down the aging process and reveals that increasing the histone supply extends life span. ..
  22. Kim H, Seol J, Han J, Youn H, Cho E. Histone chaperones regulate histone exchange during transcription. EMBO J. 2007;26:4467-74 pubmed
    ..While Asf1 mediated incorporation of external H3/H4 and renewal of pre-existing histones, HIR opposed it. The balance of two opposing activities might be an important mechanism for determining current chromatin states. ..
  23. Gunjan A, Verreault A. A Rad53 kinase-dependent surveillance mechanism that regulates histone protein levels in S. cerevisiae. Cell. 2003;115:537-49 pubmed
    ..Our results argue that Rad53 contributes to genome stability independently of Mec1 by preventing the damaging effects of excess histones both during normal cell cycle progression and in response to DNA damage. ..
  24. Silva A, Xu X, Kim H, Fillingham J, Kislinger T, Mennella T, et al. The replication-independent histone H3-H4 chaperones HIR, ASF1, and RTT106 co-operate to maintain promoter fidelity. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1709-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that nucleosome shielding is the primary means to maintain promoter fidelity, and histone replacement is most efficiently mediated in yeast cells by a HIR/Asf1/H3-H4/Rtt106 pathway. ..