Gene Symbol: HHF2
Description: histone H4
Alias: histone H4
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     HHF2

Top Publications

  1. Clemente Ruiz M, Prado F. Chromatin assembly controls replication fork stability. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..forks is tightly connected with chromatin assembly, a process that can be impaired by the partial depletion of histone H4 leading to recombinogenic DNA damage...
  2. Altaf M, Utley R, Lacoste N, Tan S, Briggs S, Cote J. Interplay of chromatin modifiers on a short basic patch of histone H4 tail defines the boundary of telomeric heterochromatin. Mol Cell. 2007;28:1002-14 pubmed
    ..We found that histone H4 N-terminal domain, unlike other histone tails, interacts with Dot1 and is essential for H3 K79 methylation...
  3. Onishi M, Liou G, Buchberger J, Walz T, Moazed D. Role of the conserved Sir3-BAH domain in nucleosome binding and silent chromatin assembly. Mol Cell. 2007;28:1015-28 pubmed
    ..histone-tail-binding domain and that its binding to nucleosomes is regulated by residues in the N terminus of histone H4 and the globular domain of histone H3 on the exposed surface of the nucleosome...
  4. Mizuguchi G, Xiao H, Wisniewski J, Smith M, Wu C. Nonhistone Scm3 and histones CenH3-H4 assemble the core of centromere-specific nucleosomes. Cell. 2007;129:1153-64 pubmed
    ..Bacterially expressed Scm3 binds directly to and reconstitutes a stoichiometric complex with Cse4 and histone H4 but not with conventional histone H3 and H4...
  5. Zhou Z, Feng H, Zhou B, Ghirlando R, Hu K, Zwolak A, et al. Structural basis for recognition of centromere histone variant CenH3 by the chaperone Scm3. Nature. 2011;472:234-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Scm3(CBD) induces major conformational changes and sterically occludes DNA-binding sites in the structure of Cse4 and H4. These findings have implications for the assembly and architecture of the centromeric nucleosome. ..
  6. Yu Y, Srinivasan M, Nakanishi S, Leatherwood J, Shilatifard A, Sternglanz R. A conserved patch near the C terminus of histone H4 is required for genome stability in budding yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2311-25 pubmed publisher
  7. Xiao H, Mizuguchi G, Wisniewski J, Huang Y, Wei D, Wu C. Nonhistone Scm3 binds to AT-rich DNA to organize atypical centromeric nucleosome of budding yeast. Mol Cell. 2011;43:369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a model in which centromere-bound Scm3 aids recruitment of Cse4/H4 to assemble and maintain an H2A/H2B-deficient centromeric nucleosome. ..
  8. Martino F, Kueng S, Robinson P, Tsai Pflugfelder M, van Leeuwen F, Ziegler M, et al. Reconstitution of yeast silent chromatin: multiple contact sites and O-AADPR binding load SIR complexes onto nucleosomes in vitro. Mol Cell. 2009;33:323-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding of Sir3 to nucleosomes is sensitive to histone H4 N-terminal tail removal, while that of Sir2-4 is not...
  9. Grant P, Eberharter A, John S, Cook R, Turner B, Workman J. Expanded lysine acetylation specificity of Gcn5 in native complexes. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5895-900 pubmed
    ..Furthermore Ada and SAGA have overlapping, yet distinct, patterns of acetylation, suggesting that the association of specific subunits determines site specificity. ..

More Information


  1. Clarke A, Lowell J, Jacobson S, Pillus L. Esa1p is an essential histone acetyltransferase required for cell cycle progression. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2515-26 pubmed
    ..mutant alleles abolish enzymatic activity in vitro and result in partial loss of an acetylated isoform of histone H4 in vivo...
  2. Camahort R, Shivaraju M, Mattingly M, Li B, Nakanishi S, Zhu D, et al. Cse4 is part of an octameric nucleosome in budding yeast. Mol Cell. 2009;35:794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our experimental evidence supports the model that the Cse4 nucleosome is an octamer, containing two copies each of Cse4, H2A, H2B, and H4. ..
  3. Natsume R, Eitoku M, Akai Y, Sano N, Horikoshi M, Senda T. Structure and function of the histone chaperone CIA/ASF1 complexed with histones H3 and H4. Nature. 2007;446:338-41 pubmed
    ..The carboxy-terminal beta-strand of histone H4 changes its partner from the beta-strand in histone H2A to that of CIA-I through large conformational change...
  4. Fry C, Norris A, Cosgrove M, Boeke J, Peterson C. The LRS and SIN domains: two structurally equivalent but functionally distinct nucleosomal surfaces required for transcriptional silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9045-59 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that structurally similar nucleosomal surfaces provide distinct functionalities in vivo and in vitro. ..
  5. VanDemark A, Blanksma M, Ferris E, Heroux A, Hill C, Formosa T. The structure of the yFACT Pob3-M domain, its interaction with the DNA replication factor RPA, and a potential role in nucleosome deposition. Mol Cell. 2006;22:363-74 pubmed
    ..These results support the model that the FACT family has an essential role in constructing nucleosomes during DNA replication, and suggest that RPA contributes to this process. ..
  6. Park Y, Sudhoff K, Andrews A, Stargell L, Luger K. Histone chaperone specificity in Rtt109 activation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:957-64 pubmed
    ..Nap1 and Vps75 interact with histones and Rtt109 with comparable affinities. However, only Vps75 stimulates Rtt109 enzymatic activity. Our data highlight the functional specificity of Vps75 in Rtt109 activation. ..
  7. English C, Maluf N, Tripet B, Churchill M, Tyler J. ASF1 binds to a heterodimer of histones H3 and H4: a two-step mechanism for the assembly of the H3-H4 heterotetramer on DNA. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13673-82 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that Asf1 blocks formation of the H3-H4 heterotetramer by a mechanism that likely involves occlusion of the H3-H3 dimerization interface. ..
  8. Georgel P, Palacios DeBeer M, Pietz G, Fox C, Hansen J. Sir3-dependent assembly of supramolecular chromatin structures in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8584-9 pubmed
    ..Based on these data we hypothesize that Sir3p functions, at least in part, by mediating reorganization of the canonical chromatin fiber into functionally specialized higher order chromosomal domains. ..
  9. Carmen A, Milne L, Grunstein M. Acetylation of the yeast histone H4 N terminus regulates its binding to heterochromatin protein SIR3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4778-81 pubmed
    ..This involves the interaction between the C terminus of SIR3 and the N terminus of histone H4. Since H4 is hypoacetylated in heterochromatin we wished to determine whether acetylation is involved in ..
  10. Smith M, Yang P, Santisteban M, Boone P, Goldstein A, Megee P. A novel histone H4 mutant defective in nuclear division and mitotic chromosome transmission. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1017-26 pubmed
    ..Here we report the first isolation of a temperature-sensitive lethal histone H4 mutant defective in mitotic chromosome transmission Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  11. Green E, Antczak A, Bailey A, Franco A, Wu K, Yates J, et al. Replication-independent histone deposition by the HIR complex and Asf1. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2044-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the HIR complex and Asf1 proteins function together as a conserved eukaryotic pathway for histone replacement throughout the cell cycle. ..
  12. Adkins M, Carson J, English C, Ramey C, Tyler J. The histone chaperone anti-silencing function 1 stimulates the acetylation of newly synthesized histone H3 in S-phase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1334-40 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Asf1 does not affect the stability of the newly synthesized histones per se, but instead histone binding by Asf1 promotes the efficient acetylation of specific residues of newly synthesized histone H3. ..
  13. Morillo Huesca M, Maya D, Muñoz Centeno M, Singh R, Oreal V, Reddy G, et al. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000964 pubmed publisher
  14. Singh R, Kabbaj M, Paik J, Gunjan A. Histone levels are regulated by phosphorylation and ubiquitylation-dependent proteolysis. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulated histone proteolysis has major implications for the maintenance of epigenetic marks on chromatin, genomic stability and the packaging of sperm DNA. ..
  15. Johnson A, Li G, Sikorski T, Buratowski S, Woodcock C, Moazed D. Reconstitution of heterochromatin-dependent transcriptional gene silencing. Mol Cell. 2009;35:769-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Sir3 binds to nucleosomes containing deacetylated histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16) and, with Sir4, promotes spreading of Sir2 and deacetylation along the chromatin fiber...
  16. Imai S, Armstrong C, Kaeberlein M, Guarente L. Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase. Nature. 2000;403:795-800 pubmed
    ..Mutational studies indicate that lysine 16 in the amino-terminal tail of histone H4 and lysines 9, 14 and 18 in H3 are critically important in silencing, whereas lysines 5, 8 and 12 of H4 have ..
  17. Gunjan A, Verreault A. A Rad53 kinase-dependent surveillance mechanism that regulates histone protein levels in S. cerevisiae. Cell. 2003;115:537-49 pubmed
    ..Our results argue that Rad53 contributes to genome stability independently of Mec1 by preventing the damaging effects of excess histones both during normal cell cycle progression and in response to DNA damage. ..
  18. Hyland E, Cosgrove M, Molina H, Wang D, Pandey A, Cottee R, et al. Insights into the role of histone H3 and histone H4 core modifiable residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10060-70 pubmed
    ..We also show that substitutions at histone H4 K91, K59, S47, and R92 and histone H3 K56 and K115 lead to hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, linking the ..
  19. Feser J, Truong D, Das C, Carson J, KIEFT J, Harkness T, et al. Elevated histone expression promotes life span extension. Mol Cell. 2010;39:724-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that maintenance of the fundamental chromatin structure is critical for slowing down the aging process and reveals that increasing the histone supply extends life span. ..
  20. Holzen T, Sclafani R. Genetic interaction of RAD53 protein kinase with histones is important for DNA replication. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:4735-47 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Rad53 acts as a "nucleosome buffer," interacting with origins of replication to prevent the binding of excess histones to origin DNA and to maintain proper chromatin configuration. ..
  21. Good P, Kendall A, Ignatz Hoover J, Miller E, Pai D, Rivera S, et al. Silencing near tRNA genes is nucleosome-mediated and distinct from boundary element function. Gene. 2013;526:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Models for communication between the tRNA gene transcription complexes and local chromatin are discussed. ..
  22. Law M, Mallory M, Dunbrack R, Strich R. Acetylation of the transcriptional repressor Ume6p allows efficient promoter release and timely induction of the meiotic transient transcription program in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:631-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Ume6p acetylation ensures the proper timing of the transient transcription program during meiotic development...
  23. Fazzio T, Gelbart M, Tsukiyama T. Two distinct mechanisms of chromatin interaction by the Isw2 chromatin remodeling complex in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9165-74 pubmed
    ..Here we find that the histone H4 "basic patch" is the only portion of any amino-terminal histone tail required for both target-specific ..
  24. Gradolatto A, Smart S, Byrum S, Blair L, Rogers R, Kolar E, et al. A noncanonical bromodomain in the AAA ATPase protein Yta7 directs chromosomal positioning and barrier chromatin activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4604-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates that the Yta7 bromodomain engages histones for certain cellular functions like barrier chromatin maintenance and particular Spt16/Asf1 cellular pathways of chromatin regulation. ..
  25. Chittuluru J, Chaban Y, Monnet Saksouk J, Carrozza M, Sapountzi V, Selleck W, et al. Structure and nucleosome interaction of the yeast NuA4 and Piccolo-NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:1196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..the subunit yeast homolog of mammalian Ing1 2 (Yng2) apparently positions Piccolo for efficient acetylation of histone H4 or histone H2A tails...
  26. Chaves S, Baskerville C, Yu V, Reed S. Cks1, Cdk1, and the 19S proteasome collaborate to regulate gene induction-dependent nucleosome eviction in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..that Cks1, Cdk1, and the 19S subunit of the proteasome are recruited to chromatin by binding directly to the histone H4 amino-terminal tail...
  27. Tang Y, Holbert M, Delgoshaie N, Wurtele H, Guillemette B, Meeth K, et al. Structure of the Rtt109-AcCoA/Vps75 complex and implications for chaperone-mediated histone acetylation. Structure. 2011;19:221-31 pubmed publisher
  28. Crampton A, Chang F, Pappas D, Frisch R, Weinreich M. An ARS element inhibits DNA replication through a SIR2-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell. 2008;30:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Sir2p and I(S) elements inhibit origin activity by promoting an unfavorable chromatin structure for pre-RC assembly...
  29. Kim T, Buratowski S. Dimethylation of H3K4 by Set1 recruits the Set3 histone deacetylase complex to 5' transcribed regions. Cell. 2009;137:259-72 pubmed publisher
  30. Suter B, Pogoutse O, Guo X, Krogan N, Lewis P, Greenblatt J, et al. Association with the origin recognition complex suggests a novel role for histone acetyltransferase Hat1p/Hat2p. BMC Biol. 2007;5:38 pubmed
    ..yeast, a major conserved histone acetyltransferase, Hat1p, preferentially acetylates lysine residues 5 and 12 on histone H4. Here, we report that a nuclear sub-complex consisting of Hat1p and its partner Hat2p interacts physically and ..
  31. Kim T, Buratowski S. Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae JmjC domain proteins demethylate histone H3 Lys36 in transcribed regions to promote elongation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20827-35 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that a general function of histone demethylases for H3 Lys(36) is to promote transcription elongation by antagonizing repressive Lys(36) methylation by Set2. ..
  32. Selth L, Svejstrup J. Vps75, a new yeast member of the NAP histone chaperone family. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12358-62 pubmed
  33. Hassan A, Awad S, Al Natour Z, Othman S, Mustafa F, Rizvi T. Selective recognition of acetylated histones by bromodomains in transcriptional co-activators. Biochem J. 2007;402:125-33 pubmed
    ..The selective recognition of the bromodomains observed in the present study accounts for the broad effects of bromodomain-containing proteins observed on binding to histones. ..
  34. Wu W, Alami S, Luk E, Wu C, Sen S, Mizuguchi G, et al. Swc2 is a widely conserved H2AZ-binding module essential for ATP-dependent histone exchange. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:1064-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, the C-terminal alpha-helix of H2AZ is crucial for its recognition by SWR1. These findings provide insight on the initial events of histone exchange. ..
  35. García Oliver E, Ramus C, Perot J, Arlotto M, Champleboux M, Mietton F, et al. Bdf1 Bromodomains Are Essential for Meiosis and the Expression of Meiotic-Specific Genes. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006541 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results unveil a new role for Bdf1 -working independently from its predominant protein partners Bdf2 and the SWR1 complex-as a regulator of meiosis-specific genes. ..
  36. Li Y, Zhang L, Liu T, Chai C, Fang Q, Wu H, et al. Hat2p recognizes the histone H3 tail to specify the acetylation of the newly synthesized H3/H4 heterodimer by the Hat1p/Hat2p complex. Genes Dev. 2014;28:1217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly, newly synthesized histone H4 in H3/H4 heterodimers becomes acetylated on N-terminal lysine residues prior to its incorporation into chromatin...
  37. Du H, Fingerman I, Briggs S. Histone H3 K36 methylation is mediated by a trans-histone methylation pathway involving an interaction between Set2 and histone H4. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2786-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a critical lysine residue in histone H4 that is needed for interaction with Set2 and proper H3 K36 di- and trimethylation...
  38. Sekinger E, Moqtaderi Z, Struhl K. Intrinsic histone-DNA interactions and low nucleosome density are important for preferential accessibility of promoter regions in yeast. Mol Cell. 2005;18:735-48 pubmed
    ..This organization ensures that transcription factors bind preferentially to appropriate sites in promoters, rather than to the excess of irrelevant sites in nonpromoter regions. ..
  39. Matecic M, Stuart S, Holmes S. SIR2-induced inviability is suppressed by histone H4 overexpression. Genetics. 2002;162:973-6 pubmed
    We have identified histone H4 as a high-expression suppressor of Sir2-induced inviability in yeast cells...
  40. Suka N, Luo K, Grunstein M. Sir2p and Sas2p opposingly regulate acetylation of yeast histone H4 lysine16 and spreading of heterochromatin. Nat Genet. 2002;32:378-83 pubmed
    The Sir3 protein helps form telomeric heterochromatin by interacting with hypoacetylated histone H4 lysine 16 (H4-Lys16). The molecular nature of the heterochromatin boundary is still unknown...
  41. Sathianathan A, Ravichandran P, Lippi J, Cohen L, Messina A, Shaju S, et al. The Eaf3/5/7 Subcomplex Stimulates NuA4 Interaction with Methylated Histone H3 Lys-36 and RNA Polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:21195-21207 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results reveal the function of Eaf3/5/7 within NuA4 to be important for both NuA4 and RNA polymerase II binding. ..
  42. Syntichaki P, Thireos G. The Gcn5.Ada complex potentiates the histone acetyltransferase activity of Gcn5. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:24414-9 pubmed
    ..Because Ada2 is required for the assembly of Gcn5, we conclude that one role for components of the Gcn5.Ada complex is the potentiation of its HAT activity. ..
  43. Du J, Nasir I, Benton B, Kladde M, Laurent B. Sth1p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf2p/Swi2p homolog, is an essential ATPase in RSC and differs from Snf/Swi in its interactions with histones and chromatin-associated proteins. Genetics. 1998;150:987-1005 pubmed
    ..These results provide a framework for understanding the ATP-dependent RSC function in modeling chromatin and its connection to the cell cycle. ..
  44. Liu Z, Myers L. Med5(Nut1) and Med17(Srb4) are direct targets of mediator histone H4 tail interactions. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38416 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis has identified the Med5 subunit of Mediator as a target for histone tail interactions and suggests that the previously observed effect of med5 mutations on telomeric heterochromatin and silencing is direct. ..
  45. Siddiqi I, Dodd J, Vu L, Eliason K, Oakes M, Keener J, et al. Transcription of chromosomal rRNA genes by both RNA polymerase I and II in yeast uaf30 mutants lacking the 30 kDa subunit of transcription factor UAF. EMBO J. 2001;20:4512-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, Uaf30p plays only a minor role in its activator function. Possible reasons for slow growth caused by uaf30 mutations are discussed. ..
  46. Ornaghi P, Ballario P, Lena A, Gonzalez A, Filetici P. The bromodomain of Gcn5p interacts in vitro with specific residues in the N terminus of histone H4. J Mol Biol. 1999;287:1-7 pubmed
    ..This evidence and the known dispensability of the bromodomain for Gcn5p acetyltransferase activity suggest a new structural role for the highly evolutionary conserved bromodomain. ..
  47. Fukuma M, Hiraoka Y, Sakurai H, Fukasawa T. Purification of yeast histones competent for nucleosome assembly in vitro. Yeast. 1994;10:319-31 pubmed
    ..The length of DNA fragment wrapping around a core histone particle and the molar ratio of histone components in an assembled nucleosome particle were estimated to be 150 +/- 10 bp long and H2A:H2B:H3:H4 = 1.0:0.9:0:9:1.0, respectively. ..
  48. Mitsumori R, Shinmyozu K, Nakayama J, Uchida H, Oki M. Gic1 is a novel heterochromatin boundary protein in vivo. Genes Genet Syst. 2016;91:151-159 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we performed domain analysis to identify domain(s) of Gic1 that are important for its boundary activity, and identified two minimum domains, which are located outside its Cdc42-binding domain. ..
  49. Renaud Young M, Lloyd D, Chatfield Reed K, George I, Chua G, Cobb J. The NuA4 complex promotes translesion synthesis (TLS)-mediated DNA damage tolerance. Genetics. 2015;199:1065-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, disruption of HTZ1, which is a target of NuA4, also resulted in mutagenic rates of reversion on level with esa1-L254P and yng2Δ mutants, indicating that the histone variant H2A.Z functions in vivo on the TLS branch of DDT. ..
  50. Liu H, Zhang M, He W, Zhu Z, Teng M, Gao Y, et al. Structural insights into yeast histone chaperone Hif1: a scaffold protein recruiting protein complexes to core histones. Biochem J. 2014;462:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..By binding to the core histone complex Hif1 may recruit functional protein complexes to modify histones during chromatin reassembly. ..
  51. Ng T, Lenstra T, Duggan N, Jiang S, Ceto S, Holstege F, et al. Kinetochore function and chromosome segregation rely on critical residues in histones H3 and H4 in budding yeast. Genetics. 2013;195:795-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this work identifies previously unknown histone residues involved in chromosome segregation and lays the foundation for future studies on the role of the underlying chromatin structure in chromosome segregation...
  52. Pinskaya M, Nair A, Clynes D, Morillon A, Mellor J. Nucleosome remodeling and transcriptional repression are distinct functions of Isw1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2419-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression are distinct activities of Isw1. ..
  53. Li S, Shogren Knaak M. The Gcn5 bromodomain of the SAGA complex facilitates cooperative and cross-tail acetylation of nucleosomes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9411-7 pubmed publisher
    ..acetylated, and 3) augments the acetylation turnover of nucleosomes previously acetylated at lysine 16 of the histone H4 tails...
  54. Utley R, Lacoste N, Jobin Robitaille O, Allard S, Cote J. Regulation of NuA4 histone acetyltransferase activity in transcription and DNA repair by phosphorylation of histone H4. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8179-90 pubmed
    The NuA4 complex is a histone H4/H2A acetyltransferase involved in transcription and DNA repair...
  55. Lindstrom K, Vary J, Parthun M, Delrow J, Tsukiyama T. Isw1 functions in parallel with the NuA4 and Swr1 complexes in stress-induced gene repression. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6117-29 pubmed
    ..In contrast to a recruitment-based model, we find that the NuA4 and Swr1 complexes act throughout the genome while only a specific subset of the genome shows alterations in transcription. ..
  56. Shia W, Li B, Workman J. SAS-mediated acetylation of histone H4 Lys 16 is required for H2A.Z incorporation at subtelomeric regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2507-12 pubmed
    ..Z incorporation near telomeres. The presence of H4 Lys 16 acetylation and H2A.Z synergistically prevent the ectopic propagation of heterochromatin. Overall, our data suggest a novel antisilencing mechanism near telomeres. ..
  57. Blackwell J, Wilkinson S, Mosammaparast N, Pemberton L. Mutational analysis of H3 and H4 N termini reveals distinct roles in nuclear import. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20142-50 pubmed
    ..Acetylation may be important for modulating the interaction with transport factors and may play a role in the release of histones from karyopherins in the nucleus. ..
  58. Grunstein M. Histone function in transcription. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1990;6:643-78 pubmed
  59. Poveda A, Sendra R. Site specificity of yeast histone acetyltransferase B complex in vivo. FEBS J. 2008;275:2122-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies performed with synthetic N-terminal histone H4 peptides found that whereas the HAT-B complex acetylates only Lys12, recombinant Hat1 is able to modify Lys12 ..
  60. Xu F, Zhang Q, Zhang K, Xie W, Grunstein M. Sir2 deacetylates histone H3 lysine 56 to regulate telomeric heterochromatin structure in yeast. Mol Cell. 2007;27:890-900 pubmed
    ..believed to occur when Sir2, an NAD(+)-dependent enzyme, deacetylates histone H3 and H4 N termini, in particular histone H4 K16, enabling more Sir protein binding...
  61. Scott E, Pillus L. Homocitrate synthase connects amino acid metabolism to chromatin functions through Esa1 and DNA damage. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1903-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Lys20 appears to have evolved as a bifunctional protein that connects cellular metabolism with chromatin functions. ..
  62. Dechassa M, Wyns K, Luger K. Scm3 deposits a (Cse4-H4)2 tetramer onto DNA through a Cse4-H4 dimer intermediate. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:5532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that Cse4 and H3 are structurally compatible to be incorporated in the same nucleosome to form heterotypic particles. Our data shed light on the mechanism of Scm3-mediated nucleosome assembly at the centromere. ..
  63. Green E, Mas G, Young N, Garcia B, Gozani O. Methylation of H4 lysines 5, 8 and 12 by yeast Set5 calibrates chromatin stress responses. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:361-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify Set5 as the first histone H4 methyltransferase, which monomethylates the critical H4 lysine residues 5, 8 and 12 in budding yeast...
  64. Kueng S, Tsai Pflugfelder M, Oppikofer M, Ferreira H, Roberts E, Tsai C, et al. Regulating repression: roles for the sir4 N-terminus in linker DNA protection and stabilization of epigenetic states. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002727 pubmed publisher
  65. Murillo Pineda M, Cabello Lobato M, Clemente Ruiz M, Monje Casas F, Prado F. Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:12469-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. ..
  66. Abshiru N, Ippersiel K, Tang Y, Yuan H, Marmorstein R, Verreault A, et al. Chaperone-mediated acetylation of histones by Rtt109 identified by quantitative proteomics. J Proteomics. 2013;81:80-90 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, we also report the acetylation of histone H4 K12 by Rtt109-Vps75, whereas Rtt109-Asf1 showed no detectable activity toward H4...
  67. Herrero A, Moreno S. Lsm1 promotes genomic stability by controlling histone mRNA decay. EMBO J. 2011;30:2008-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that improper histone stoichiometry leads to genomic instability and highlight the importance of regulating histone mRNA decay in the tight control of histone levels in yeast. ..
  68. Ge Z, Nair D, Guan X, Rastogi N, Freitas M, Parthun M. Sites of acetylation on newly synthesized histone H4 are required for chromatin assembly and DNA damage response signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3286-98 pubmed publisher
    The best-characterized acetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 is the diacetylation of the NH2-terminal tail on lysines 5 and 12...
  69. Perez Martin J, Johnson A. The C-terminal domain of Sin1 interacts with the SWI-SNF complex in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4157-64 pubmed
    ..Based on these and additional results, we propose that Sin1 acts as a regulatable bridge between the SWI-SNF complex and the nucleosome. ..
  70. Huang S, Zhou H, Katzmann D, Hochstrasser M, Atanasova E, Zhang Z. Rtt106p is a histone chaperone involved in heterochromatin-mediated silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13410-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Rtt106p interacts with CAF-1 physically through Cac1p. These biochemical and genetic data indicate that Rtt106p is a previously uncharacterized histone chaperone connecting S phase to epigenetic inheritance. ..
  71. Kim J, Hsu J, Smith M, Allis C. Mutagenesis of pairwise combinations of histone amino-terminal tails reveals functional redundancy in budding yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data suggest that the N-tails of core histones share previously unrecognized, potentially redundant functions that, in some cases are different from those of the widely accepted H2A/H2B and H3/H4 dimer pairs. ..
  72. Chen J, Miller A, Kirchmaier A, Irudayaraj J. Single-molecule tools elucidate H2A.Z nucleosome composition. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2954-64 pubmed publisher
  73. Katan Khaykovich Y, Struhl K. Splitting of H3-H4 tetramers at transcriptionally active genes undergoing dynamic histone exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1296-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, tetramer splitting, dimer exchange, and nucleosomes with mixed H3-H4 tetramers occur at highly active genes, presumably linked to rapid histone exchange associated with robust transcription. ..
  74. Tsaponina O, Barsoum E, Aström S, Chabes A. Ixr1 is required for the expression of the ribonucleotide reductase Rnr1 and maintenance of dNTP pools. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002061 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction of the histone gene dosage in the rad53 mutant restores Ixr1 levels. Our results demonstrate that Ixr1, but not Dun1, is required for the proper RNR1 expression both during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage. ..