Gene Symbol: FLO11
Description: Flo11p
Alias: MUC1, STA4, Flo11p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Vinod P, Sengupta N, Bhat P, Venkatesh K. Integration of global signaling pathways, cAMP-PKA, MAPK and TOR in the regulation of FLO11. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1663 pubmed publisher
    ..network of signaling pathways, namely cAMP-PKA, MAPK and TOR, which controls the transcriptional activation of FLO11, a flocculin gene that encodes a cell wall protein...
  2. Vopálenská I, St ovícek V, Janderová B, Vachova L, Palkova Z. Role of distinct dimorphic transitions in territory colonizing and formation of yeast colony architecture. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:264-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The further population development is accompanied by another dimorphic switch, which is strictly dependent on Flo11p adhesin and is indispensable for proper formation of biofilm-like aerial 3-D colony architecture...
  3. Guo B, Styles C, Feng Q, Fink G. A Saccharomyces gene family involved in invasive growth, cell-cell adhesion, and mating. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:12158-63 pubmed
    ..For example, Flo11p is required during vegetative growth for haploid invasion and diploid filamentation, whereas Fig2p is required for ..
  4. Martineau C, Beckerich J, Kabani M. Flo11p-independent control of "mat" formation by hsp70 molecular chaperones and nucleotide exchange factors in yeast. Genetics. 2007;177:1679-89 pubmed
    ..While biofilm formation and sliding motility were shown to be strictly dependent on the cell-surface adhesin Flo11p, little is known about the cellular machinery that controls mat formation...
  5. Lo W, Dranginis A. The cell surface flocculin Flo11 is required for pseudohyphae formation and invasion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:161-71 pubmed
    ..We have identified a gene, FLO11, that encodes a cell wall protein which is critically required for both invasion and pseudohyphae formation in ..
  6. Sarode N, Miracle B, Peng X, Ryan O, Reynolds T. Vacuolar protein sorting genes regulate mat formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Flo11p-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Formation of mats depends on the adhesin Flo11p, which is also required for invasive growth, a phenotype in which the S...
  7. Reynolds T, Fink G. Bakers' yeast, a model for fungal biofilm formation. Science. 2001;291:878-81 pubmed
    ..Both attachment to plastic and mat formation require Flo11p, a member of a large family of fungal cell surface glycoproteins involved in adherence...
  8. Ishigami M, Nakagawa Y, Hayakawa M, Iimura Y. FLO11 is essential for flor formation caused by the C-terminal deletion of NRG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;237:425-30 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the Nrg1p-repressed gene FLO11, which encodes a cell surface glycoprotein that functions as a flocculin or an adhesin, abolished flor formation...
  9. Zara G, Zara S, Pinna C, Marceddu S, Budroni M. FLO11 gene length and transcriptional level affect biofilm-forming ability of wild flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology. 2009;155:3838-46 pubmed publisher
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FLO11 encodes an adhesin that is associated with different phenotypes, such as adherence to solid surfaces, hydrophobicity, mat and air-liquid biofilm formation...

More Information


  1. Malcher M, Schladebeck S, Mösch H. The Yak1 protein kinase lies at the center of a regulatory cascade affecting adhesive growth and stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;187:717-30 pubmed publisher
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adhesive growth on solid surfaces is mediated by the flocculin Flo11 to confer biofilm and filament formation. Expression of FLO11 is governed by a complex regulatory network that includes, e.g...
  2. Fidalgo M, Barrales R, Ibeas J, Jimenez J. Adaptive evolution by mutations in the FLO11 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11228-33 pubmed
    ..we found rearrangements within the central tandem repeat domain of the coding region that yield a more hydrophobic Flo11p variant...
  3. Harashima T, Heitman J. The Galpha protein Gpa2 controls yeast differentiation by interacting with kelch repeat proteins that mimic Gbeta subunits. Mol Cell. 2002;10:163-73 pubmed
    ..Our studies demonstrate that Gpa2 signals in conjunction with Gbeta structural mimics and that homologous G protein subunits or effectors may be conserved in multicellular eukaryotes. ..
  4. Van Mulders S, Christianen E, Saerens S, Daenen L, Verbelen P, Willaert R, et al. Phenotypic diversity of Flo protein family-mediated adhesion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2009;9:178-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Adhesion to agar surfaces, on the other hand, largely depended on two adhesins, Flo10 and Flo11. Expression of any FLO gene caused a significant increase in cell wall hydrophobicity...
  5. Ishigami M, Nakagawa Y, Hayakawa M, Iimura Y. FLO11 is the primary factor in flor formation caused by cell surface hydrophobicity in wild-type flor yeast. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:660-6 pubmed
    ..The expression of FLO11 is always high in the wild-type flor strain, regardless of carbon source...
  6. Bester M, Pretorius I, Bauer F. The regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO gene expression and Ca2+ -dependent flocculation by Flo8p and Mss11p. Curr Genet. 2006;49:375-83 pubmed
    ..The data clearly show that several essential transcription factors are shared by at least two flocculation genes that control different adhesion phenotypes. ..
  7. Lambrechts M, Bauer F, Marmur J, Pretorius I. Muc1, a mucin-like protein that is regulated by Mss10, is critical for pseudohyphal differentiation in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:8419-24 pubmed
    ..Two genes, MSS10 and MUC1, were cloned and shown to be involved in pseudohyphal differentiation and invasive growth...
  8. Douglas L, Li L, Yang Y, Dranginis A. Expression and characterization of the flocculin Flo11/Muc1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannoprotein with homotypic properties of adhesion. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:2214-21 pubmed
    ..Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells of strain background Sigma1278b require Flo11p to form pseudohyphae, invade agar, adhere to plastic, and develop biofilms, but they do not flocculate...
  9. Reynolds T. The Opi1p transcription factor affects expression of FLO11, mat formation, and invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1266-75 pubmed
    ..This spreading growth occurs by sliding motility and is dependent on the adhesion protein (adhesin) Flo11p. In order to identify molecular pathways that govern mat formation, whole-genome transcriptional profiling was ..
  10. Bumgarner S, Dowell R, Grisafi P, Gifford D, Fink G. Toggle involving cis-interfering noncoding RNAs controls variegated gene expression in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..a pair of cis-interfering ncRNAs in yeast that contribute to the control of variegated gene expression at the FLO11 locus by implementing a regulatory circuit that toggles between two stable states...
  11. Karunanithi S, Vadaie N, Chavel C, Birkaya B, Joshi J, Grell L, et al. Shedding of the mucin-like flocculin Flo11p reveals a new aspect of fungal adhesion regulation. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Flo11p is the major adhesion molecule that controls filamentous growth [1-3] and the expansion of interconnected cells in ..
  12. Sengupta N, Vinod P, Venkatesh K. Crosstalk between cAMP-PKA and MAP kinase pathways is a key regulatory design necessary to regulate FLO11 expression. Biophys Chem. 2007;125:59-71 pubmed
    ..approach to quantify the network comprising of cAMP-PKA and MAP kinase pathways involved in the regulation of FLO11, a gene which is required for pseudohyphae growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under nitrogen starvation...
  13. Barrales R, Jimenez J, Ibeas J. Identification of novel activation mechanisms for FLO11 regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008;178:145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..yeasts also confer adherence to solid surfaces and to other yeast cells. The analysis of FLO11, the main adhesin identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has revealed complex mechanisms, involving both genetic ..
  14. Aun A, Tamm T, Sedman J. Dysfunctional mitochondria modulate cAMP-PKA signaling and filamentous and invasive growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2013;193:467-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the morphogenetic defect of rho mutants was caused by specific downregulation of FLO11, the adhesin essential for invasive and filamentous growth, and did not result from general metabolic changes ..
  15. Vachova L, Stovícek V, Hlavacek O, Chernyavskiy O, Stepánek L, Kubinova L, et al. Flo11p, drug efflux pumps, and the extracellular matrix cooperate to form biofilm yeast colonies. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The two mechanisms act in concert during colony development, allowing growth of new cell generations in a well-protected internal cavity of the colony. Colony architecture is strengthened by intercellular fiber connections...
  16. White M, Piccirillo S, Dusevich V, Law D, Kapros T, Honigberg S. Flo11p adhesin required for meiotic differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae minicolonies grown on plastic surfaces. FEMS Yeast Res. 2011;11:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a flo11? mutant, which fails to form pseudohyphae, yielded normal sporulation in cultures, but was defective for ..
  17. Kuchin S, Vyas V, Carlson M. Snf1 protein kinase and the repressors Nrg1 and Nrg2 regulate FLO11, haploid invasive growth, and diploid pseudohyphal differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3994-4000 pubmed
    ..We show here that Snf1 regulates transcription of FLO11, which encodes a cell surface glycoprotein required for invasive growth...
  18. Jin R, Dobry C, McCown P, Kumar A. Large-scale analysis of yeast filamentous growth by systematic gene disruption and overexpression. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:284-96 pubmed
    ..Using a fluorescent protein reporter integrated at the MUC1 locus, we further assayed each filamentous growth mutant for aberrant protein levels of the key flocculence factor ..
  19. Torbensen R, Møller H, Gresham D, Alizadeh S, Ochmann D, Boles E, et al. Amino acid transporter genes are essential for FLO11-dependent and FLO11-independent biofilm formation and invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41272 pubmed publisher
    ..Such invasive mutants were used to identify amino acid transporters as regulators of FLO11 and invasive growth...
  20. Fidalgo M, Barrales R, Jimenez J. Coding repeat instability in the FLO11 gene of Saccharomyces yeasts. Yeast. 2008;25:879-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in length in the FLO11 coding repeats domain affected Flo11p-associated functions but, interestingly, some of these functions were affected more than others...
  21. Nakagawa Y, Toda Y, Yamamura H, Hayakawa M, Iimura Y. FLO11 is essential for pellicle formation by wild pellicle-forming yeasts isolated from contaminated wines. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;111:7-9 pubmed publisher
    The ?flo11/?flo11 disruptant strains constructed from three wild yeast strains, which were independently isolated from pellicles formed on the surface of contaminated stored wines, completely lost their ability to form pellicles...
  22. Wolf J, Dowell R, Mahony S, Rabani M, Gifford D, Fink G. Feed-forward regulation of a cell fate determinant by an RNA-binding protein generates asymmetry in yeast. Genetics. 2010;185:513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the RNA-binding protein Khd1 regulates asymmetric expression of FLO11 to determine daughter cell fate during filamentous growth...
  23. Strittmatter A, Fischer C, Kleinschmidt M, Braus G. FLO11 mediated filamentous growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the expression of the ribosomal RPS26 genes. Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;276:113-25 pubmed
    ..RPS26A but not RPS26B is required for haploid adhesive and diploid pseudohyphal growth mediated by FLO11, which encodes an adhesion...
  24. Goossens K, Willaert R. The N-terminal domain of the Flo11 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an adhesin without mannose-binding activity. FEMS Yeast Res. 2012;12:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of cellular adhesion mediated by Flo11p is not well understood. Therefore, the N-terminal domain of Flo11p was purified and studied...
  25. Taylor M, Ehrenreich I. Transcriptional Derepression Uncovers Cryptic Higher-Order Genetic Interactions. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005606 pubmed publisher
  26. Ryan O, Shapiro R, Kurat C, Mayhew D, Baryshnikova A, Chin B, et al. Global gene deletion analysis exploring yeast filamentous growth. Science. 2012;337:1353-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae and C. albicans. ..
  27. Kraushaar T, Brückner S, Veelders M, Rhinow D, Schreiner F, Birke R, et al. Interactions by the Fungal Flo11 Adhesin Depend on a Fibronectin Type III-like Adhesin Domain Girdled by Aromatic Bands. Structure. 2015;23:1005-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The flocculin Flo11, a major representative of these fungal adhesins, confers formation of different types of multicellular structures ..
  28. Bayly J, Douglas L, Pretorius I, Bauer F, Dranginis A. Characteristics of Flo11-dependent flocculation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2005;5:1151-6 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that Flo11p belongs to the Flo1-type class of flocculins rather than to the NewFlo class...
  29. Wang L, Montalvo Munoz F, Tsai Y, Liang C, Chang C, Lo W. The Histone Acetyltransferase Gcn5 Regulates ncRNA-ICR1 and FLO11 Expression during Pseudohyphal Development in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:284692 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of FLO11 is essential for adhesive growth and filament formation in yeast and is governed by a multilayered transcriptional ..
  30. Laprade L, Boyartchuk V, Dietrich W, Winston F. Spt3 plays opposite roles in filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and is required for C. albicans virulence. Genetics. 2002;161:509-19 pubmed
    ..In addition, Spt3 is required for normal expression of FLO11, a gene required for filamentous growth, although this defect is not the sole cause of the spt3Delta/spt3Delta ..
  31. González A, Casado C, Petrezselyova S, Ruiz A, Arino J. Molecular analysis of a conditional hal3 vhs3 yeast mutant links potassium homeostasis with flocculation and invasiveness. Fungal Genet Biol. 2013;53:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..vhs3 strain shows a flocculent phenotype, invasive growth and increased expression of the flocculin-encoding FLO11 gene...
  32. Zara S, Bakalinsky A, Zara G, Pirino G, Demontis M, Budroni M. FLO11-based model for air-liquid interfacial biofilm formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:2934-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that FLO11, which encodes a hydrophobic cell wall glycoprotein, is required for the air-liquid interfacial biofilm and that ..
  33. Karunanithi S, Joshi J, Chavel C, Birkaya B, Grell L, Cullen P. Regulation of mat responses by a differentiation MAPK pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32294 pubmed publisher
    ..Both responses require the same signal transduction (MAPK) pathway and the same cell adhesion molecule (Flo11) but have been studied under different conditions...
  34. Bester M, Jacobson D, Bauer F. Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Protein Encoding Genes Are Coregulated by Mss11, but Cellular Adhesion Phenotypes Appear Only Flo Protein Dependent. G3 (Bethesda). 2012;2:131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mss11 has been shown to be a central element of FLO1 and FLO11 gene regulation and acts together with the cAMP-PKA-dependent transcription factor Flo8...
  35. Rossouw D, Bagheri B, Setati M, Bauer F. Co-Flocculation of Yeast Species, a New Mechanism to Govern Population Dynamics in Microbial Ecosystems. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136249 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a role would explain the evolutionary persistence of a large multigene family of genes with apparently similar function. ..
  36. Shieh J, Cheng Y, Su M, Moore M, Choo Y, Klug A. Tailor-made zinc-finger transcription factors activate FLO11 gene expression with phenotypic consequences in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e746 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae to study the ability of tailor-made zinc finger proteins to activate the expression of the FLO11 gene, with phenotypic consequences...
  37. Valerius O, Kleinschmidt M, Rachfall N, Schulze F, López Marín S, Hoppert M, et al. The Saccharomyces homolog of mammalian RACK1, Cpc2/Asc1p, is required for FLO11-dependent adhesive growth and dimorphism. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1968-79 pubmed
    ..In addition, the diploid Flo11p-dependent pseudohyphal growth during nitrogen limitation was CPC2/ASC1-dependent...
  38. Martineau C, Melki R, Kabani M. Swa2p-dependent clathrin dynamics is critical for Flo11p processing and 'Mat' formation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Mat formation strictly depends on Flo11p, a cell surface mannoprotein that mediates the adhesion of yeast cells to the agar surface...
  39. Octavio L, Gedeon K, Maheshri N. Epigenetic and conventional regulation is distributed among activators of FLO11 allowing tuning of population-level heterogeneity in its expression. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000673 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that two copies of the FLO11 locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae switch between a silenced and competent promoter state in a random and ..
  40. Fischer C, Valerius O, Rupprecht H, Dumkow M, Krappmann S, Braus G. Posttranscriptional regulation of FLO11 upon amino acid starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2008;8:225-36 pubmed
    ..background, these morphological changes depend on the expression of the gene encoding the cell wall glycoprotein Flo11p, which is increased during nutritional limitations...
  41. Matsui T, LINDER R, Phan J, Seidl F, Ehrenreich I. Regulatory Rewiring in a Cross Causes Extensive Genetic Heterogeneity. Genetics. 2015;201:769-77 pubmed publisher
    ..many of the known transcriptional activators of invasion, as well as the gene encoding the cell surface protein Flo11 from five relevant segregants and showing that these individuals differ in the genes they require for invasion...