Gene Symbol: GLN3
Description: nitrogen-responsive transcriptional regulator GLN3
Alias: nitrogen-responsive transcriptional regulator GLN3
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Stanbrough M, Rowen D, Magasanik B. Role of the GATA factors Gln3p and Nil1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the expression of nitrogen-regulated genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9450-4 pubmed virtue of the homology of its zinc-finger domain to that of the previously identified activator, the product of GLN3. Disruption of the chromosomal NIL1 gene enabled us to compare the effects of Gln3p and of Nil1p on the expression ..
  2. Tate J, Feller A, Dubois E, Cooper T. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sit4 phosphatase is active irrespective of the nitrogen source provided, and Gln3 phosphorylation levels become nitrogen source-responsive in a sit4-deleted strain. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:37980-92 pubmed
    ..phosphatase activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been reported to be responsible for the regulation of Gln3 phosphorylation and intracellular localization in response to the nature of the nitrogen source available...
  3. Puria R, Zurita Martinez S, Cardenas M. Nuclear translocation of Gln3 in response to nutrient signals requires Golgi-to-endosome trafficking in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of yeast cells to poor nitrogen sources or treatment with the Tor kinase inhibitor rapamycin elicits activation of Gln3 and transcription of nitrogen catabolite-repressed (NCR) genes whose products function in scavenging and ..
  4. Devasahayam G, Ritz D, Helliwell S, Burke D, Sturgill T. Pmr1, a Golgi Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase, is a regulator of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17840-5 pubmed
    ..These two phenotypes suggest up-regulation of Npr1 function in the absence of Pmr1. Together, our results establish that Pmr1-dependent Ca2+ and/or Mn2+ ion homeostasis is necessary for TOR signaling. ..
  5. Tate J, Cooper T. Stress-responsive Gln3 localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is separable from and can overwhelm nitrogen source regulation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18467-80 pubmed
    Intracellular localization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GATA family transcription activator, Gln3, is used as a downstream readout of rapamycin-inhibited Tor1,2 control of Tap42 and Sit4 activities...
  6. Feller A, Boeckstaens M, Marini A, Dubois E. Transduction of the nitrogen signal activating Gln3-mediated transcription is independent of Npr1 kinase and Rsp5-Bul1/2 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28546-54 pubmed
    ..In cells using ammonium or glutamine, the GATA transcription factor Gln3 is sequestered in the cytoplasm by Ure2 whereas it enters the nucleus after a shift to a nonpreferred nitrogen ..
  7. Beck T, Hall M. The TOR signalling pathway controls nuclear localization of nutrient-regulated transcription factors. Nature. 1999;402:689-92 pubmed
    ..of genes expressed upon nitrogen limitation by promoting the association of the GATA transcription factor GLN3 with the cytoplasmic protein URE2. The binding of GLN3 to URE2 requires TOR-dependent phosphorylation of GLN3...
  8. Bertram P, Choi J, Carvalho J, Ai W, Zeng C, Chan T, et al. Tripartite regulation of Gln3p by TOR, Ure2p, and phosphatases. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35727-33 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the free Gln3p, the Ure2p-bound Gln3p is signifcantly resistant to dephosphorylation. Taken together, these results reveal a tripartite regulatory mechanism by which the phosphorylation of Gln3p is regulated. ..
  9. Georis I, Tate J, Cooper T, Dubois E. Nitrogen-responsive regulation of GATA protein family activators Gln3 and Gat1 occurs by two distinct pathways, one inhibited by rapamycin and the other by methionine sulfoximine. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44897-912 pubmed publisher
    ..utilized nitrogen sources by governing the localization and function of transcription activators, Gln3 and Gat1...

More Information


  1. Rai R, Tate J, Nelson D, Cooper T. gln3 mutations dissociate responses to nitrogen limitation (nitrogen catabolite repression) and rapamycin inhibition of TorC1. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:2789-804 pubmed publisher
    The GATA family transcription activator, Gln3 responds to the nitrogen requirements and environmental resources of the cell. When rapidly utilized, "good" nitrogen sources, e.g...
  2. Tate J, Georis I, Dubois E, Cooper T. Distinct phosphatase requirements and GATA factor responses to nitrogen catabolite repression and rapamycin treatment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17880-95 pubmed publisher
    ..TorC1 and intracellular nitrogen levels regulate the localization of Gln3 and Gat1, the activators of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-sensitive genes whose products are required to ..
  3. Tate J, Rai R, Cooper T. Methionine sulfoximine treatment and carbon starvation elicit Snf1-independent phosphorylation of the transcription activator Gln3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27195-204 pubmed
    ..Among the regulated genes are those whose expression is activated by the GATA family transcription activator, Gln3. The extent of Gln3 phosphorylation has been thought to determine its intracellular localization, with ..
  4. Feller A, Georis I, Tate J, Cooper T, Dubois E. Alterations in the Ure2 ?Cap domain elicit different GATA factor responses to rapamycin treatment and nitrogen limitation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:1841-55 pubmed publisher
    Ure2 is a phosphoprotein and central negative regulator of nitrogen-responsive Gln3/Gat1 localization and their ability to activate transcription...
  5. Schmelzle T, Beck T, Martin D, Hall M. Activation of the RAS/cyclic AMP pathway suppresses a TOR deficiency in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:338-51 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that TOR signals through the RAS/cAMP pathway, independently of TAP42/SIT4. Therefore, the RAS/cAMP pathway may be a novel TOR effector branch. ..
  6. Chen E, Kaiser C. LST8 negatively regulates amino acid biosynthesis as a component of the TOR pathway. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:333-47 pubmed
    ..Finally, the different effects of lst8 alleles on the activation of either the Rtg1/3p or Gln3p transcription factors reveal that these two pathways constitute distinct, genetically separable outputs of the Tor-Lst8 regulatory complex. ..
  7. Cox K, Tate J, Cooper T. Cytoplasmic compartmentation of Gln3 during nitrogen catabolite repression and the mechanism of its nuclear localization during carbon starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37559-66 pubmed
    Regulated intracellular localization of Gln3, the transcriptional activator responsible for nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-sensitive transcription, permits Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize good nitrogen sources (e.g...
  8. Georis I, Tate J, Cooper T, Dubois E. Tor pathway control of the nitrogen-responsive DAL5 gene bifurcates at the level of Gln3 and Gat1 regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8919-29 pubmed publisher
    ..gene expression that correlates with intracellular localization of GATA transcription activators Gln3 and Gat1/Nil1...
  9. Blinder D, Coschigano P, Magasanik B. Interaction of the GATA factor Gln3p with the nitrogen regulator Ure2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4734-6 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Ure2p probably does not interfere with the binding of the GATA factor Gln3p to GATAAG sites but acts directly on Gln3p to block its ability to activate transcription. ..
  10. Kulkarni A, Abul Hamd A, Rai R, El Berry H, Cooper T. Gln3p nuclear localization and interaction with Ure2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32136-44 pubmed
    ..v) Loss of Ure2p residues participating in either dimer or prion formation diminishes its ability to carry out NCR-sensitive regulation of Gln3p activity. ..
  11. Valenzuela L, Aranda C, Gonzalez A. TOR modulates GCN4-dependent expression of genes turned on by nitrogen limitation. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2331-4 pubmed
    ..One of the mechanisms by which TOR regulates cell proliferation is by excluding the GLN3 transcriptional activator from the nucleus and, in consequence, preventing its transcriptional activation therein...
  12. Fayyadkazan M, Tate J, Vierendeels F, Cooper T, Dubois E, Georis I. Components of Golgi-to-vacuole trafficking are required for nitrogen- and TORC1-responsive regulation of the yeast GATA factors. Microbiologyopen. 2014;3:271-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of NCR-sensitive genes is mediated by two transcription activators, Gln3 and Gat1, in response to provision of a poorly used nitrogen source or following treatment with the TORC1 inhibitor,..
  13. Hirasaki M, Kaneko Y, Harashima S. Protein phosphatase Siw14 controls intracellular localization of Gln3 in cooperation with Npr1 kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 2008;409:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Because Gln3 (a phosphorylated transcriptional activator)-dependent transcription is induced by disruption of NPR1, we further ..
  14. Ungar L, Harari Y, Toren A, Kupiec M. Tor complex 1 controls telomere length by affecting the level of Ku. Curr Biol. 2011;21:2115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The TORC1 signal is transduced by the Gln3/Gat1/Ure2 pathway, which controls the levels of the Ku heterodimer, a telomere regulator...
  15. Hernández H, Aranda C, Riego L, Gonzalez A. Gln3-Gcn4 hybrid transcriptional activator determines catabolic and biosynthetic gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:859-64 pubmed publisher
    ..sources, transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in their catabolism is elicited through the action of Gln3, which constitutes the main activator of the Nitrogen Catabolite Repression network (NCR)...
  16. Georis I, Feller A, Tate J, Cooper T, Dubois E. Nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive transcription as a readout of Tor pathway regulation: the genetic background, reporter gene and GATA factor assayed determine the outcomes. Genetics. 2009;181:861-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Two GATA factors, Gln3 and Gat1, are responsible for NCR-sensitive transcription, but recent evidence demonstrates that Tor pathway ..
  17. Antonets K, Sargsyan H, Nizhnikov A. A Glutamine/Asparagine-Rich Fragment of Gln3, but not the Full-Length Protein, Aggregates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2016;81:407-13 pubmed publisher
    The amino acid sequence of protein Gln3 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a region enriched with Gln (Q) and Asn (N) residues...
  18. Rubio Texeira M. Urmylation controls Nil1p and Gln3p-dependent expression of nitrogen-catabolite repressed genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:541-50 pubmed
    ..Altogether, the data presented here indicate an important role of the urmylation pathway in regulating the expression of genes involved in sensing and controlling amino acids levels. ..
  19. Tate J, Rai R, Cooper T. Ammonia-specific regulation of Gln3 localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by protein kinase Npr1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28460-9 pubmed
    Events directly regulating Gln3 intracellular localization and nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-sensitive transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are interconnected with many cellular processes that influence the utilization of ..
  20. Giannattasio S, Liu Z, Thornton J, Butow R. Retrograde response to mitochondrial dysfunction is separable from TOR1/2 regulation of retrograde gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42528-35 pubmed
  21. Carvalho J, Zheng X. Domains of Gln3p interacting with karyopherins, Ure2p, and the target of rapamycin protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16878-86 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find a lysine/arginine-rich domain essential for the rapamycin-sensitive function, but dispensable for its localization. Our results reveal key domains of Gln3p important for its function and regulation. ..
  22. Crespo J, Daicho K, Ushimaru T, Hall M. The GATA transcription factors GLN3 and GAT1 link TOR to salt stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34441-4 pubmed
    ..Second, the absence of the TOR-controlled GATA transcription factors GLN3 and GAT1 results in reduced basal and salt-induced expression of ENA1...
  23. Bandhakavi S, Xie H, O Callaghan B, Sakurai H, Kim D, Griffin T. Hsf1 activation inhibits rapamycin resistance and TOR signaling in yeast revealed by combined proteomic and genetic analysis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1598 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae. Additionally, these results highlight the value of comparative expression analyses between large-scale proteomic and transcriptomic datasets to reveal new regulatory connections. ..
  24. Cunningham T, Svetlov V, Rai R, Smart W, Cooper T. G1n3p is capable of binding to UAS(NTR) elements and activating transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:3470-9 pubmed
    ..A LexA-Gln3 fusion protein supported transcriptional activation when bound to one or more LexAp binding sites upstream of a ..
  25. Huang Y, Chen H, Teng S. Intragenic transcription of a noncoding RNA modulates expression of ASP3 in budding yeast. RNA. 2010;16:2085-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show for the first time that intragenic noncoding transcription promotes gene expression. ..
  26. Kwan E, Foss E, Kruglyak L, Bedalov A. Natural polymorphism in BUL2 links cellular amino acid availability with chronological aging and telomere maintenance in yeast. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002250 pubmed publisher
    ..changes conferred by the BUL2 polymorphism alter telomere length by modulating activity of a transcription factor Gln3. Among the GLN3 transcriptional targets relevant to this phenotype, we identified Wtm1, whose upregulation promotes ..
  27. Lee K, Hahn J. Interplay of Aro80 and GATA activators in regulation of genes for catabolism of aromatic amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:1120-34 pubmed publisher
    ..ARO10 are also under the control of nitrogen catabolite repression, but the direct roles for GATA factors, Gat1 and Gln3, in this regulation have not yet been elucidated...
  28. Rai R, Tate J, Shanmuganatham K, Howe M, Nelson D, Cooper T. Nuclear Gln3 Import Is Regulated by Nitrogen Catabolite Repression Whereas Export Is Specifically Regulated by Glutamine. Genetics. 2015;201:989-1016 pubmed publisher
    b>Gln3, a transcription activator mediating nitrogen-responsive gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is sequestered in the cytoplasm, thereby minimizing nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-sensitive transcription when cells are ..
  29. Bernard A, Jin M, Xu Z, Klionsky D. A large-scale analysis of autophagy-related gene expression identifies new regulators of autophagy. Autophagy. 2015;11:2114-2122 pubmed publisher
    ..By providing a detailed analysis of the regulatory network of the ATG genes our study paves the way for future research on autophagy regulation and signaling. ..
  30. Jin R, Dobry C, McCown P, Kumar A. Large-scale analysis of yeast filamentous growth by systematic gene disruption and overexpression. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:284-96 pubmed
  31. Staschke K, Dey S, Zaborske J, Palam L, McClintick J, Pan T, et al. Integration of general amino acid control and target of rapamycin (TOR) regulatory pathways in nitrogen assimilation in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16893-911 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the mechanisms by which the GAAC and TOR pathways are integrated to recognize changing nitrogen availability and direct the transcriptome for optimal growth adaptation. ..
  32. Leverentz M, Campbell R, Connolly Y, Whetton A, Reece R. Mutation of a phosphorylatable residue in Put3p affects the magnitude of rapamycin-induced PUT1 activation in a Gat1p-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our findings suggest that this may represent a mechanism through which yeast cells rapidly adapt to use proline as a nitrogen source under nitrogen limiting conditions. ..
  33. Blinder D, Magasanik B. Recognition of nitrogen-responsive upstream activation sequences of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the product of the GLN3 gene. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4190-3 pubmed
    We describe the purification of the product of the GLN3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the demonstration that the purified product, Gln3p, binds specifically to the DNA sequences GATAAG and GATTAG, previously identified as nitrogen-..
  34. Carvalho J, Bertram P, Wente S, Zheng X. Phosphorylation regulates the interaction between Gln3p and the nuclear import factor Srp1p. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25359-65 pubmed
    ..These findings define a possible mechanism for regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport of Gln3p by phosphorylation in vivo. ..
  35. Shewmaker F, Mull L, Nakayashiki T, Masison D, Wickner R. Ure2p function is enhanced by its prion domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;176:1557-65 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that the prion domain may affect the interaction of Ure2p with other components of the nitrogen regulation system, specifically the negative regulator of nitrogen catabolic genes, Gzf3p. ..
  36. Oliveira E, Mansure J, Bon E. Gln3p and Nil1p regulation of invertase activity and SUC2 expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2005;5:605-9 pubmed
    ..In the present work we showed that invertase levels displayed by the single nil1 and gln3 and by the double gln3nil1 mutant cells, cultivated in a sucrose-ammonium medium and collected at the exponential ..
  37. Koren A, Soifer I, Barkai N. MRC1-dependent scaling of the budding yeast DNA replication timing program. Genome Res. 2010;20:781-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Mrc1 emerges as a regulator of this robustness of the replication program. ..
  38. Makanae K, Kintaka R, Makino T, Kitano H, Moriya H. Identification of dosage-sensitive genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the genetic tug-of-war method. Genome Res. 2013;23:300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in this study will provide basic knowledge about the physiology of chromosomal abnormalities and the evolution of chromosomal composition. ..
  39. Mitchell A, Magasanik B. Three regulatory systems control production of glutamine synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1984;4:2767-73 pubmed
    ..One system responds to glutamine levels and depends on the positively acting GLN3 product...
  40. Numamoto M, Tagami S, Ueda Y, Imabeppu Y, Sasano Y, Sugiyama M, et al. Nuclear localization domains of GATA activator Gln3 are required for transcription of target genes through dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng. 2015;120:121-7 pubmed publisher
    The GATA transcription activator Gln3 in the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) activates transcription of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-sensitive genes...
  41. Numamoto M, Sasano Y, Hirasaki M, Sugiyama M, Maekawa H, Harashima S. The protein phosphatase Siw14 controls caffeine-induced nuclear localization and phosphorylation of Gln3 via the type 2A protein phosphatases Pph21 and Pph22 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biochem. 2015;157:53-64 pubmed publisher the response to caffeine, participates in regulation of the phosphorylation and intracellular localization of Gln3, a GATA transcriptional activator of nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive genes...
  42. Bertram P, Choi J, Carvalho J, Chan T, Ai W, Zheng X. Convergence of TOR-nitrogen and Snf1-glucose signaling pathways onto Gln3. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1246-52 pubmed
    ..b>Gln3 is a GATA-type transcription factor of nitrogen catabolite-repressible (NCR) genes...
  43. Luzzani C, Cardillo S, Bermudez Moretti M, Correa Garcia S. New insights into the regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae UGA4 gene: two parallel pathways participate in carbon-regulated transcription. Microbiology. 2007;153:3677-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the results demonstrate the existence of a new factor operating in UGA4 regulation. ..
  44. Palmer L, Baptiste B, Fester J, Perkins J, Keil R. RRD1, a component of the TORC1 signalling pathway, affects anaesthetic response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2009;26:655-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that mutations in two other genes encoding components of the TORC1 pathway, GLN3 and URE2, also affect yeast anaesthetic response...
  45. Soussi Boudekou S, Andre B. A co-activator of nitrogen-regulated transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:753-62 pubmed
    ..Ada1/Gan1p thus represents the first reported case of an accessory protein (a co-activator) linking the GATA-binding proteins Gln3p and Nil1p, mediating nitrogen-regulated transcription, to the basal transcription machinery. ..
  46. Cooper T, Ferguson D, Rai R, Bysani N. The GLN3 gene product is required for transcriptional activation of allantoin system gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:1014-8 pubmed
    We show that mutation at the GLN3 locus results in decreased steady-state levels of DAL7, DUR1,2, CAR1, and URA3 mRNAs derived from cultures grown in the presence of inducer...
  47. Hirasaki M, Horiguchi M, Numamoto M, Sugiyama M, Kaneko Y, Nogi Y, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase Ppz1 and protein kinases Sat4 and Hal5 are involved in the control of subcellular localization of Gln3 by likely regulating its phosphorylation state. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;111:249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Because increased expression of ENA1 in the ?ppz1 disruptant was found to be suppressed by disruption of GLN3, localization and phosphorylation of Gln3 in the ?ppz1 disruptant was compared to that in the ?ppz1?sat4 and ?ppz1?..
  48. Coffman J, Rai R, Loprete D, Cunningham T, Svetlov V, Cooper T. Cross regulation of four GATA factors that control nitrogen catabolic gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3416-29 pubmed
    ..Paradoxically, the high-level DEH1 expression observed in a dal80::hisG disruption mutant is highly sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression. ..
  49. Fayyad Kazan M, Feller A, Bodo E, Boeckstaens M, Marini A, Dubois E, et al. Yeast nitrogen catabolite repression is sustained by signals distinct from glutamine and glutamate reservoirs. Mol Microbiol. 2016;99:360-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Providing additional evidence uncoupling TORC1 activity and NCR, our work revisits the dogmas underlying NCR regulation. ..
  50. Neklesa T, Davis R. Superoxide anions regulate TORC1 and its ability to bind Fpr1:rapamycin complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results warrant an examination into whether similar reasons explain rapamycin resistance observed in various clinical samples. ..
  51. Dummer A, Su Z, Cherney R, Choi K, DENU J, Zhao X, et al. Binding of the Fkh1 Forkhead Associated Domain to a Phosphopeptide within the Mph1 DNA Helicase Regulates Mating-Type Switching in Budding Yeast. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006094 pubmed publisher