Gene Symbol: GPA1
Description: guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha
Alias: CDC70, DAC1, SCG1, guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     GPA1

Top Publications

  1. Ongay Larios L, Saviñón Tejeda A, Williamson M, Durán Avelar M, Coria R. The Leu-132 of the Ste4(Gbeta) subunit is essential for proper coupling of the G protein with the Ste2 alpha factor receptor during the mating pheromone response in yeast. FEBS Lett. 2000;467:22-6 pubmed
  2. Marotti L, Newitt R, Wang Y, Aebersold R, Dohlman H. Direct identification of a G protein ubiquitination site by mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5067-74 pubmed
    ..Here, mass spectrometry was used to identify the site of ubiquitination in Gpa1, the G protein alpha subunit in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  3. Draper E, Dubrovskyi O, Bar E, Stone D. Dse1 may control cross talk between the pheromone and filamentation pathways in yeast. Curr Genet. 2009;55:611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the interaction of Dse1 with both Gbeta and Ste11 may be designed to control cross talk between the pheromone and filamentation pathways. ..
  4. Whiteway M, Clark K, Leberer E, Dignard D, Thomas D. Genetic identification of residues involved in association of alpha and beta G-protein subunits. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3223-9 pubmed
    The GPA1, STE4, and STE18 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively, of a G protein involved in the mating response pathway...
  5. Li E, Cismowski M, Stone D. Phosphorylation of the pheromone-responsive Gbeta protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not affect its mating-specific signaling function. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;258:608-18 pubmed
    ..Two-hybrid analysis suggests that the ste4delta310-346 deletion mutant is impaired in its interaction with Gpa1, the pheromone-responsive Galpha of yeast, whereas the Ste4-T320A/S335A mutant has normal affinity for Gpa1...
  6. Cherkasova V, Lyons D, Elion E. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Genetics. 1999;151:989-1004 pubmed
    ..Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition. ..
  7. Roy Choudhury S, Wang Y, Pandey S. Soya bean G? proteins with distinct biochemical properties exhibit differential ability to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpa1 mutant. Biochem J. 2014;461:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the yeast gpa1 mutant which displays constitutive signalling and growth arrest in the pheromone-response pathway as an in vivo ..
  8. Cismowski M, Metodiev M, Draper E, Stone D. Biochemical analysis of yeast G(alpha) mutants that enhance adaptation to pheromone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:247-54 pubmed
    The mating-specific heterotrimeric G(alpha) protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gpa1, negatively regulates activation of the pheromone response pathway both by sequestering G(beta)gamma and by triggering an adaptive response through an ..
  9. Errede B, Vered L, Ford E, Peña M, Elston T. Pheromone-induced morphogenesis and gradient tracking are dependent on the MAPK Fus3 binding to Gα. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:3343-58 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Spain B, Bowdish K, Pacal A, Staub S, Koo D, Chang C, et al. Two human cDNAs, including a homolog of Arabidopsis FUS6 (COP11), suppress G-protein- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal transduction in yeast and mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:6698-706 pubmed
    ..For gps1, these results are consistent with the proposed function of FUS6 (COP11) as a signal transduction repressor in plants. ..
  2. Nakayama N, Kaziro Y, Arai K, Matsumoto K. Role of STE genes in the mating factor signaling pathway mediated by GPA1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:3777-83 pubmed
    ..Roles of the STE gene products in the GPA1-mediated mating factor signaling pathway were studied by using ste gpa1 double mutants...
  3. Coria R, Saviñón Tejeda A, Birnbaumer L. STE2/SCG1-dependent inhibition of STE4-induced growth arrest by mutant STE4 delta C6 in the yeast pheromone response pathway. FEBS Lett. 1995;367:122-6 pubmed
    ..pheromone response pathway involves the activation of a heterotrimeric G protein composed by SCG1 (alpha) (also GPA1), STE4 (beta), and STE18 (gamma) subunits by the pheromone-activated receptors STE2 and STE3 in a and alpha cells, ..
  4. Yu R, Pesce C, Colman Lerner A, Lok L, Pincus D, Serra E, et al. Negative feedback that improves information transmission in yeast signalling. Nature. 2008;456:755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests that negative feedback is a general mechanism used in signalling systems to align dose responses and thereby increase the fidelity of information transmission. ..
  5. Song J, Hirschman J, Gunn K, Dohlman H. Regulation of membrane and subunit interactions by N-myristoylation of a G protein alpha subunit in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:20273-83 pubmed
    ..As in other eukaryotes, the yeast G protein alpha subunit undergoes N-myristoylation (GPA1 gene product, Gpa1p)...
  6. Apanovitch D, Slep K, Sigler P, Dohlman H. Sst2 is a GTPase-activating protein for Gpa1: purification and characterization of a cognate RGS-Galpha protein pair in yeast. Biochemistry. 1998;37:4815-22 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the purification of Sst2 and its cognate Galpha protein (Gpa1) in yeast, and demonstrate Sst2-stimulated Gpa1 GTPase activity...
  7. Dohlman H, Apaniesk D, Chen Y, Song J, Nusskern D. Inhibition of G-protein signaling by dominant gain-of-function mutations in Sst2p, a pheromone desensitization factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:3635-43 pubmed
    ..sensitivity, but this phenotype is partially suppressed by overexpression of the G protein alpha subunit gene (GPA1)...
  8. Dietzel C, Kurjan J. The yeast SCG1 gene: a G alpha-like protein implicated in the a- and alpha-factor response pathway. Cell. 1987;50:1001-10 pubmed
    We have identified the SCG1 gene by its ability to suppress the pheromone-supersensitive sst2-1 mutation...
  9. Wang Y, Marotti L, Lee M, Dohlman H. Differential regulation of G protein alpha subunit trafficking by mono- and polyubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:284-91 pubmed
    Previously we used mass spectrometry to show that the yeast G protein alpha subunit Gpa1 is ubiquitinated at Lys-165, located within a subdomain not present in other G alpha proteins (Marotti, L. A., Jr., Newitt, R., Wang, Y...
  10. Nomoto S, Nakayama N, Arai K, Matsumoto K. Regulation of the yeast pheromone response pathway by G protein subunits. EMBO J. 1990;9:691-6 pubmed
    The yeast GPA1, STE4, and STE18 genes encode proteins homologous to the respective alpha, beta and gamma subunits of the mammalian G protein complex which appears to mediate the response to mating pheromones...
  11. Stefan E, Malleshaiah M, Breton B, Ear P, Bachmann V, Beyermann M, et al. PKA regulatory subunits mediate synergy among conserved G-protein-coupled receptor cascades. Nat Commun. 2011;2:598 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a direct mechanism by which coincident activation of G?s-coupled receptors controls the precision of adaptive responses of activated G?i-coupled receptor cascades. ..
  12. Kurjan J, Hirsch J, Dietzel C. Mutations in the guanine nucleotide-binding domains of a yeast G alpha protein confer a constitutive or uninducible state to the pheromone response pathway. Genes Dev. 1991;5:475-83 pubmed
    ..We made several analogous changes in SCG1, which encodes the alpha subunit of the G protein involved in pheromone response in yeast...
  13. Clark K, Dignard D, Thomas D, Whiteway M. Interactions among the subunits of the G protein involved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:1-8 pubmed
    The SCG1 (GPA1), STE4, and STE18 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode mating-pathway components whose amino acid sequences are similar to those of the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively, of mammalian G proteins...
  14. Dixit G, Baker R, Sacks C, Torres M, Dohlman H. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G?) endocytosis by a cascade of ubiquitin binding domain proteins is required for sustained morphogenesis and proper mating in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:15052-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine the cellular trafficking function of the G protein ? subunit in yeast, Gpa1. Gpa1 contains a unique 109-amino acid insert within the ?-helical domain that undergoes a variety of ..
  15. Lee M, Dohlman H. Coactivation of G protein signaling by cell-surface receptors and an intracellular exchange factor. Curr Biol. 2008;18:211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that intracellular proteins function in cooperation with mating pheromones to amplify G protein signaling, thereby leading to full pathway activation. ..
  16. Clement S, Dixit G, Dohlman H. Regulation of yeast G protein signaling by the kinases that activate the AMPK homolog Snf1. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra78 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the G protein ? subunit Gpa1 was phosphorylated in response to conditions of reduced glucose availability and that this phosphorylation event ..
  17. Ooms L, Koster M, Mitchell J, Pals Rylaarsdam R. Identification of a second-site suppressor mutation of the GTPase defect associated with McCune-Albright syndrome: a model using the yeast heterotrimeric G protein, GPA1. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2006;112:166-73 pubmed
    ..We introduced the MAS mutation into the analogous site in the yeast Galpha gene, GPA1 and randomly mutated the gene to produce intragenic suppressors...
  18. Cole G, Stone D, Reed S. Stoichiometry of G protein subunits affects the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromone signal transduction pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:510-7 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPA1, STE4, and STE18 genes encode products homologous to mammalian G-protein alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively...
  19. Cappell S, Baker R, Skowyra D, Dohlman H. Systematic analysis of essential genes reveals important regulators of G protein signaling. Mol Cell. 2010;38:746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme at the level of the G protein; promotes degradation of the G protein alpha subunit, Gpa1, in vivo; and catalyzes Gpa1 ubiquitination in vitro...
  20. Torres M, Lee M, Ding F, Purbeck C, Kuhlman B, Dokholyan N, et al. G Protein Mono-ubiquitination by the Rsp5 Ubiquitin Ligase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8940-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The yeast G protein alpha subunit Gpa1 represents a rare example of a protein that undergoes both mono- and poly-ubiquitination...
  21. Oehlen L, Cross F. G1 cyclins CLN1 and CLN2 repress the mating factor response pathway at Start in the yeast cell cycle. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1058-70 pubmed
    ..CLN2 overexpression suppressed the constitutive signaling and division-arrest phenotypes of cells with a disrupted gpa1 gene, indicating that the site of action for repression is downstream of the alpha-subunit (Gpa1p) of the ..
  22. Kim J, Couve A, Hirsch J. Receptor inhibition of pheromone signaling is mediated by the Ste4p Gbeta subunit. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:441-9 pubmed
    ..suppressed the signaling defect conferred by receptor inhibition in a MATa strain containing a deletion of GPA1, the G protein alpha-subunit gene; however, STE4(SD13) had no effect in a MATalpha strain containing a GPA1 ..
  23. Chasse S, Flanary P, Parnell S, Hao N, Cha J, Siderovski D, et al. Genome-scale analysis reveals Sst2 as the principal regulator of mating pheromone signaling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:330-46 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae there are four RGS-homologous proteins (Sst2, Rgs2, Rax1, and Mdm1) and two Galpha proteins (Gpa1 and Gpa2)...
  24. DiBello P, Garrison T, Apanovitch D, Hoffman G, Shuey D, Mason K, et al. Selective uncoupling of RGS action by a single point mutation in the G protein alpha-subunit. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5780-4 pubmed
    ..We describe here a Galpha mutant in yeast (gpa1(sst)) that phenotypically mimics the loss of its cognate RGS protein (SST2)...
  25. Blackwell E, Halatek I, Kim H, Ellicott A, Obukhov A, Stone D. Effect of the pheromone-responsive G(alpha) and phosphatase proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the subcellular localization of the Fus3 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1135-50 pubmed
    The mating-specific G(alpha) protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gpa1, stimulates adaptation to pheromone by a mechanism independent of G(beta gamma) sequestration...
  26. Spain B, Koo D, Ramakrishnan M, Dzudzor B, Colicelli J. Truncated forms of a novel yeast protein suppress the lethality of a G protein alpha subunit deficiency by interacting with the beta subunit. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:25435-44 pubmed
    ..A null allele of the G alpha (GPA1/SCG1) subunit results in cell death due to unchecked signaling from the G beta gamma (STE4, STE18, respectively) ..
  27. Strickfaden S, Pryciak P. Distinct roles for two Galpha-Gbeta interfaces in cell polarity control by a yeast heterotrimeric G protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:181-97 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer can function in a partially dissociated state, tethered by the N-terminal interface. ..
  28. Xue Y, Batlle M, Hirsch J. GPR1 encodes a putative G protein-coupled receptor that associates with the Gpa2p Galpha subunit and functions in a Ras-independent pathway. EMBO J. 1998;17:1996-2007 pubmed
  29. DeSimone S, Kurjan J. Switch-domain mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae G protein alpha-subunit Gpa1p identify a receptor subtype-biased mating defect. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;257:662-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility that these phenotypes may reflect a differential role for the switch II region in activation by the a- and alpha-factor receptors. ..
  30. Dohlman H, Song J, Ma D, Courchesne W, Thorner J. Sst2, a negative regulator of pheromone signaling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: expression, localization, and genetic interaction and physical association with Gpa1 (the G-protein alpha subunit). Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5194-209 pubmed
    ..When the GPA1 gene product (Galpha subunit) is absent, the pheromone response pathway is constitutively active and, consequently, ..
  31. Willhite D, Brigati J, Selcer K, Denny J, Duck Z, Wright S. Pheromone responsiveness is regulated by components of the Gpr1p-mediated glucose sensing pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2014;31:361-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that activity of the GPCR-mediated mating pathway in S. cerevisiae is modulated by extracellular glucose concentrations through the only other GPCR in MATa cells, Gpr1p. ..
  32. Song J, Dohlman H. Partial constitutive activation of pheromone responses by a palmitoylation-site mutant of a G protein alpha subunit in yeast. Biochemistry. 1996;35:14806-17 pubmed
    ..The G protein alpha subunit in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GPA1 gene product, Gpa1p) is known to be myristoylated, and this modification is essential for G protein activity in ..
  33. Metodiev M, Matheos D, Rose M, Stone D. Regulation of MAPK function by direct interaction with the mating-specific Galpha in yeast. Science. 2002;296:1483-6 pubmed
    ..This interaction contributes both to modulation of the mating signal and to the chemotropic response, and it demonstrates direct communication between the top and bottom of a Galpha-MAPK pathway. ..
  34. Guo M, Aston C, Burchett S, Dyke C, Fields S, Rajarao S, et al. The yeast G protein alpha subunit Gpa1 transmits a signal through an RNA binding effector protein Scp160. Mol Cell. 2003;12:517-24 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that GTPase-deficient mutants of Galpha (Gpa1) directly activate the mating response pathway...
  35. Xu B, Kurjan J. Evidence that mating by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpa1Val50 mutant occurs through the default mating pathway and a suggestion of a role for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1649-64 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we suggest that a positive component of the default mating pathway is subject to ubiquitin-mediated degradation. ..
  36. Slessareva J, Routt S, Temple B, Bankaitis V, Dohlman H. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Vps34 by a G protein alpha subunit at the endosome. Cell. 2006;126:191-203 pubmed
    ..The Galpha subunit Gpa1 can also promote signaling, but the effectors in this pathway are not well characterized...
  37. Miyajima I, Nakayama N, Nakafuku M, Kaziro Y, Arai K, Matsumoto K. Suppressors of a gpa1 mutation cause sterility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1988;119:797-804 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPA1 gene encodes a protein highly homologous to the alpha subunit of mammalian G proteins and is essential for haploid cell growth...
  38. Kraakman L, Lemaire K, Ma P, Teunissen A, Donaton M, Van Dijck P, et al. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae G-protein coupled receptor, Gpr1, is specifically required for glucose activation of the cAMP pathway during the transition to growth on glucose. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:1002-12 pubmed
    ..This appears to be the first example of a GPCR system activated by a nutrient in eukaryotic cells. Hence, a subfamily of GPCRs might be involved in nutrient sensing. ..
  39. Dowell S, Bishop A, Dyos S, Brown A, Whiteway M. Mapping of a yeast G protein betagamma signaling interaction. Genetics. 1998;150:1407-17 pubmed
    ..Identification of the Gbetagamma coiled-coil in Ste5p binding may set a precedent for Gbetagamma-effector interactions in more complex organisms. ..
  40. Wu Y, Hooks S, Harden T, Dohlman H. Dominant-negative inhibition of pheromone receptor signaling by a single point mutation in the G protein alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35287-97 pubmed
    In yeast, two different constitutive mutants of the G protein alpha subunit have been reported. Gpa1(Q323L) cannot hydrolyze GTP and permanently activates the pheromone response pathway...
  41. Kallal L, Fishel R. The GTP hydrolysis defect of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant G-protein Gpa1(G50V). Yeast. 2000;16:387-400 pubmed
    ..Here we have characterized the Gpa1(G50V) mutant protein in vitro by examining GTPgammaS binding, GDP exchange, GTP occupancy and guanosine ..
  42. Zaichick S, Metodiev M, Nelson S, Durbrovskyi O, Draper E, Cooper J, et al. The mating-specific Galpha interacts with a kinesin-14 and regulates pheromone-induced nuclear migration in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2820-30 pubmed publisher
    ..that pheromone stimulates a microtubule-independent interaction between Kar3 and the mating-specific Galpha protein Gpa1 and that Gpa1 affects both microtubule orientation and cortical contact...
  43. Xu B, Skowronek K, Kurjan J. The N terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sst2p plays an RGS-domain-independent, Mpt5p-dependent role in recovery from pheromone arrest. Genetics. 2001;159:1559-71 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of either intact Sst2p or the MPI domain leads to partial suppression of a gpa1 growth defect, and this suppression is dependent on Mpt5p, indicating that MPI function occurs downstream of Gpa1p ..
  44. Miyajima I, Nakafuku M, Nakayama N, Brenner C, Miyajima A, Kaibuchi K, et al. GPA1, a haploid-specific essential gene, encodes a yeast homolog of mammalian G protein which may be involved in mating factor signal transduction. Cell. 1987;50:1011-9 pubmed
    b>GPA1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to the alpha subunit of mammalian G protein. GPA1 transcript was found in haploid cells but was not detected in diploid cells...
  45. Hirsch J, Cross F. The pheromone receptors inhibit the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a process that is independent of their associated G alpha protein. Genetics. 1993;135:943-53 pubmed
    ..The ability of the pheromone receptors to block the pheromone response signal in the absence of the G alpha subunit indicates that these receptors interact with another component of the signal transduction pathway. ..
  46. Fujimura H. Molecular cloning of the DAC2/FUS3 gene essential for pheromone-induced G1-arrest of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 1990;18:395-400 pubmed
    ..division-arrest and cell-fusion during conjugation; it also suppresses the growth defect caused by the gpa1 mutation (a mutation in the alpha subunit of the S. cerevisiae G protein)...
  47. Flanary P, DiBello P, Estrada P, Dohlman H. Functional analysis of Plp1 and Plp2, two homologues of phosducin in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:18462-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that phosducin can selectively regulate early signaling events following pheromone stimulation and has an essential role in cell growth independent of its regulatory role in cell signaling. ..
  48. Pryciak P, Hartwell L. AKR1 encodes a candidate effector of the G beta gamma complex in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway and contributes to control of both cell shape and signal transduction. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2614-26 pubmed
  49. Durán Avelar M, Ongay Larios L, Zentella Dehesa A, Coria R. The carboxy-terminal tail of the Ste2 receptor is involved in activation of the G protein in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-pheromone response pathway. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;197:65-71 pubmed
  50. Torres M, Clement S, Cappell S, Dohlman H. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and ubiquitination of a G protein alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the G? subunit (Gpa1) is phosphorylated and ubiquitinated in response to changes in the cell cycle...
  51. Kao L, Peterson J, Ji R, Bender L, Bender A. Interactions between the ankyrin repeat-containing protein Akr1p and the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:168-78 pubmed
    ..mutants that required one or more copies of wild-type AKR1 for survival at 30 degrees C, we isolated mutations in GPA1, which encodes the G alpha subunit of the pheromone receptor-coupled G protein...
  52. Heenan E, Vanhooke J, Temple B, Betts L, SONDEK J, Dohlman H. Structure and function of Vps15 in the endosomal G protein signaling pathway. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6390-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, it has been shown that the G protein alpha subunit Gpa1 can promote signaling at endosomes and requires two components of the sole phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in yeast, ..
  53. Irie K, Nomoto S, Miyajima I, Matsumoto K. SGV1 encodes a CDC28/cdc2-related kinase required for a G alpha subunit-mediated adaptive response to pheromone in S. cerevisiae. Cell. 1991;65:785-95 pubmed
    The GPA1 gene of S. cerevisiae encodes a G alpha subunit that plays a positive role in the transduction of signals stimulating recovery from pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest...
  54. Cevheroğlu O, Becker J, Son C. GPCR-G? protein precoupling: Interaction between Ste2p, a yeast GPCR, and Gpa1p, its G? protein, is formed before ligand binding via the Ste2p C-terminal domain and the Gpa1p N-terminal domain. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2017;1859:2435-2446 pubmed publisher
    ..The images presented in this study are the first direct in vivo evidence showing the localization of receptor - G protein heterodimers during biosynthesis and before reaching the plasma membrane. ..
  55. Elion E, Grisafi P, Fink G. FUS3 encodes a cdc2+/CDC28-related kinase required for the transition from mitosis into conjugation. Cell. 1990;60:649-64 pubmed
    ..The suppression of a gpa1 null (G alpha subunit) by a fus3 null also suggests FUS3 is in the signal transduction pathway...
  56. Fujimura H. Identification and characterization of a mutation affecting the division arrest signaling of the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1990;124:275-82 pubmed
    ..from the previously identified cell type nonspecific sterile mutations (ste4, ste5, ste7, ste11, ste12, ste18 and dac1)...