Gene Symbol: GLR1
Description: glutathione-disulfide reductase GLR1
Alias: LPG17, glutathione-disulfide reductase GLR1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Collinson L, Dawes I. Isolation, characterization and overexpression of the yeast gene, GLR1, encoding glutathione reductase. Gene. 1995;156:123-7 pubmed
    ..peptide fragment and a conserved C-terminal region of known GR aa sequences, the yeast gene encoding GR, GLR1, was isolated using PCR followed by screening of a yeast genomic DNA plasmid library...
  2. Pérez Sampietro M, Herrero E. The PacC-family protein Rim101 prevents selenite toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by controlling vacuolar acidification. Fungal Genet Biol. 2014;71:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a parallel Rim101-independent pathway requiring the complete ESCRT machinery (including the ESCRT-0 complex) also participates in protection against selenite. ..
  3. Grant C, MacIver F, Dawes I. Stationary-phase induction of GLR1 expression is mediated by the yAP-1 transcriptional regulatory protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 1996;22:739-46 pubmed
    ..fourfold during stationary-phase growth compared to exponential phase growth, and that a yeast strain deleted for GLR1, encoding glutathione reductase, shows an elevated sensitivity to H2O2 challenge during stationary phase...
  4. Couto N, Malys N, Gaskell S, Barber J. Partition and turnover of glutathione reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a proteomic approach. J Proteome Res. 2013;12:2885-94 pubmed publisher
    Glutathione reductase (Glr1) is a low abundance protein involved in defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species. Expressed on cytosolic ribosomes, the same gene, GLR1, uses alternative start codons to generate two forms of Glr1...
  5. Sohn H, Kum E, Kwon G, Jin I, Adams C, Kuriyama H. GLR1 plays an essential role in the homeodynamics of glutathione and the regulation of H2S production during respiratory oscillation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:2450-4 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the expression profiles of GSH1 and GLR1, the activities of glutathione reductase, oscillations in cysteine and GSH concentrations, and the chemostat ..
  6. Wei W, Smith N, Wu X, Kim H, Seravalli J, Khalimonchuk O, et al. YCF1-mediated cadmium resistance in yeast is dependent on copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014;21:1475-89 pubmed publisher
  7. Aksnes H, Osberg C, Arnesen T. N-terminal acetylation by NatC is not a general determinant for substrate subcellular localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61012 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, all organelle-localized substrates indicated undisrupted structures, thus suggesting that absence of NatC acetylation does not have a vast effect on organelle morphology in yeast. ..
  8. Morgan B, Ezerina D, Amoako T, Riemer J, Seedorf M, Dick T. Multiple glutathione disulfide removal pathways mediate cytosolic redox homeostasis. Nat Chem Biol. 2013;9:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Applying these insights, we identify Trx2 and Grx2 as efficient backup systems to glutathione reductase for cytosolic GSSG reduction...
  9. Greetham D, Kritsiligkou P, Watkins R, Carter Z, Parkin J, Grant C. Oxidation of the yeast mitochondrial thioredoxin promotes cell death. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..oxidized mitochondrial Trx3 only accumulates in mutants simultaneously lacking Trr2 and a glutathione reductase (Glr1)...

More Information


  1. Greetham D, Vickerstaff J, Shenton D, Perrone G, Dawes I, Grant C. Thioredoxins function as deglutathionylase enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BMC Biochem. 2010;11:3 pubmed publisher
  2. Yu J, Zhou C. Crystal structure of glutathione reductase Glr1 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proteins. 2007;68:972-9 pubmed
    Yeast glutathione (GSH) reductase Glr1 is a dimeric flavo-oxidoreductase involved in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox regulatory systems...
  3. Cardoso L, Ferreira S, Hermes Lima M. Reductive inactivation of yeast glutathione reductase by Fe(II) and NADPH. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008;151:313-21 pubmed
    ..According to this mechanism, GR is diverted from its normal redox cycling by the generation of an inactive reduced enzyme form in which both the FAD and thiol groups at the active site are likely in a reduced state. ..
  4. Trotter E, Grant C. Overlapping roles of the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox regulatory systems in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:392-400 pubmed
    ..Since glutathione reductase (Glr1) has been shown to colocalize to the cytoplasm and mitochondria, we examined whether loss of GLR1 influences the ..
  5. Gostimskaya I, Grant C. Yeast mitochondrial glutathione is an essential antioxidant with mitochondrial thioredoxin providing a back-up system. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;94:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have tested the importance of mitochondrial glutathione in thiol-redox regulation. Glutathione reductase (Glr1) is an oxidoreductase which converts oxidized glutathione to its reduced form...
  6. Palle K, Pattarello L, van der Merwe M, Losasso C, Benedetti P, Bjornsti M. Disulfide cross-links reveal conserved features of DNA topoisomerase I architecture and a role for the N terminus in clamp closure. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the composition of the divergent N-terminal/linker domains impacts Top1-clamp activity and stability in vivo. ..
  7. Pérez Sampietro M, Casas C, Herrero E. The AMPK family member Snf1 protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells upon glutathione oxidation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58283 pubmed publisher
    ..type cells, and its hypersensitivity to the agent is rescued by overexpression of the glutathione reductase gene GLR1. In the presence of agents such as diethyl maleate or diamide, which cause alterations in glutathione redox ..
  8. Merwin J, Mustacich D, Muller E, Pearson G, Merrill G. Reporter gene transactivation by human p53 is inhibited in thioredoxin reductase null yeast by a mechanism associated with thioredoxin oxidation and independent of changes in the redox state of glutathione. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:1609-15 pubmed
    ..9-fold increase in total glutathione per mg extract protein. Highcopy expression of the GLR1 gene encoding glutathione reductase in Deltatrr1 yeast restored the GSSG:GSH ratio to wild-type levels, but did not ..
  9. Seefeldt T, Zhao Y, Chen W, Raza A, Carlson L, Herman J, et al. Characterization of a novel dithiocarbamate glutathione reductase inhibitor and its use as a tool to modulate intracellular glutathione. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In CV-1 cells, 2-AAPA (0.1 mm) produced 97% GR inhibition, 25% GSH reduction, and a 5-fold increase in GSSG in 20 min. The compound can be a useful tool in TRS-related research. ..
  10. Muller E. A glutathione reductase mutant of yeast accumulates high levels of oxidized glutathione and requires thioredoxin for growth. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:1805-13 pubmed
    ..Yeast mutants that lack glutathione reductase (glr1 delta) accumulate high levels of oxidized glutathione and have a twofold increase in total glutathione...