Gene Symbol: FUS3
Description: mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase FUS3
Alias: DAC2, mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase FUS3
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     FUS3

Top Publications

  1. Cherkasova V, Lyons D, Elion E. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Genetics. 1999;151:989-1004 pubmed
    ..Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition. ..
  2. Elion E, Grisafi P, Fink G. FUS3 encodes a cdc2+/CDC28-related kinase required for the transition from mitosis into conjugation. Cell. 1990;60:649-64 pubmed
    b>FUS3 is required for both the arrest of cells in G1 and mating...
  3. Doi K, Gartner A, Ammerer G, Errede B, Shinkawa H, Sugimoto K, et al. MSG5, a novel protein phosphatase promotes adaptation to pheromone response in S. cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1994;13:61-70 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis indicates that MSG5 acts at a stage where the protein kinases STE7 and FUS3 function to transmit the pheromone-induced signal...
  4. Printen J, Sprague G. Protein-protein interactions in the yeast pheromone response pathway: Ste5p interacts with all members of the MAP kinase cascade. Genetics. 1994;138:609-19 pubmed
    ..Finally, we detected an interaction between one of the MAP kinases, Kss1p, and a presumptive target, the transcription factor Ste12p. We failed to detect interactions of Ste4p or Ste20p with any other component of the response pathway. ..
  5. Roberts R, Fink G. Elements of a single MAP kinase cascade in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediate two developmental programs in the same cell type: mating and invasive growth. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2974-85 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a novel developmental model to study the dynamics of signal transduction, with implications for higher eukaryotes. ..
  6. Blackwell E, Halatek I, Kim H, Ellicott A, Obukhov A, Stone D. Effect of the pheromone-responsive G(alpha) and phosphatase proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the subcellular localization of the Fus3 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1135-50 pubmed
    ..Genetic evidence suggests that Gpa1 targets the Fus3 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and it has recently been shown that the two proteins interact in cells responding ..
  7. Bao M, Schwartz M, Cantin G, Yates J, Madhani H. Pheromone-dependent destruction of the Tec1 transcription factor is required for MAP kinase signaling specificity in yeast. Cell. 2004;119:991-1000 pubmed
    ..The mating-specific MAPK, Fus3, prevents crosstalk between the two pathways by unknown mechanisms...
  8. Farley F, Satterberg B, Goldsmith E, Elion E. Relative dependence of different outputs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway on the MAP kinase Fus3p. Genetics. 1999;151:1425-44 pubmed
    ..To determine the role of Fus3p in different outputs, we isolated and characterized a series of partial-function fus3 point mutants for their ability to phosphorylate a substrate (Ste7p), activate Ste12p, undergo G1 arrest, form ..
  9. Remenyi A, Good M, Bhattacharyya R, Lim W. The role of docking interactions in mediating signaling input, output, and discrimination in the yeast MAPK network. Mol Cell. 2005;20:951-62 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the role of docking interactions in determining connectivity of the yeast MAPKs Fus3 and Kss1...

More Information


  1. Zhan X, Guan K. A specific protein-protein interaction accounts for the in vivo substrate selectivity of Ptp3 towards the Fus3 MAP kinase. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2811-27 pubmed
    ..Several MAPKs have been found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including Fus3 in the mating pathway and Hog1 in the osmotic-stress response pathway...
  2. Fujimura H. Molecular cloning of the DAC2/FUS3 gene essential for pheromone-induced G1-arrest of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 1990;18:395-400 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae G protein). These results indicate that DAC2 may be the same gene as FUS3, which was recently isolated by Elion et al. (1990) as a gene essential for cell-fusion during conjugation...
  3. Bardwell L, Cook J, Chang E, Cairns B, Thorner J. Signaling in the yeast pheromone response pathway: specific and high-affinity interaction of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Kss1 and Fus3 with the upstream MAP kinase kinase Ste7. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3637-50 pubmed
    Kss1 and Fus3 are mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs or ERKs), and Ste7 is their activating MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), in the pheromone response pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  4. Marin M, Flandez M, Bermejo C, Arroyo J, Martín H, Molina M. Different modulation of the outputs of yeast MAPK-mediated pathways by distinct stimuli and isoforms of the dual-specificity phosphatase Msg5. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;281:345-59 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed as two isoforms of different length, dephosphorylates the MAPKs of mating and cell integrity pathways, Fus3 and Slt2, respectively, but its action on the MAPK Kss1 is unclear...
  5. Breitkreutz A, Boucher L, Tyers M. MAPK specificity in the yeast pheromone response independent of transcriptional activation. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1266-71 pubmed
    ..shared upstream components of the mating pheromone and filamentous growth pathways activate two related MAPKs, Fus3 and Kss1, which in turn regulate programs of gene expression via the transcription factor Ste12...
  6. Cook J, Bardwell L, Kron S, Thorner J. Two novel targets of the MAP kinase Kss1 are negative regulators of invasive growth in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2831-48 pubmed
    ..two-hybrid method, both Dig1 and Dig2 also interact with the other MAP kinase of the pheromone response pathway, Fus3. However, neither dig1 or dig2 single mutants, nor a dig1 dig2 double mutant, have a discernible effect on mating...
  7. Metodiev M, Matheos D, Rose M, Stone D. Regulation of MAPK function by direct interaction with the mating-specific Galpha in yeast. Science. 2002;296:1483-6 pubmed
    ..This interaction contributes both to modulation of the mating signal and to the chemotropic response, and it demonstrates direct communication between the top and bottom of a Galpha-MAPK pathway. ..
  8. Elion E, Satterberg B, Kranz J. FUS3 phosphorylates multiple components of the mating signal transduction cascade: evidence for STE12 and FAR1. Mol Biol Cell. 1993;4:495-510 pubmed
    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homologue FUS3 mediates both transcription and G1 arrest in a pheromone-induced signal transduction cascade in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  9. Tedford K, Kim S, Sa D, Stevens K, Tyers M. Regulation of the mating pheromone and invasive growth responses in yeast by two MAP kinase substrates. Curr Biol. 1997;7:228-38 pubmed
    ..One of the MAP kinases in this pathway, Fus3, triggers mating but antagonizes filamentous growth, while the other, Kss 1, preferentially triggers filamentous ..
  10. Matheos D, Metodiev M, Muller E, Stone D, Rose M. Pheromone-induced polarization is dependent on the Fus3p MAPK acting through the formin Bni1p. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:99-109 pubmed
    ..b>fus3 mutants exhibited multiple phenotypes similar to bni1 mutants, including defects in actin and cell polarization, as ..
  11. Mahanty S, Wang Y, Farley F, Elion E. Nuclear shuttling of yeast scaffold Ste5 is required for its recruitment to the plasma membrane and activation of the mating MAPK cascade. Cell. 1999;98:501-12 pubmed
    ..This novel regulatory scheme may ensure that cytoplasmic Ste5 does not activate downstream kinases in the absence of pheromone and could be applicable to other membrane-recruited signaling proteins. ..
  12. Kusari A, Molina D, Sabbagh W, Lau C, Bardwell L. A conserved protein interaction network involving the yeast MAP kinases Fus3 and Kss1. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:267-77 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) Fus3 and Kss1 bind to multiple regulators and substrates...
  13. Yu L, Qi M, Sheff M, Elion E. Counteractive control of polarized morphogenesis during mating by mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3 and G1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1739-52 pubmed publisher
    ..During pheromone-induced mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Fus3 induces polarization of the actin cytoskeleton toward a landmark generated by the pheromone receptor...
  14. Schrick K, Garvik B, Hartwell L. Mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of the pheromone signal transduction pathway in the chemotropic response to pheromone. Genetics. 1997;147:19-32 pubmed
    ..Cells mutant for components of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade (ste5, ste20, ste11, ste7 or fus3 kss1) formed diploids at a frequency 1% that of the wild-type control, but formed prezygotes as efficiently as the ..
  15. Bruckner S, Köhler T, Braus G, Heise B, Bolte M, Mösch H. Differential regulation of Tec1 by Fus3 and Kss1 confers signaling specificity in yeast development. Curr Genet. 2004;46:331-42 pubmed
    ..In budding yeast, Fus3 and Kss1 are two MAP kinases that control two distinct developmental programs-mating and invasive growth...
  16. Zhan X, Deschenes R, Guan K. Differential regulation of FUS3 MAP kinase by tyrosine-specific phosphatases PTP2/PTP3 and dual-specificity phosphatase MSG5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1690-702 pubmed
    ..These data present the first evidence for a coordinated regulation of MAP kinase function through differential actions of protein tyrosine phosphatases and a dual-specificity phosphatase. ..
  17. Choi K, Satterberg B, Lyons D, Elion E. Ste5 tethers multiple protein kinases in the MAP kinase cascade required for mating in S. cerevisiae. Cell. 1994;78:499-512 pubmed
    Ste5 is a Zn2+ finger-like protein thought to function before three kinases, Ste11 (a MEKK), Ste7 (a MEK), and Fus3 (a MAPK), in a conserved MAP kinase cascade required for mating in S. cerevisiae...
  18. Elion E, Brill J, Fink G. FUS3 represses CLN1 and CLN2 and in concert with KSS1 promotes signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:9392-6 pubmed
    b>FUS3 is functionally redundant with KSS1, a homologous yeast protein kinase, for a step(s) in signal transduction between the beta subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), STE4, and the mating type-specific ..
  19. Bardwell A, Flatauer L, Matsukuma K, Thorner J, Bardwell L. A conserved docking site in MEKs mediates high-affinity binding to MAP kinases and cooperates with a scaffold protein to enhance signal transmission. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10374-86 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated previously that the yeast MAPKs Kss1 and Fus3 bind with high affinity to the N terminus of the MEK Ste7, and proposed that a conserved motif in Ste7, the MAPK-..
  20. Peter M, Gartner A, Horecka J, Ammerer G, Herskowitz I. FAR1 links the signal transduction pathway to the cell cycle machinery in yeast. Cell. 1993;73:747-60 pubmed
    ..Prior work indicates that FUS3, a member of the MAP kinase family, and FAR1, whose molecular activity is unknown, contribute to cell cycle arrest ..
  21. van Drogen F, Stucke V, Jorritsma G, Peter M. MAP kinase dynamics in response to pheromones in budding yeast. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:1051-9 pubmed
    ..Membrane-bound Ste5p can specifically recruit Fus3p and Ste7p to the cell cortex. Ste5p remains stably bound at the plasma membrane, unlike activated Fus3p, which dissociates from Ste5p and translocates to the nucleus. ..
  22. Bardwell L, Cook J, Voora D, Baggott D, Martinez A, Thorner J. Repression of yeast Ste12 transcription factor by direct binding of unphosphorylated Kss1 MAPK and its regulation by the Ste7 MEK. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2887-98 pubmed
    ..Relative to Kss1, the MAPK Fus3 binds less strongly to Ste12 and is correspondingly a weaker inhibitor of invasive growth...
  23. Choi K, Kranz J, Mahanty S, Park K, Elion E. Characterization of Fus3 localization: active Fus3 localizes in complexes of varying size and specific activity. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:1553-68 pubmed
    The MAP kinase Fus3 regulates many different signal transduction outputs that govern the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells to mate. Here we characterize Fus3 localization and association with other proteins...
  24. Bhattacharyya R, Remenyi A, Good M, Bashor C, Falick A, Lim W. The Ste5 scaffold allosterically modulates signaling output of the yeast mating pathway. Science. 2006;311:822-6 pubmed
    ..pathway: A fragment of Ste5 allosterically activated autophosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3. The resulting form of Fus3 is partially active-it is phosphorylated on only one of two key residues in the ..
  25. Choi Y, Kim S, Park K, Choi K. Differential transmission of G1 cell cycle arrest and mating signals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste5 mutants in the pheromone pathway. Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;77:459-68 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae. In addition, the roles of Asp-248 and Tyr-421, which are important for pheromone signal transduction were further characterized by site-directed mutagenesis studies. ..
  26. Palacios L, Dickinson R, Sacristán Reviriego A, Didmon M, Marin M, Martín H, et al. Distinct docking mechanisms mediate interactions between the Msg5 phosphatase and mating or cell integrity mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42037-50 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, the yeast dual specificity phosphatase Msg5 dephosphorylates the Fus3 and Slt2 MAPKs operating in the mating and cell wall integrity pathways, respectively...
  27. Slaughter B, Unruh J, Li R. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and imaging methods for examination of dynamic protein interactions in yeast. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;759:283-306 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, live cell fluorescence studies such as those outlined below are able to provide quantitative information on the strength, nature, timing, and location of homotypic and heterotypic protein interactions. ..
  28. Malleshaiah M, Shahrezaei V, Swain P, Michnick S. The scaffold protein Ste5 directly controls a switch-like mating decision in yeast. Nature. 2010;465:101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the switching mechanism arises from competition between the MAPK Fus3 and a phosphatase Ptc1 for control of the phosphorylation state of four sites on the scaffold protein Ste5...
  29. Yu R, Pesce C, Colman Lerner A, Lok L, Pincus D, Serra E, et al. Negative feedback that improves information transmission in yeast signalling. Nature. 2008;456:755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3 mediates fast-acting negative feedback that adjusts the dose response of the downstream system response to match ..
  30. Ly N, Cyert M. Calcineurin, the Ca2+-dependent phosphatase, regulates Rga2, a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein, to modulate pheromone signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2017;28:576-586 pubmed publisher
    ..Mating factor activates the Fus3/MAPK kinase, whose substrates induce gene expression, cell cycle arrest, and formation of the mating projection...
  31. Errede B, Vered L, Ford E, Peña M, Elston T. Pheromone-induced morphogenesis and gradient tracking are dependent on the MAPK Fus3 binding to Gα. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:3343-58 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, we sought to establish regulatory mechanisms that are unique to the MAPK Fus3 in pheromone-induced mating and chemotropic fate transitions of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  32. Chou S, Zhao S, Song Y, Liu H, Nie Q. Fus3-triggered Tec1 degradation modulates mating transcriptional output during the pheromone response. Mol Syst Biol. 2008;4:212 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon pheromone induction, the mitogen-activated protein kinases, Fus3 and Kss1, activate Ste12 by relieving the repression of two functionally redundant Ste12 inhibitors, Dig1 and Dig2...
  33. Wu X, Jiang Y. Overproduction of non-translatable mRNA silences. The transcription of Ty1 retrotransposons in S. cerevisiae via functional inactivation of the nuclear cap-binding complex and subsequent hyperstimulation of the TORC1 pathway. Yeast. 2008;25:327-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Although overproduction of non-translatable mRNA causes transient Ty1 transcriptional silencing, it does not play a detectable role in controlling Ty1 retrotransposition. ..
  34. Blackwell E, Kim H, Stone D. The pheromone-induced nuclear accumulation of the Fus3 MAPK in yeast depends on its phosphorylation state and on Dig1 and Dig2. BMC Cell Biol. 2007;8:44 pubmed
    Like mammalian MAP kinases, the mating-specific Fus3 MAPK of yeast accumulates in the nuclei of stimulated cells...
  35. Conte D, Barber E, Banerjee M, Garfinkel D, Curcio M. Posttranslational regulation of Ty1 retrotransposition by mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:2502-13 pubmed
    ..rtt100-1 was shown to be a null allele of the FUS3 gene, which encodes a haploid-specific mitogen-activated protein kinase...
  36. Kranz J, Satterberg B, Elion E. The MAP kinase Fus3 associates with and phosphorylates the upstream signaling component Ste5. Genes Dev. 1994;8:313-27 pubmed
    Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAP kinase Fus3 is thought to occur via a linear pathway involving the sequential action of three proteins: Ste5, a protein of unknown function, Ste11, a MAPKK kinase homolog, and Ste7, a MAPK ..
  37. Flatauer L, Zadeh S, Bardwell L. Mitogen-activated protein kinases with distinct requirements for Ste5 scaffolding influence signaling specificity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1793-803 pubmed
    ..of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromone response pathway, thereby conducting the mating signal to the Fus3 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)...
  38. Lee M, Dohlman H. Coactivation of G protein signaling by cell-surface receptors and an intracellular exchange factor. Curr Biol. 2008;18:211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that intracellular proteins function in cooperation with mating pheromones to amplify G protein signaling, thereby leading to full pathway activation. ..
  39. Garrison T, Zhang Y, Pausch M, Apanovitch D, Aebersold R, Dohlman H. Feedback phosphorylation of an RGS protein by MAP kinase in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:36387-91 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation is blocked by mutations in the MAP kinase genes (FUS3, KSS1), as well as by mutations in components needed for MAP kinase activation (STE11, STE7, STE4, STE18)...
  40. Friesen H, Murphy K, Breitkreutz A, Tyers M, Andrews B. Regulation of the yeast amphiphysin homologue Rvs167p by phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:3027-40 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that phosphorylation of Rvs167p by a cyclin-dependent kinase and by a MAP kinase is an important mechanism for regulating protein complexes involved in actin cytoskeleton function. ..
  41. Good M, Tang G, Singleton J, Remenyi A, Lim W. The Ste5 scaffold directs mating signaling by catalytically unlocking the Fus3 MAP kinase for activation. Cell. 2009;136:1085-97 pubmed publisher
    ..to properly direct signaling through the yeast mating pathway to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Fus3. Scaffolds are thought to function by tethering kinase and substrate in proximity...
  42. Kim J, Rose M. Stable Pseudohyphal Growth in Budding Yeast Induced by Synergism between Septin Defects and Altered MAP-kinase Signaling. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005684 pubmed publisher
    ..The constitutive pseudohyphal state is observed in fus3 mutants containing various septin assembly defects, which we refer to as sadF growth (septin assembly defect ..
  43. Inouye C, Dhillon N, Durfee T, Zambryski P, Thorner J. Mutational analysis of STE5 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: application of a differential interaction trap assay for examining protein-protein interactions. Genetics. 1997;147:479-92 pubmed
    ..analysis, examining the binding in vitro of Ste5 to Ste11, Ste7, Ste4 (G protein beta subunit), and Fus3 (MAPK), confirmed that each mutation specifically affects the interaction of Ste5 with only one protein...
  44. Zhou Z, Gartner A, Cade R, Ammerer G, Errede B. Pheromone-induced signal transduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the sequential function of three protein kinases. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:2069-80 pubmed
    ..the components necessary for signal transduction are the STE7 and STE11 kinases and either one of the redundant FUS3 and KSS1 kinases...
  45. Wang X, Sheff M, Simpson D, Elion E. Ste11p MEKK signals through HOG, mating, calcineurin and PKC pathways to regulate the FKS2 gene. BMC Mol Biol. 2011;12:51 pubmed publisher
    ..The patterns of control by Ste11p targets revealed novel functional linkages, cross-regulation, redundancy and compensation. ..
  46. Brill J, Elion E, Fink G. A role for autophosphorylation revealed by activated alleles of FUS3, the yeast MAP kinase homolog. Mol Biol Cell. 1994;5:297-312 pubmed
    We have isolated dominant gain-of-function (gf) mutations in FUS3, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homolog, that constitutively activate the yeast mating signal transduction pathway and confer ..
  47. Parnell S, Marotti L, Kiang L, Torres M, Borchers C, Dohlman H. Phosphorylation of the RGS protein Sst2 by the MAP kinase Fus3 and use of Sst2 as a model to analyze determinants of substrate sequence specificity. Biochemistry. 2005;44:8159-66 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Sst2 phosphorylation is mediated by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase Fus3. Phosphorylation occurs within a canonical MAP kinase phosphorylation site (Pro-X-Ser/Thr-Pro, where "X" ..
  48. Gelin Licht R, Paliwal S, Conlon P, Levchenko A, Gerst J. Scp160-dependent mRNA trafficking mediates pheromone gradient sensing and chemotropism in yeast. Cell Rep. 2012;1:483-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of ligand-activated RNA targeting in the development of a simple eukaryote. ..
  49. Hertveldt K, Robben J, Volckaert G. In vivo selectively infective phage as a tool to detect protein interactions: evaluation of a novel vector system with yeast Ste7p-Fus3p interacting proteins. Yeast. 2002;19:499-508 pubmed
    ..The presence of the interacting N1-Fus3p adapter increased the infectivity of Ste7p-N2-CT phages approximately 1400-fold, which makes SIP a promising technology for the detection and further investigation of interacting proteins. ..
  50. Chen T, Kurjan J. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mpt5p interacts with Sst2p and plays roles in pheromone sensitivity and recovery from pheromone arrest. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3429-39 pubmed
    ..homologs Fus3p and Kss1p, and an mpt5 mutation was able to suppress the pheromone arrest and mating defects of a fus3 mutant...
  51. Breitkreutz A, Boucher L, Breitkreutz B, Sultan M, Jurisica I, Tyers M. Phenotypic and transcriptional plasticity directed by a yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase network. Genetics. 2003;165:997-1015 pubmed
    ..The interface between this MAPK module and the transcriptional machinery consists of a network of two MAPKs, Fus3 and Kss1; two regulators, Rst1 and Rst2 (a.k.a. Dig1 and Dig2); and two transcription factors, Ste12 and Tec1...
  52. Yamamoto K, Tatebayashi K, Tanaka K, Saito H. Dynamic control of yeast MAP kinase network by induced association and dissociation between the Ste50 scaffold and the Opy2 membrane anchor. Mol Cell. 2010;40:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..CR-A binds Ste50 constitutively and can transmit signals to both the Hog1 and Fus3/Kss1 MAPKs...
  53. Bharucha N, Ma J, Dobry C, Lawson S, Yang Z, Kumar A. Analysis of the yeast kinome reveals a network of regulated protein localization during filamentous growth. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2708-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the localization of Ksp1p and the other kinases identified here is tightly controlled during filamentous growth, representing an overlooked regulatory component of this stress response. ..
  54. Fujimura H. Identification and characterization of a mutation affecting the division arrest signaling of the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1990;124:275-82 pubmed
    ..The mutation was designated dac2 for division arrest control by mating pheromones...
  55. Lai X, Beilharz T, Au W, Hammet A, Preiss T, Basrai M, et al. Yeast hEST1A/B (SMG5/6)-like proteins contribute to environment-sensing adaptive gene expression responses. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:1649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggest that Esl1 and Esl2 contribute to the regulation of adaptive gene expression responses of environmental sensing pathways. ..
  56. Marcus S, Polverino A, Barr M, Wigler M. Complexes between STE5 and components of the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase module. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7762-6 pubmed
    We present genetic evidence for complex formation of STE5 and the STE11, STE7, and FUS3 protein kinases, the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase module of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  57. Maleri S, Ge Q, Hackett E, Wang Y, Dohlman H, Errede B. Persistent activation by constitutive Ste7 promotes Kss1-mediated invasive growth but fails to support Fus3-dependent mating in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9221-38 pubmed
    ..The mating pathway also requires the scaffold-Ste5 and the additional MAPK-Fus3. One contribution to specificity in this system is thought to come from stimulus-dependent recruitment of the MAPK ..
  58. Strickfaden S, Pryciak P. Distinct roles for two Galpha-Gbeta interfaces in cell polarity control by a yeast heterotrimeric G protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:181-97 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer can function in a partially dissociated state, tethered by the N-terminal interface. ..
  59. Feng Y, Song L, Kincaid E, Mahanty S, Elion E. Functional binding between Gbeta and the LIM domain of Ste5 is required to activate the MEKK Ste11. Curr Biol. 1998;8:267-78 pubmed
    ..a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade comprising the MEKK Ste11, the MEK Ste7 and two MAP kinases, Fus3 and Kss1...
  60. Inouye C, Dhillon N, Thorner J. Ste5 RING-H2 domain: role in Ste4-promoted oligomerization for yeast pheromone signaling. Science. 1997;278:103-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the RING-H2 domain mediates Ste4-Ste5 interaction, which is a prerequisite for Ste5-Ste5 self-association and signaling. ..
  61. Kim J, Rose M. A mechanism for the coordination of proliferation and differentiation by spatial regulation of Fus2p in budding yeast. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1110-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, potential premature activation of Fus2p in mitosis is prevented by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation that overrides the mating pheromone-induced phosphorylation that drives nuclear export. ..
  62. Errede B, Gartner A, Zhou Z, Nasmyth K, Ammerer G. MAP kinase-related FUS3 from S. cerevisiae is activated by STE7 in vitro. Nature. 1993;362:261-4 pubmed
    ..Transmission of the intracellular signal involves threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation of the redundant FUS3 and KSS1 kinases, which are members of the MAP kinase family...
  63. Lyons D, Mahanty S, Choi K, Manandhar M, Elion E. The SH3-domain protein Bem1 coordinates mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade activation with cell cycle control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4095-106 pubmed
    ..Bem1 protein stimulates Fus3 (MAPK) activity and associates with Ste5, the tethering protein essential for activation of the MAPK kinase kinase ..
  64. Hurst J, Dohlman H. Dynamic ubiquitination of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) Ste7 determines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) specificity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18660-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Although SCF(Cdc4) is necessary for proper activation of the pheromone MAPK Fus3, Ubp3 is needed to limit activation of the invasive growth MAPK Kss1...
  65. Ydenberg C, Rose M. Antagonistic regulation of Fus2p nuclear localization by pheromone signaling and the cell cycle. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:409-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate a novel mechanism by which pheromone-induced proteins are regulated during the transition from mitosis to conjugation. ..
  66. Sette C, Inouye C, Stroschein S, Iaquinta P, Thorner J. Mutational analysis suggests that activation of the yeast pheromone response mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway involves conformational changes in the Ste5 scaffold protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:4033-49 pubmed
    ..response and binds components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade: Ste11 (MEKK), Ste7 (MEK), and Fus3 (MAPK)...