Gene Symbol: GAL4
Description: galactose-responsive transcription factor GAL4
Alias: GAL81, galactose-responsive transcription factor GAL4
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     GAL4

Top Publications

  1. Kao C, Hillyer C, Tsukuda T, Henry K, Berger S, Osley M. Rad6 plays a role in transcriptional activation through ubiquitylation of histone H2B. Genes Dev. 2004;18:184-95 pubmed
    ..Rad6 promoter association depends on the Gal4 activator and the Rad6-associated E3 ligase, Bre1, but is independent of the histone acetyltransferase, Gcn5...
  2. Jiang F, Frey B, Evans M, Friel J, Hopper J. Gene activation by dissociation of an inhibitor from a transcriptional activation domain. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5604-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Gal4 is a prototypical eukaryotic transcriptional activator whose recruitment function is inhibited in the absence of galactose by the Gal80 protein through masking of its transcriptional activation domain (AD)...
  3. Kumar P, Yu Y, Sternglanz R, Johnston S, Joshua Tor L. NADP regulates the yeast GAL induction system. Science. 2008;319:1090-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical and in vivo experiments suggests that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) plays a key role in the initial induction event. ..
  4. Muratani M, Kung C, Shokat K, Tansey W. The F box protein Dsg1/Mdm30 is a transcriptional coactivator that stimulates Gal4 turnover and cotranscriptional mRNA processing. Cell. 2005;120:887-99 pubmed
    We report here that the prototypical yeast transcription factor Gal4 undergoes two distinct modes of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis: one that occurs independent of transcription and restricts Gal4 function, and another that is ..
  5. Laser H, Bongards C, Schuller J, Heck S, Johnsson N, Lehming N. A new screen for protein interactions reveals that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high mobility group proteins Nhp6A/B are involved in the regulation of the GAL1 promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13732-7 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis revealed that Nhp6B, a member of the HMG1 family of DNA-binding proteins, can influence transcriptional activation as well as repression at a specific locus in the chromosome of the yeast S. cerevisiae. ..
  6. Ansari A, Koh S, Zaman Z, Bongards C, Lehming N, Young R, et al. Transcriptional activating regions target a cyclin-dependent kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14706-9 pubmed
    ..The interaction evidently positions each activator, as it activates transcription, so that it gets phosphorylated by SRB10, and thus a common mechanism targets disparate substrates to the kinase. ..
  7. Gonzalez F, Delahodde A, Kodadek T, Johnston S. Recruitment of a 19S proteasome subcomplex to an activated promoter. Science. 2002;296:548-50 pubmed
    ..immunoprecipitation assays that proteins comprising the 19S complex are recruited to the GAL1-10 promoter by the Gal4 transactivator upon induction with galactose...
  8. Li Y, Chen G, Liu W. Alterations in the interaction between GAL4 and GAL80 effect regulation of the yeast GAL regulon mediated by the F box protein Dsg1. Curr Microbiol. 2010;61:210-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The requirement for Dsg1 in induction was abrogated by the absence of Gal80p or partly bypassed by Gal4 derivatives with decreased interaction with Gal80p...
  9. Traven A, Jelicic B, Sopta M. Yeast Gal4: a transcriptional paradigm revisited. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:496-9 pubmed
    During the past two decades, the yeast Gal4 protein has been used as a model for studying transcriptional activation in eukaryotes...

More Information


  1. Nalley K, Johnston S, Kodadek T. Proteolytic turnover of the Gal4 transcription factor is not required for function in vivo. Nature. 2006;442:1054-7 pubmed
    ..of the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay that has allowed direct observation of the kinetic stability of native Gal4-promoter complexes in yeast...
  2. Archer C, Delahodde A, Gonzalez F, Johnston S, Kodadek T. Activation domain-dependent monoubiquitylation of Gal4 protein is essential for promoter binding in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12614-23 pubmed publisher
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal4 protein is a paradigmatic transcriptional activator containing a C-terminal acidic activation domain (AD) of 34 amino acids...
  3. Chang C, Gonzalez F, Rothermel B, Sun L, Johnston S, Kodadek T. The Gal4 activation domain binds Sug2 protein, a proteasome component, in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:30956-63 pubmed
    ..was used to search a yeast cDNA library for proteins that bind to the acidic activation domain (AD) of the yeast Gal4 protein...
  4. Melcher K. The strength of acidic activation domains correlates with their affinity for both transcriptional and non-transcriptional proteins. J Mol Biol. 2000;301:1097-112 pubmed
    ..I suggest that ADs expose flexible hydrophobic elements in an aqueous environment to contact hydrophobic patches over short distances, shifting specificity of activators largely to the DNA colocalization of arrays of ADs and targets. ..
  5. Parthun M, Jaehning J. A transcriptionally active form of GAL4 is phosphorylated and associated with GAL80. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:4981-7 pubmed
    The GAL4 activator and GAL80 repressor proteins regulate the expression of yeast genes in response to galactose...
  6. Silver P, Keegan L, Ptashne M. Amino terminus of the yeast GAL4 gene product is sufficient for nuclear localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:5951-5 pubmed
    ..Chimeras containing as few as 74 NH2-terminal amino acids of GAL4, a yeast positive regulatory protein, at the amino terminus accumulate in the cell nucleus...
  7. Hertveldt K, Dechassa M, Robben J, Volckaert G. Identification of Gal80p-interacting proteins by Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole genome phage display. Gene. 2003;307:141-9 pubmed
    ..Interactions were confirmed by ELISA. These results demonstrate the accessibility of the S. cerevisiae genome to display technology for protein-protein interaction screening. ..
  8. Han Y, Kodadek T. Peptides selected to bind the Gal80 repressor are potent transcriptional activation domains in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:14979-84 pubmed
    The activation domain of the yeast Gal4 protein binds specifically to the Gal80 repressor and is also thought to associate with one or more coactivators in the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and chromatin remodeling machines...
  9. Melcher K, Johnston S. GAL4 interacts with TATA-binding protein and coactivators. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:2839-48 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a 34-amino-acid peptide from the carboxy terminus of GAL4 is a strong activation domain (AD) and retains at least four proteins from a crude extract: the negative regulator ..
  10. Hirst M, Ho C, Sabourin L, Rudnicki M, Penn L, Sadowski I. A two-hybrid system for transactivator bait proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8726-31 pubmed
    ..TUP1-GAL80 fusion proteins, when coexpressed with GAL4, are shown to inhibit transcription of GAL4-dependent reporter genes...
  11. Barnard E, Timson D. The GAL genetic switch: visualisation of the interacting proteins by split-EGFP bimolecular fluorescence complementation. J Basic Microbiol. 2011;51:312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that a fully functional GAL genetic switch requires dynamic interactions between the protein components. These results also highlight the need for caution in the interpretation of in vivo split-EGFP experiments. ..
  12. Ansari A, Reece R, Ptashne M. A transcriptional activating region with two contrasting modes of protein interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13543-8 pubmed
    A C-terminal segment of the yeast activator Gal4 manifests two functions: When tethered to DNA, it elicits gene activation, and it binds the inhibitor Gal80...
  13. Phenix H, Morin K, Batenchuk C, Parker J, Abedi V, Yang L, et al. Quantitative epistasis analysis and pathway inference from genetic interaction data. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1002048 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, when the analyses of the two traits are combined, the method correctly infers ~80% of the known relationships without any false positives. ..
  14. Gutiérrez J, Chandy M, Carrozza M, Workman J. Activation domains drive nucleosome eviction by SWI/SNF. EMBO J. 2007;26:730-40 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have found that the chimeric transcription factor Gal4-VP16 can enhance SWI/SNF histone octamer transfer activity, resulting in targeted histone eviction from a ..
  15. Larschan E, Winston F. The S. cerevisiae SAGA complex functions in vivo as a coactivator for transcriptional activation by Gal4. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1946-56 pubmed
    ..This recruitment is dependent on both induction by galactose and the Gal4 activation domain...
  16. Zhong P, Melcher K. Identification and characterization of the activation domain of Ifh1, an activator of model TATA-less genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:77-82 pubmed publisher
  17. Hidalgo P, Ansari A, Schmidt P, Hare B, Simkovich N, Farrell S, et al. Recruitment of the transcriptional machinery through GAL11P: structure and interactions of the GAL4 dimerization domain. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1007-20 pubmed
    The GAL4 dimerization domain (GAL4-dd) is a powerful transcriptional activator when tethered to DNA in a cell bearing a mutant of the GAL11 protein, named GAL11P. GAL11P (like GAL11) is a component of the RNA-polymerase II holoenzyme...
  18. Wightman R, Bell R, Reece R. Localization and interaction of the proteins constituting the GAL genetic switch in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:2061-8 pubmed publisher
  19. Bhaumik S, Raha T, Aiello D, Green M. In vivo target of a transcriptional activator revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Genes Dev. 2004;18:333-43 pubmed
    ..subunit of the SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5/acetyltransferase) complex is the direct in vivo target of the yeast activator Gal4. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that the Gal4-Tra1 interaction is required for recruitment ..
  20. Alberti A, Lodi T, Ferrero I, Donnini C. MIG1-dependent and MIG1-independent regulation of GAL gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of Imp2p. Yeast. 2003;20:1085-96 pubmed
    ..Imp2 was shown to have a positive effect on glucose derepression of Leloir pathway genes and their activator gene GAL4. The effect of Imp2 on galactose metabolism was shown to be partially dependent on Mig1p...
  21. Robinson K, Schultz M. Gal4-VP16 directs ATP-independent chromatin reorganization in a yeast chromatin assembly system. Biochemistry. 2005;44:4551-61 pubmed
    Major insights into the regulation of chromatin organization have stemmed from biochemical studies using Gal4-VP16, a chimeric transcriptional activator in which the DNA binding domain of Gal4p is fused to the activation domain of viral ..
  22. Bhaumik S, Green M. SAGA is an essential in vivo target of the yeast acidic activator Gal4p. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1935-45 pubmed
    ..Based on these and other results, we conclude that SAGA is an essential target of Gal4p that, following recruitment to the UAS, facilitates PIC assembly and transcription. ..
  23. Lu Z, Rowe S, Brennan B, Davis S, Metzler R, Nau J, et al. Unraveling the mechanism of a potent transcriptional activator. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29689-98 pubmed
    ..Inclusion of this property in the future design of ATFs should enhance their efficacy in vivo. ..
  24. Zhang D, Dorsey M, Voth W, Carson D, Zeng X, Stillman D, et al. Intramolecular interaction of yeast TFIIB in transcription control. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:1913-20 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the intramolecular interaction property of yeast TFIIB plays an important role in transcription regulation in cells. ..
  25. Reeves W, Hahn S. Targets of the Gal4 transcription activator in functional transcription complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9092-102 pubmed
    ..For this study, photo-cross-linkers positioned within the Gal4 C-terminal acidic activating region were used to identify polypeptides in close physical proximity to Gal4 during ..
  26. Proft M, Struhl K. MAP kinase-mediated stress relief that precedes and regulates the timing of transcriptional induction. Cell. 2004;118:351-61 pubmed
  27. Egriboz O, Goswami S, Tao X, Dotts K, Schaeffer C, Pilauri V, et al. Self-association of the Gal4 inhibitor protein Gal80 is impaired by Gal3: evidence for a new mechanism in the GAL gene switch. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3667-74 pubmed publisher
    The DNA-binding transcriptional activator Gal4 and its regulators Gal80 and Gal3 constitute a galactose-responsive switch for the GAL genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  28. Melcher K. Mutational hypersensitivity of a gene regulatory protein: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal80p. Genetics. 2005;171:469-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gal80 provides an unprecedented example for a protein's structural sensitivity to minimal sequence alterations. ..
  29. Lo W, Gamache E, Henry K, Yang D, Pillus L, Berger S. Histone H3 phosphorylation can promote TBP recruitment through distinct promoter-specific mechanisms. EMBO J. 2005;24:997-1008 pubmed
    ..Our results emphasize that histone modifications share general functions between promoters, but also acquire distinct roles tailored for promoter-specific requirements. ..
  30. Park J, Kim H, Han S, Hwang M, Lee Y, Kim Y. In vivo requirement of activator-specific binding targets of mediator. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8709-19 pubmed
  31. Marsolier M, Prioleau M, Sentenac A. A RNA polymerase III-based two-hybrid system to study RNA polymerase II transcriptional regulators. J Mol Biol. 1997;268:243-9 pubmed
    ..a previous study, we explored the mechanisms of SNR6 gene activation by grafting a heterologous DNA-binding domain, GAL4-(1-147), to various components of the yeast RNA polymerase III transcription system...
  32. Yu V, Baskerville C, Grünenfelder B, Reed S. A kinase-independent function of Cks1 and Cdk1 in regulation of transcription. Mol Cell. 2005;17:145-51 pubmed
    ..However, it is independent of the protein kinase activity of Cdc28. In the absence of Cks1, neither Cdc28 nor the proteasome can be recruited. Consequently, there is a failure to maintain efficient transcription. ..
  33. Zaman Z, Ansari A, Koh S, Young R, Ptashne M. Interaction of a transcriptional repressor with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme plays a crucial role in repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:2550-4 pubmed
    ..These and other findings indicate that at least one aspect of Tup1's action involves interaction with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. ..
  34. Xie Y, Denison C, Yang S, Fancy D, Kodadek T. Biochemical characterization of the TATA-binding protein-Gal4 activation domain complex. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:31914-20 pubmed
    ..of the biochemical properties of the complex formed by the acidic activation domain (AAD) of the yeast activator Gal4 and TBP is presented here. This is shown to be composed of two AAD and one TBP molecule...
  35. Barberis A, Pearlberg J, Simkovich N, Farrell S, Reinagel P, Bamdad C, et al. Contact with a component of the polymerase II holoenzyme suffices for gene activation. Cell. 1995;81:359-68 pubmed
    In yeast strains bearing the point mutation called GAL11P (for potentiator), certain GAL4 derivatives lacking any classical activating region work as strong activators...
  36. Russell S, Sathyanarayana U, Johnston S. Isolation and characterization of SUG2. A novel ATPase family component of the yeast 26 S proteasome. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32810-7 pubmed
    ..designed to find proteins involved in the function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional activator GAL4, we isolated mutants in two genes which rescue a class of gal4 activation domain mutants...
  37. Ang K, Ee G, Ang E, Koh E, Siew W, Chan Y, et al. Mediator acts upstream of the transcriptional activator Gal4. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001290 pubmed publisher
    ..deletion of the gene encoding the F-box protein Mdm30 had been reported to stabilize the transcriptional activator Gal4 under inducing conditions and to lead to defects in galactose utilization, suggesting that recycling of Gal4 is ..
  38. Emili A, Kobayashi R, Ingles C. A novel yeast protein influencing the response of RNA polymerase II to transcriptional activators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11122-7 pubmed
  39. Yun S, Hiraoka Y, Nishizawa M, Takio K, Titani K, Nogi Y, et al. Purification and characterization of the yeast negative regulatory protein GAL80. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:693-7 pubmed
    ..metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated through an interplay of two regulatory proteins, GAL4 and GAL80...
  40. Lee Y, Park J, Min S, Han S, Kim Y. An activator binding module of yeast RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2967-76 pubmed
  41. Raithatha S, Su T, Lourenco P, Goto S, Sadowski I. Cdk8 regulates stability of the transcription factor Phd1 to control pseudohyphal differentiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:664-74 pubmed publisher
  42. Wu Y, Reece R, Ptashne M. Quantitation of putative activator-target affinities predicts transcriptional activating potentials. EMBO J. 1996;15:3951-63 pubmed
    ..point mutation variants of a 42 amino acid yeast transcriptional activating region excised from the yeast activator GAL4 and, using surface plasmon resonance, we measure the relative affinities of these molecules for a variety of ..
  43. Dolan M, Luan H, Shropshire W, Sutcliffe B, Cocanougher B, Scott R, et al. Facilitating Neuron-Specific Genetic Manipulations in Drosophila melanogaster Using a Split GAL4 Repressor. Genetics. 2017;206:775-784 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, a widely-used technique for refined cell type-specific manipulation is the Split GAL4 system, which augments the targeting specificity of the binary GAL4-UAS (Upstream Activating Sequence) system by ..
  44. Allison L, Ingles C. Mutations in RNA polymerase II enhance or suppress mutations in GAL4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:2794-8 pubmed
    The activation domains of eukaryotic DNA-binding transcription factors, such as GAL4, may regulate transcription by contacting RNA polymerase II...
  45. Ding W, Johnston S. The DNA binding and activation domains of Gal4p are sufficient for conveying its regulatory signals. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2538-49 pubmed
    ..We have addressed the question of what is the minimal form of Gal4 protein that can perform all of its known functions...
  46. Fujimoto E, Gaynes B, Brimley C, Chien C, Bonkowsky J. Gal80 intersectional regulation of cell-type specific expression in vertebrates. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In zebrafish, the Gal4/UAS system has permitted expression of transgenes and enhancer trap screens, but is often limited by broad ..
  47. Krishnamurthy M, Dugan A, Nwokoye A, Fung Y, Lancia J, Majmudar C, et al. Caught in the act: covalent cross-linking captures activator-coactivator interactions in vivo. ACS Chem Biol. 2011;6:1321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..An analogous experiment with Gal4 reveals that Snf2 is also a target of this activator...
  48. Setiaputra D, Ross J, Lu S, Cheng D, Dong M, Yip C. Conformational flexibility and subunit arrangement of the modular yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase complex. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10057-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility. ..
  49. Thoden J, Sellick C, Reece R, Holden H. Understanding a transcriptional paradigm at the molecular level. The structure of yeast Gal80p. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1534-8 pubmed
  50. Koh S, Ansari A, Ptashne M, Young R. An activator target in the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Mol Cell. 1998;1:895-904 pubmed, through affinity chromatography, photo-cross-linking, and surface plasmon resonance experiments, that the GAL4 activator interacts directly with the SRB4 subunit of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme...
  51. Carrozza M, John S, Sil A, Hopper J, Workman J. Gal80 confers specificity on HAT complex interactions with activators. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24648-52 pubmed
    ..demonstrate that the negative regulator, Gal80, blocks interactions between the SAGA and NuA4 HAT complexes and the Gal4 activator. By contrast, Gal80 did not inhibit SAGA and NuA4 interaction with another activator Gcn4...
  52. Hirst M, Kobor M, Kuriakose N, Greenblatt J, Sadowski I. GAL4 is regulated by the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme-associated cyclin-dependent protein kinase SRB10/CDK8. Mol Cell. 1999;3:673-8 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of the yeast transcription factor GAL4 at S699 is required for efficient galactose-inducible transcription. We demonstrate that this site is a substrate for the RNA polymerase holoenzyme-associated CDK SRB10...
  53. Lue N, Chasman D, Buchman A, Kornberg R. Interaction of GAL4 and GAL80 gene regulatory proteins in vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:3446-51 pubmed
    The GAL80 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, synthesized in vitro, bound tightly to GAL4 protein and to a GAL4 protein-upstream activation sequence DNA complex, as shown by (i) coimmunoprecipitation of GAL4 and GAL80 proteins with anti-..
  54. Giniger E, Varnum S, Ptashne M. Specific DNA binding of GAL4, a positive regulatory protein of yeast. Cell. 1985;40:767-74 pubmed
    We show by the following series of experiments that the yeast positive regulatory protein GAL4 binds to four sites in the upstream activating sequence UASG to activate transcription of the adjacent GAL1 and GAL10 genes...
  55. Das Adhikari A, Bhat P. The binary response of the GAL/MEL genetic switch of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is critically dependent on Gal80p-Gal4p interaction. FEMS Yeast Res. 2016;16: pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the results reported here, we propose that epistatic interactions played a crucial role in the evolution of the fine regulation of S. cerevisiae GAL/MEL switch following WGD. ..
  56. Platt A, Reece R. The yeast galactose genetic switch is mediated by the formation of a Gal4p-Gal80p-Gal3p complex. EMBO J. 1998;17:4086-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gal3p-mediated activation of transcription occurs via the formation of a tripartite protein complex. ..
  57. Brown C, Howe L, Sousa K, Alley S, Carrozza M, Tan S, et al. Recruitment of HAT complexes by direct activator interactions with the ATM-related Tra1 subunit. Science. 2001;292:2333-7 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the essential Tra1 protein serves as a common target for activators in both SAGA and NuA4 acetyltransferases. ..
  58. Hong M, Fitzgerald M, Harper S, Luo C, Speicher D, Marmorstein R. Structural basis for dimerization in DNA recognition by Gal4. Structure. 2008;16:1019-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Gal4 is a Zn2Cys6 binuclear cluster containing transcription factor that binds DNA as a homodimer and can activate transcription by interacting with the mutant Gal11P protein...
  59. Timson D, Ross H, Reece R. Gal3p and Gal1p interact with the transcriptional repressor Gal80p to form a complex of 1:1 stoichiometry. Biochem J. 2002;363:515-20 pubmed
    ..Gel-filtration experiments indicate that Gal3p, or the galactokinase Gal1p, interact directly with Gal80p to form a complex with 1:1 stoichiometry. ..
  60. Rezaval C, Werbajh S, Ceriani M. Neuronal death in Drosophila triggered by GAL4 accumulation. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:683-94 pubmed
    The GAL4/UAS system has been extensively employed in Drosophila to control gene expression in defined spatial patterns...
  61. Sil A, Alam S, Xin P, Ma L, Morgan M, Lebo C, et al. The Gal3p-Gal80p-Gal4p transcription switch of yeast: Gal3p destabilizes the Gal80p-Gal4p complex in response to galactose and ATP. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7828-40 pubmed
    The Gal3, Gal80, and Gal4 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprise a signal transducer that governs the galactose-inducible Gal4p-mediated transcription activation of GAL regulon genes...
  62. Bongards C, Chew B, Lehming N. The TATA-binding protein is not an essential target of the transcriptional activators Gal4p and Gcn4p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2003;370:141-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, detailed analysis of a Tbp1 mutant deficient for transcriptional activation by Gal4p revealed that the mutant is defective in interactions with five other proteins involved in the process of transcription. ..
  63. Dube D, Li B, Greenblatt E, Nimer S, Raymond A, Kohler J. A two-hybrid assay to study protein interactions within the secretory pathway. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15648 pubmed publisher
  64. Li Y, Chen G, Liu W. Multiple metabolic signals influence GAL gene activation by modulating the interaction of Gal80p with the transcriptional activator Gal4p. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:414-28 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that multiple metabolic signals exist to facilitate the efficient and appropriate dissociation of Gal80p from Gal4p by Gal3p to achieve the fully active state of Gal4p in the nucleus. ..
  65. Jeong C, Yang S, Xie Y, Zhang L, Johnston S, Kodadek T. Evidence that Gal11 protein is a target of the Gal4 activation domain in the mediator. Biochemistry. 2001;40:9421-7 pubmed
    ..Here, evidence is presented that the mediator component Gal11 represents at least one target of the Gal4 activation domain (AD)...
  66. Keegan L, Gill G, Ptashne M. Separation of DNA binding from the transcription-activating function of a eukaryotic regulatory protein. Science. 1986;231:699-704 pubmed
    The yeast GAL4 protein (881 amino acids) binds to specific DNA sites upstream of target genes and activates transcription...
  67. Lin L, Chamberlain L, Zhu L, Green M. Analysis of Gal4-directed transcription activation using Tra1 mutants selectively defective for interaction with Gal4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1997-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..the Tra1 subunit of the yeast SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex is the target of the yeast activator Gal4. However, several other general transcription factors, in particular the mediator complex, have also been ..
  68. Marmorstein R, Carey M, Ptashne M, Harrison S. DNA recognition by GAL4: structure of a protein-DNA complex. Nature. 1992;356:408-14 pubmed
    A specific DNA complex of the 65-residue, N-terminal fragment of the yeast transcriptional activator, GAL4, has been analysed at 2.7 A resolution by X-ray crystallography...
  69. Wands A, Wang N, Lum J, Hsieh J, Fierke C, Mapp A. Transient-state kinetic analysis of transcriptional activator·DNA complexes interacting with a key coactivator. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16238-45 pubmed publisher
    Several lines of evidence suggest that the prototypical amphipathic transcriptional activators Gal4, Gcn4, and VP16 interact with the key coactivator Med15 (Gal11) during transcription initiation despite little sequence homology...
  70. Gaudreau L, Schmid A, Blaschke D, Ptashne M, Hörz W. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme recruitment is sufficient to remodel chromatin at the yeast PHO5 promoter. Cell. 1997;89:55-62 pubmed
    ..These hybrid proteins (e.g., Gal11+Pho4 or Gal4(58-97)+Pho4 in the presence of a GAL11P allele) efficiently activated transcription and remodeled chromatin...
  71. Traven A, Staresincic L, Arneric M, Sopta M. The yeast protein Xtc1 functions as a direct transcriptional repressor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2358-64 pubmed a protein that binds directly and specifically to the activation domains of acidic activators such as E2F-1, Gal4 and VP16...
  72. Nakajima M, Mori H, Nishikawa C, Tsuruta M, Okuyama S, Furukawa Y. Psychiatric disorder-related abnormal behavior and habenulointerpeduncular pathway defects in Wnt1-cre and Wnt1-GAL4 double transgenic mice. J Neurochem. 2013;124:241-9 pubmed publisher
    The neural crest is a unique structure in vertebrates. Wnt1-cre and Wnt1-GAL4 double transgenic (dTg) mice have been used in a variety of studies concerning neural crest cell lineages in which the Cre/loxP or GAL4/UAS system was applied...
  73. Swaffield J, Melcher K, Johnston S. A highly conserved ATPase protein as a mediator between acidic activation domains and the TATA-binding protein. Nature. 1995;374:88-91 pubmed
    ..Sug1 is a member of a large, highly conserved family of ATPases, implying a role for ATP hydrolysis in the activation of transcription. ..
  74. Ansari A, Ogirala A, Ptashne M. Transcriptional activating regions target attached substrates to a cyclin-dependent kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2346-9 pubmed
    ..In some cases, residues within the activating regions are also phosphorylated. The results define a mechanism by which a kinase is recruited to alternate substrates with diverse physiological consequences. ..
  75. Hashimoto H, Kikuchi Y, Nogi Y, Fukasawa T. Regulation of expression of the galactose gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Isolation and characterization of the regulatory gene GAL4. Mol Gen Genet. 1983;191:31-8 pubmed
    The GAL4 gene positively regulating the expression of the gene cluster GAL7-GAL10-GAL1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated for its ability to suppress a recessive mutation in that gene...
  76. Murakami H, Nicolas A. Locally, meiotic double-strand breaks targeted by Gal4BD-Spo11 occur at discrete sites with a sequence preference. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3500-16 pubmed publisher
    ..we have examined the properties of the Gal4BD-Spo11 fusion protein, which targets meiotic DSBs to regions with Gal4 binding sites (UAS)...
  77. Tian H, Eom H, Moon S, Lee J, Choi J, Chung Y. Development of biomarker for detecting silver nanoparticles exposure using a GAL4 enhancer trap screening in Drosophila. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;36:548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..By taking advantage of the power of Drosophila genetics, we also isolated a GAL4 enhancer trap line called M95, in which the expression of GAL4 is up-regulated in response to ingestion of AgNPs at ..