Gene Symbol: GRR1
Description: SCF ubiquitin ligase complex subunit GRR1
Alias: CAT80, COT2, SDC1, SSU2, SCF ubiquitin ligase complex subunit GRR1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Skowyra D, Koepp D, Kamura T, Conrad M, Conaway R, Conaway J, et al. Reconstitution of G1 cyclin ubiquitination with complexes containing SCFGrr1 and Rbx1. Science. 1999;284:662-5 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylated Cln1 was ubiquitinated by SCF (Skp1-Cdc53-F-box protein) complexes containing the F-box protein Grr1, Rbx1, and the E2 Cdc34...
  2. Blondel M, Galan J, Chi Y, LaFourcade C, Longaretti C, Deshaies R, et al. Nuclear-specific degradation of Far1 is controlled by the localization of the F-box protein Cdc4. EMBO J. 2000;19:6085-97 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate the importance of subcellular localization of F-box proteins, and provide an example of how an extracellular signal regulates protein stability at the level of substrate localization. ..
  3. Spielewoy N, Guaderrama M, Wohlschlegel J, Ashe M, Yates J, Wittenberg C. Npr2, yeast homolog of the human tumor suppressor NPRL2, is a target of Grr1 required for adaptation to growth on diverse nitrogen sources. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:592-601 pubmed publisher
    ..quot;nitrogen permease regulator" and homolog of the human tumor suppressor NPRL2, was found to interact with Grr1, the F-box component of the SCF(Grr1) (Skp1-cullin-F-box protein complex containing Grr1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, by ..
  4. Spielewoy N, Flick K, Kalashnikova T, Walker J, Wittenberg C. Regulation and recognition of SCFGrr1 targets in the glucose and amino acid signaling pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:8994-9005 pubmed
    ..In addition to its role in degradation of Gic2 and the CDK targets Cln1 and Cln2, Grr1 is also required for induction of glucose- and amino acid-regulated genes...
  5. Bernard F, Andre B. Ubiquitin and the SCF(Grr1) ubiquitin ligase complex are involved in the signalling pathway activated by external amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2001;496:81-5 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that AGP1 induction requires Grr1, the F-box protein part of the SCF(Grr1) ubiquitin-ligase complex...
  6. Kishi T, Yamao F. An essential function of Grr1 for the degradation of Cln2 is to act as a binding core that links Cln2 to Skp1. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 24):3655-61 pubmed
    ..b>Grr1, which is required for degradation of G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 as well as for regulation of glucose repression, is ..
  7. Patton E, Willems A, Sa D, Kuras L, Thomas D, Craig K, et al. Cdc53 is a scaffold protein for multiple Cdc34/Skp1/F-box proteincomplexes that regulate cell division and methionine biosynthesis in yeast. Genes Dev. 1998;12:692-705 pubmed
    ..Skp1 interacts with Cdc53 in vivo, and that Skp1 bridges Cdc53 to three different F-box proteins, Cdc4, Met30, and Grr1. Cdc53 contains independent binding sites for Cdc34 and Skp1 suggesting it functions as a scaffold protein within ..
  8. Skowyra D, Craig K, Tyers M, Elledge S, Harper J. F-box proteins are receptors that recruit phosphorylated substrates to the SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex. Cell. 1997;91:209-19 pubmed
    ..Cdc4 assembled with Skp1 functions as the receptor that selectively binds phosphorylated Sic1. Grr1, an F-box protein involved in Cln destruction, forms complexes with Skp1 and Cdc53 and binds phosphorylated Cln1 ..
  9. Blondel M, Bach S, Bamps S, Dobbelaere J, Wiget P, Longaretti C, et al. Degradation of Hof1 by SCF(Grr1) is important for actomyosin contraction during cytokinesis in yeast. EMBO J. 2005;24:1440-52 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that SCF(Grr1) functions during cytokinesis by degrading the PCH protein Hof1...

More Information


  1. Berset C, Griac P, Tempel R, La Rue J, Wittenberg C, Lanker S. Transferable domain in the G(1) cyclin Cln2 sufficient to switch degradation of Sic1 from the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(Cdc4) to SCF(Grr1). Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4463-76 pubmed the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and involves the SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex containing the F-box protein Grr1 (SCF(Grr1))...
  2. Abdel Sater F, El Bakkoury M, Urrestarazu A, Vissers S, Andre B. Amino acid signaling in yeast: casein kinase I and the Ssy5 endoprotease are key determinants of endoproteolytic activation of the membrane-bound Stp1 transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9771-85 pubmed
    ..The SCF(Grr1) ubiquitin-ligase complex is also essential to AGP1 induction, but its exact role in the amino acid signaling ..
  3. Tumusiime S, Zhang C, Overstreet M, Liu Z. Differential regulation of transcription factors Stp1 and Stp2 in the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 amino acid sensing pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4620-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also found that Grr1, the F-box component of the SCF(Grr1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the primary factor in degradation of full-length Stp1,..
  4. Hsiung Y, Chang H, Pellequer J, La Valle R, Lanker S, Wittenberg C. F-box protein Grr1 interacts with phosphorylated targets via the cationic surface of its leucine-rich repeat. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2506-20 pubmed
    ..b>Grr1, the F-box component of SCF(Grr1), mediates the interaction with phosphorylated forms of the G(1) cyclins Cln1 and ..
  5. Jaquenoud M, Gulli M, Peter K, Peter M. The Cdc42p effector Gic2p is targeted for ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the SCFGrr1 complex. EMBO J. 1998;17:5360-73 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data indicate that degradation of Gic2p may be part of a mechanism which restricts cytoskeletal polarization in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ..
  6. Benanti J, Cheung S, Brady M, Toczyski D. A proteomic screen reveals SCFGrr1 targets that regulate the glycolytic-gluconeogenic switch. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1184-91 pubmed
    ..The Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase with the F-box protein Grr1 (SCF(Grr1)) controls the proteolytic turnover of regulators of cell-cycle entry and a glucose sensor, suggesting ..
  7. Bhaduri S, Valk E, Winters M, Gruessner B, Loog M, Pryciak P. A docking interface in the cyclin Cln2 promotes multi-site phosphorylation of substrates and timely cell-cycle entry. Curr Biol. 2015;25:316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this docking function helps ensure full phosphorylation of substrates with multiple phosphorylation sites, and this contributes to punctual cell-cycle entry. ..
  8. Blacketer M, Madaule P, Myers A. Mutational analysis of morphologic differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1995;140:1259-75 pubmed
    ..elm (elongated morphology), defined 14 genes; two of these corresponded to the previously described genes GRR1 and CDC12...
  9. Flick J, Johnston M. GRR1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for glucose repression and encodes a protein with leucine-rich repeats. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:5101-12 pubmed
    ..The GRR1 gene appears to be of central importance to the glucose repression mechanism, because mutations in GRR1 result in a ..
  10. Kus B, Caldon C, Andorn Broza R, Edwards A. Functional interaction of 13 yeast SCF complexes with a set of yeast E2 enzymes in vitro. Proteins. 2004;54:455-67 pubmed
    ..Ubc4 thus interacts with multiple SCFs in vitro, and the interactions among SCF and E2 components of the ubiquitination machinery may allow further diversification of the roles of SCFs in vivo. ..
  11. Galan J, Peter M. Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of multiple F-box proteins by an autocatalytic mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9124-9 pubmed
  12. Zemla A, Thomas Y, Kedziora S, Knebel A, Wood N, Rabut G, et al. CSN- and CAND1-dependent remodelling of the budding yeast SCF complex. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1641 pubmed publisher
  13. Westergaard S, Bro C, Olsson L, Nielsen J. Elucidation of the role of Grr1p in glucose sensing by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through genome-wide transcription analysis. FEMS Yeast Res. 2004;5:193-204 pubmed
    ..From triplicate analysis of a strain with deletion of the GRR1-gene from the genome and an isogenic reference strain, 68 genes were identified to have significantly altered ..
  14. Landry B, Doyle J, Toczyski D, Benanti J. F-box protein specificity for g1 cyclins is dictated by subcellular localization. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002851 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that two SCF ubiquitin ligases, SCF(Cdc4) and SCF(Grr1), redundantly target Cln3 for degradation...
  15. Lacefield S, Solomon F. A novel step in beta-tubulin folding is important for heterodimer formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2003;165:531-41 pubmed
    ..Importantly, plp1Delta cells that also lack Pac10, a component of the GimC/PFD complex, are even less affected by free beta-tubulin. Our results suggest that Plp1p defines a novel early step in beta-tubulin folding. ..
  16. Purnapatre K, Gray M, Piccirillo S, Honigberg S. Glucose inhibits meiotic DNA replication through SCFGrr1p-dependent destruction of Ime2p kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:440-50 pubmed
    ..conjugates were detected under conditions of rapid Ime2p turnover, and conjugation of Ime2p to ubiquitin required GRR1. Third, a mutant form of Ime2p (Ime2(DeltaPEST)), in which a putative Grr1p-interacting sequence was deleted, was ..
  17. Liu Z, Spirek M, Thornton J, Butow R. A novel degron-mediated degradation of the RTG pathway regulator, Mks1p, by SCFGrr1. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4893-904 pubmed
    ..Here we report that Grr1p, a component of the SCF(Grr1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulates RS by affecting Mks1p levels...
  18. Wang R, Solomon M. Identification of She3 as an SCF(Grr1) substrate in budding yeast. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48020 pubmed publisher
    ..Acting in concert with the substrate-binding F-box protein Grr1, SCF(Grr1) promotes the degradation of cell cycle regulators as well as various metabolic enzymes...
  19. Willems A, Goh T, Taylor L, Chernushevich I, Shevchenko A, Tyers M. SCF ubiquitin protein ligases and phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999;354:1533-50 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the substrates and pathways regulated by the yeast F-box proteins Cdc4, Grr1 and Met30...
  20. Theodoris G, Fong N, Coons D, Bisson L. High-copy suppression of glucose transport defects by HXT4 and regulatory elements in the promoters of the HXT genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1994;137:957-66 pubmed
    ..Multicopy HXT4 and DDSEs in the HXT1, HXT2, HXT3 and HXT4 promoters were found to restore growth to snf3 and grr1 strains on low glucose media...
  21. McCourt P, Gallo Ebert C, Gonghong Y, Jiang Y, Nickels J. PP2A(Cdc55) regulates G1 cyclin stability. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, cdc55-null cells become inviable when the SCF(Grr1) activity known to regulate Cln2 levels is eliminated or when Cln2 is overexpressed, indicating a critical ..
  22. Avram D, Bakalinsky A. Multicopy FZF1 (SUL1) suppresses the sulfite sensitivity but not the glucose derepression or aberrant cell morphology of a grr1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;144:511-21 pubmed
    ..mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previously shown to cause sulfite sensitivity, was found to be allelic to GRR1, a gene previously implicated in glucose repression...
  23. Thelander M, Fredriksson D, Schouten J, Hoge J, Ronne H. Cloning by pathway activation in yeast: identification of an Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein that can turn on glucose repression. Plant Mol Biol. 2002;49:69-79 pubmed
    ..Six clones were characterized. One of them codes for AtGRH1, a new F-box protein that shows similarity to GRR1, a yeast protein involved in glucose repression...
  24. Daniel J. Direct in vivo access to potential gene targets of the RPD3 histone deactylase using fitness-based interferential genetics. Yeast. 2007;24:575-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, other selected genes are linked to cell-cycle control (CSE4, AMN1, VAC17 and GRR1)...
  25. Ozcan S, Johnston M. Three different regulatory mechanisms enable yeast hexose transporter (HXT) genes to be induced by different levels of glucose. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1564-72 pubmed
    ..b>GRR1 seems to encode a positive regulator of HXT expression, since grr1 mutants are defective in glucose induction of ..
  26. Schweitzer K, Cocklin R, Garrett L, Desai F, Goebl M. The ubiquitin ligase SCFGrr1 is necessary for pheromone sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2005;22:553-64 pubmed
    ..Here we report that GRR1, which encodes a substrate recognition subunit of SCF complexes, is critical for pheromone sensitivity and likely ..
  27. Tomás Cobos L, Viana R, Sanz P. TOR kinase pathway and 14-3-3 proteins regulate glucose-induced expression of HXT1, a yeast low-affinity glucose transporter. Yeast. 2005;22:471-9 pubmed
    ..14-3-3 proteins, in complex with Reg1, a regulatory subunit of Glc7 protein phosphatase, interact physically with Grr1 (a component of the SCF-Grr1 ubiquitination complex), a key player in the process of HXT1 induction by glucose...
  28. Edenberg E, Mark K, Toczyski D. Ndd1 turnover by SCF(Grr1) is inhibited by the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005162 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Ndd1 turnover in metaphase requires Cdk1 activity and the ubiquitin ligase SCF(Grr1). In response to DNA damage, Ndd1 stabilization requires the checkpoint kinases Mec1/Tel1 and Swe1, the S...
  29. Yang Z, Bisson L. The SKS1 protein kinase is a multicopy suppressor of the snf3 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1996;12:1407-19 pubmed
    ..Both SKS1 and its DDSE can additionally suppress the growth defects of grr1 mutants, which are also impaired in high affinity glucose transport...
  30. Duttler S, Pechmann S, Frydman J. Principles of cotranslational ubiquitination and quality control at the ribosome. Mol Cell. 2013;50:379-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that quality control at the ribosome is achieved through a tiered system wherein nascent polypeptides have a chance to fold before becoming accessible to ubiquitination. ..
  31. Kishi T, Ikeda A, Koyama N, Fukada J, Nagao R. A refined two-hybrid system reveals that SCF(Cdc4)-dependent degradation of Swi5 contributes to the regulatory mechanism of S-phase entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the SCF(Cdc4) complex regulates S phase entry not only through degradation of Sic1, but also through degradation of Swi5. ..
  32. Kishi T, Seno T, Yamao F. Grr1 functions in the ubiquitin pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through association with Skp1. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;257:143-8 pubmed
    ..One of them was found to be defective in GRR1, which is involved not only in glucose repression but also in G1 cyclin destabilization...
  33. Kamura T, Conrad M, Yan Q, Conaway R, Conaway J. The Rbx1 subunit of SCF and VHL E3 ubiquitin ligase activates Rub1 modification of cullins Cdc53 and Cul2. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2928-33 pubmed
    ..Our findings identify Rbx1 as a common component of enzyme systems responsible for ubiquitin and Rub1 modification of target proteins. ..
  34. Gonzalez D, Hamidi N, Del Sol R, Benschop J, Nancy T, Li C, et al. Suppression of Mediator is regulated by Cdk8-dependent Grr1 turnover of the Med3 coactivator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:2500-5 pubmed publisher
    ..and is phosphorylated by, Cdk8; site-specific phosphorylation triggers interaction with and degradation by the Grr1 ubiquitin ligase, thereby preventing transcription activation...
  35. Aghajan M, Jonai N, Flick K, Fu F, Luo M, Cai X, et al. Chemical genetics screen for enhancers of rapamycin identifies a specific inhibitor of an SCF family E3 ubiquitin ligase. Nat Biotechnol. 2010;28:738-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining specific inhibitors to modulate function of individual SCF complexes. ..
  36. Stieg D, Willis S, Ganesan V, Ong K, Scuorzo J, Song M, et al. A complex molecular switch directs stress-induced cyclin C nuclear release through SCFGrr1-mediated degradation of Med13. Mol Biol Cell. 2018;29:363-375 pubmed publisher
    ..region (IDR) both directs cyclin C-Cdk8 association and serves as the degron that mediates ubiquitin ligase SCFGrr1-dependent destruction of Med13 following oxidative stress...
  37. Horak J, Wolf D. The ubiquitin ligase SCF(Grr1) is required for Gal2p degradation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:1185-90 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that the other components of SCF(Grr1), including Skp1, Rbx1p, and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34, are also necessary for glucose-induced Gal2p ..
  38. Vallier L, Coons D, Bisson L, Carlson M. Altered regulatory responses to glucose are associated with a glucose transport defect in grr1 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1994;136:1279-85 pubmed
    The GRR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects glucose repression, cell morphology, divalent cation transport and other processes...
  39. Hwang G, Ishida Y, Naganuma A. Identification of F-box proteins that are involved in resistance to methylmercury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6813-8 pubmed
  40. Blondel M, Galan J, Peter M. Isolation and characterization of HRT1 using a genetic screen for mutants unable to degrade Gic2p in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2000;155:1033-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Hrt1p is a core subunit of multiple SCF complexes. ..
  41. Yen J, Flick K, Papagiannis C, Mathur R, Tyrrell A, Ouni I, et al. Signal-induced disassembly of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex by Cdc48/p97. Mol Cell. 2012;48:288-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results not only provide an additional layer of ubiquitin ligase regulation but also suggest that targeted, signal-dependent dissociation of multisubunit enzyme complexes is an important mechanism in control of enzyme function. ..
  42. Kim Y, Francisco L, Chen G, Marcotte E, Chan C. Control of cellular morphogenesis by the Ip12/Bem2 GTPase-activating protein: possible role of protein phosphorylation. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:1381-94 pubmed
    ..We show here that mutations in the previously identified GRR1 gene can suppress bem2 mutations...
  43. Erickson J, Johnston M. Suppressors reveal two classes of glucose repression genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1994;136:1271-8 pubmed
    We selected and analyzed extragenic suppressors of mutations in four genes--GRR1, REG1, GAL82 and GAL83-required for glucose repression of the GAL genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  44. Avram D, Bakalinsky A. SSU1 encodes a plasma membrane protein with a central role in a network of proteins conferring sulfite tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5971-4 pubmed
    ..suppression analysis, undertaken to explore relationships among genes previously implicated in sulfite metabolism, suggests a regulatory pathway in which SSU1 acts downstream of FZF1 and SSU3, which in turn act downstream of GRR1.
  45. Jiang H, Tatchell K, Liu S, Michels C. Protein phosphatase type-1 regulatory subunits Reg1p and Reg2p act as signal transducers in the glucose-induced inactivation of maltose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;263:411-22 pubmed
    ..The G1/S delay seen in grr1delta mutants is slightly suppressed as well, but REG1 overexpression does not suppress other grr1delta phenotypes such as insensitivity to glucose repression. ..
  46. Chang M, Bellaoui M, Boone C, Brown G. A genome-wide screen for methyl methanesulfonate-sensitive mutants reveals genes required for S phase progression in the presence of DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16934-9 pubmed
    ..These genes may promote replication fork stability or processivity during encounters between replication forks and DNA damage. ..
  47. Omnus D, Pfirrmann T, Andréasson C, Ljungdahl P. A phosphodegron controls nutrient-induced proteasomal activation of the signaling protease Ssy5. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2754-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Next the prodomain becomes a substrate for polyubiquitylation by the Skp1/Cullin/Grr1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (SCF(Grr1))...
  48. Li F, Johnston M. Grr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is connected to the ubiquitin proteolysis machinery through Skp1: coupling glucose sensing to gene expression and the cell cycle. EMBO J. 1997;16:5629-38 pubmed
    b>Grr1 protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a central component of a glucose signal transduction mechanism responsible for glucose-induced gene expression...
  49. Dlugai S, Hippler S, Wieczorke R, Boles E. Glucose-dependent and -independent signalling functions of the yeast glucose sensor Snf3. FEBS Lett. 2001;505:389-92 pubmed
  50. Zhou P, Howley P. Ubiquitination and degradation of the substrate recognition subunits of SCF ubiquitin-protein ligases. Mol Cell. 1998;2:571-80 pubmed
    ..The finding that the F box-containing SCF components are unstable suggests a mechanism of regulating SCF function through ubiquitination and proteolysis of F box components. ..
  51. Hoyt M. Eliminating all obstacles: regulated proteolysis in the eukaryotic cell cycle. Cell. 1997;91:149-51 pubmed
  52. Cullen P, Sprague G. The roles of bud-site-selection proteins during haploid invasive growth in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2990-3004 pubmed
    ..In the bud8 mutant in glucose-limiting conditions, apical growth and bud site selection were uncoupled processes. Finally, we report that diploid cells starved for glucose also initiate the filamentous growth response. ..
  53. La Rue J, Tokarz S, Lanker S. SCFGrr1-mediated ubiquitination of Gis4 modulates glucose response in yeast. J Mol Biol. 2005;349:685-98 pubmed
    The F box protein Grr1 is the substrate specificity-determinant of the SCF(Grr1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex...
  54. Mayor T, Graumann J, Bryan J, MacCoss M, Deshaies R. Quantitative profiling of ubiquitylated proteins reveals proteasome substrates and the substrate repertoire influenced by the Rpn10 receptor pathway. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1885-95 pubmed
    ..This approach illustrates the feasibility of systems-level quantitative analysis to map enzyme-substrate networks in the UPS. ..