Gene Symbol: GAL83
Description: Gal83p
Alias: SPM1, Gal83p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Choi I, Jeong M, Ham M, Sung H, Yun C. Novel Ree1 regulates the expression of ENO1 via the Snf1 complex pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:395-399 pubmed publisher
    ..From the two-hybrid analysis, we found that Ree1 physically interacted with Gal83. Furthermore, from 2-D gel electrophoresis we found that the deletion of REE1 resulted in the up-regulation of ..
  2. Kimura Y, Irie K, Mizuno T. Expression control of the AMPK regulatory subunit and its functional significance in yeast ER stress response. Sci Rep. 2017;7:46713 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it remains unclear how the alternate three ? subunits, Sip1, Sip2, and Gal83, of the Snf1 complex participate in ER stress response...
  3. Jiang R, Carlson M. The Snf1 protein kinase and its activating subunit, Snf4, interact with distinct domains of the Sip1/Sip2/Gal83 component in the kinase complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2099-106 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the possibility that a family of proteins, comprising Sip1, Sip2, and Gal83, serves this purpose...
  4. Vega M, Riera A, Fernández Cid A, Herrero P, Moreno F. Hexokinase 2 Is an Intracellular Glucose Sensor of Yeast Cells That Maintains the Structure and Activity of Mig1 Protein Repressor Complex. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7267-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data indicate that Hxk2 is more intimately involved in gene regulation than previously thought. ..
  5. Vincent O, Townley R, Kuchin S, Carlson M. Subcellular localization of the Snf1 kinase is regulated by specific beta subunits and a novel glucose signaling mechanism. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1104-14 pubmed
    ..Snf1 kinase complexes contain the alpha (catalytic) subunit Snf1, one of the three related beta subunits Gal83, Sip1, or Sip2, and the gamma subunit Snf4...
  6. Chandrashekarappa D, McCartney R, Schmidt M. Ligand binding to the AMP-activated protein kinase active site mediates protection of the activation loop from dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:89-98 pubmed publisher
  7. Wiatrowski H, van Denderen B, Berkey C, Kemp B, Stapleton D, Carlson M. Mutations in the gal83 glycogen-binding domain activate the snf1/gal83 kinase pathway by a glycogen-independent mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:352-61 pubmed
    ..glycogen-binding domain in the AMPK beta1 subunit, and the sequence is conserved in the Snf1 kinase beta subunits Gal83 and Sip2. Here we use genetic analysis to assess the role of this domain in vivo...
  8. Zhang J, Olsson L, Nielsen J. The beta-subunits of the Snf1 kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gal83 and Sip2, but not Sip1, are redundant in glucose derepression and regulation of sterol biosynthesis. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:371-83 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha-subunit Snf1, a regulatory gamma-subunit Snf4 and one of three possible beta-subunits, Sip1, Sip2 or Gal83. We used a systematic approach to study the role of the three beta-subunits by analysing all seven possible ..
  9. Benanti J, Cheung S, Brady M, Toczyski D. A proteomic screen reveals SCFGrr1 targets that regulate the glycolytic-gluconeogenic switch. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1184-91 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a role for SCF(Grr1) in regulating the glycolytic-gluconeogenic switch. ..

More Information


  1. Orlova M, Kanter E, Krakovich D, Kuchin S. Nitrogen availability and TOR regulate the Snf1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1831-7 pubmed
    ..TOR and Snf1/AMPK are highly conserved in evolution, and their novel functional interaction in yeast suggests similar mechanisms in other eukaryotes. ..
  2. Elbing K, McCartney R, Schmidt M. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2006;393:797-805 pubmed
    ..Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its beta and gamma subunits. ..
  3. Demille D, Badal B, Evans J, Mathis A, Anderson J, Grose J. PAS kinase is activated by direct SNF1-dependent phosphorylation and mediates inhibition of TORC1 through the phosphorylation and activation of Pbp1. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:569-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Psk1 protein mobility, is able to phosphorylate Psk1 in vitro, and binds Psk1 via its substrate-targeting subunit Gal83. Evidence for the direct phosphorylation and activation of Pbp1 by Psk1 is also provided by in vitro and in vivo ..
  4. McCartney R, Garnar Wortzel L, Chandrashekarappa D, Schmidt M. Activation and inhibition of Snf1 kinase activity by phosphorylation within the activation loop. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1864:1518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The first is through direct dephosphorylation of the conserved activation loop threonine. The second is through phosphorylation of serine 214. ..
  5. Hedbacker K, Hong S, Carlson M. Pak1 protein kinase regulates activation and nuclear localization of Snf1-Gal83 protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:8255-63 pubmed
    ..of the activating kinases for the three forms of Snf1 protein kinase containing the beta-subunit isoforms Gal83, Sip1, and Sip2...
  6. Vyas V, Kuchin S, Berkey C, Carlson M. Snf1 kinases with different beta-subunit isoforms play distinct roles in regulating haploid invasive growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1341-8 pubmed
    ..Cells contain three forms of the Snf1 kinase, each with a different beta-subunit isoform, either Gal83, Sip1, or Sip2...
  7. Vincent O, Carlson M. Gal83 mediates the interaction of the Snf1 kinase complex with the transcription activator Sip4. EMBO J. 1999;18:6672-81 pubmed
    ..The Snf1 complex contains one of the related proteins Sip1, Sip2 and Gal83, which are also conserved in higher eukaryotes...
  8. Mylin L, Bushman V, Long R, Yu X, Lebo C, Blank T, et al. SIP1 is a catabolite repression-specific negative regulator of GAL gene expression. Genetics. 1994;137:689-700 pubmed
    ..We have isolated the SIP1 gene as a multicopy suppressor of the gal83-associated defect in glucose repression of GAL gene expression...
  9. Chandrashekarappa D, McCartney R, Schmidt M. Subunit and domain requirements for adenylate-mediated protection of Snf1 kinase activation loop from dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44532-41 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Snf1 heterotrimeric complexes that lacked either the glycogen-binding domain of Gal83 or the linker region of the ? subunit were competent for ADP-mediated protection...
  10. Lo W, Gamache E, Henry K, Yang D, Pillus L, Berger S. Histone H3 phosphorylation can promote TBP recruitment through distinct promoter-specific mechanisms. EMBO J. 2005;24:997-1008 pubmed
    ..Our results emphasize that histone modifications share general functions between promoters, but also acquire distinct roles tailored for promoter-specific requirements. ..
  11. Bermejo C, Haerizadeh F, Sadoine M, Chermak D, Frommer W. Differential regulation of glucose transport activity in yeast by specific cAMP signatures. Biochem J. 2013;452:489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..During starvation, cAMP levels remain low triggering expression of HXT5, whereas cAMP spiking leads to a shift to the high capacity Hxt isoforms. ..
  12. Zhang Y, McCartney R, Chandrashekarappa D, Mangat S, Schmidt M. Reg1 protein regulates phosphorylation of all three Snf1 isoforms but preferentially associates with the Gal83 isoform. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1628-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Reg1 association with Snf1 occurred almost exclusively with the Gal83 isoform of the Snf1 complex...
  13. Matsumoto K, Yoshimatsu T, Oshima Y. Recessive mutations conferring resistance to carbon catabolite repression of galactokinase synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:1405-14 pubmed
    ..The two other classes were identified as arising from recessive mutations at the GAL82 locus and the GAL83 locus, respectively, at which various dominant mutations were isolated previously...
  14. Schmidt M, McCartney R. beta-subunits of Snf1 kinase are required for kinase function and substrate definition. EMBO J. 2000;19:4936-43 pubmed
    ..Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes three beta-subunit genes, SIP1, SIP2 and GAL83. Earlier studies suggested that these subunits may not be required for Snf1 kinase function...
  15. Li L, Kaplan J, Ward D. The glucose sensor Snf1 and the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 regulate transcription of the vacuolar iron importer gene CCC1 and iron resistance in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:15577-15586 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of all three alternative partners of Snf1 encoded by SIT1, SIT2, and GAL83 decreased both CCC1 transcription and iron resistance...
  16. Sarma N, Haley T, Barbara K, Buford T, Willis K, Santangelo G. Glucose-responsive regulators of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function at the nuclear periphery via a reverse recruitment mechanism. Genetics. 2007;175:1127-35 pubmed
    ..Reverse recruitment therefore appears to explain a fundamental pathway of eukaryotic gene regulation. ..
  17. Chandrashekarappa D, McCartney R, O Donnell A, Schmidt M. The ? subunit of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase directs substrate specificity in response to alkaline stress. Cell Signal. 2016;28:1881-1893 pubmed publisher
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae express three isoforms of Snf1 kinase that differ by which ? subunit is present, Gal83, Sip1 or Sip2...
  18. Mizuno T, Masuda Y, Irie K. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK, Snf1, Negatively Regulates the Hog1 MAPK Pathway in ER Stress Response. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005491 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Snf1 plays pleiotropic roles in ER stress response by negatively regulating the Hog1 MAPK pathway and the UPR pathway. ..
  19. McCartney R, Chandrashekarappa D, Zhang B, Schmidt M. Genetic analysis of resistance and sensitivity to 2-deoxyglucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2014;198:635-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Snf1 kinase activated by 2-deoxyglucose does not phosphorylate the Mig1 protein, a known Snf1 substrate during glucose limitation. Thus, different stimuli elicit distinct responses from the Snf1 kinase. ..
  20. Hedbacker K, Carlson M. Regulation of the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Snf1-Gal83 protein kinase. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1950-6 pubmed
    Snf1 protein kinase containing the beta subunit Gal83 is localized in the cytoplasm during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in abundant glucose and accumulates in the nucleus in response to glucose limitation...
  21. Dubacq C, Chevalier A, Mann C. The protein kinase Snf1 is required for tolerance to the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2560-72 pubmed
    ..Quantitative regulation of Snf1 kinase activity may contribute to the specificity of the effector responses that it controls. ..
  22. Nath N, McCartney R, Schmidt M. Purification and characterization of Snf1 kinase complexes containing a defined Beta subunit composition. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50403-8 pubmed
    ..complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains one of three possible beta subunits encoded by either SIP1, SIP2, or GAL83. Snf1 kinase complexes were purified from cells expressing only one of the three beta subunits using a tandem ..
  23. Erickson J, Johnston M. Genetic and molecular characterization of GAL83: its interaction and similarities with other genes involved in glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1993;135:655-64 pubmed
    ..Such unlinked noncomplementation suggests that Gal83p, Gal82p and Reg1p may interact with one another...
  24. Yang X, Jiang R, Carlson M. A family of proteins containing a conserved domain that mediates interaction with the yeast SNF1 protein kinase complex. EMBO J. 1994;13:5878-86 pubmed
    ..We have cloned the SIP2 gene and the encoded protein is homologous to SIP1 and to GAL83, which affects glucose repression of the GAL genes...
  25. Backhaus K, Rippert D, Heilmann C, Sorgo A, de Koster C, Klis F, et al. Mutations in SNF1 complex genes affect yeast cell wall strength. Eur J Cell Biol. 2013;92:383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Epistasis analyses with mutants in cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling confirm that the SNF1 complex and the CWI pathway independently affect yeast cell integrity. ..