Gene Symbol: FKS1
Description: 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase
Alias: CND1, CWH53, ETG1, GSC1, PBR1, 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Yoshida S, Bartolini S, Pellman D. Mechanisms for concentrating Rho1 during cytokinesis. Genes Dev. 2009;23:810-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings comprehensively define the targeting mechanisms of Rho1 essential for cytokinesis in yeast, and are likely to be relevant to cytokinesis in other organisms. ..
  2. Qadota H, Python C, Inoue S, Arisawa M, Anraku Y, Zheng Y, et al. Identification of yeast Rho1p GTPase as a regulatory subunit of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase. Science. 1996;272:279-81 pubmed
    ..Both proteins were localized predominantly at sites of cell wall remodeling. Therefore, it appears that Rho1p is a regulatory subunit of beta(1-->3)glucan synthase. ..
  3. Bickle M, Delley P, Schmidt A, Hall M. Cell wall integrity modulates RHO1 activity via the exchange factor ROM2. EMBO J. 1998;17:2235-45 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that cell wall defects activate RHO1. First, rot1, rot2, big1, cwh41, gas1 and fks1 mutations all confer cell wall defects and suppress tor2(ts)...
  4. Audhya A, Emr S. Stt4 PI 4-kinase localizes to the plasma membrane and functions in the Pkc1-mediated MAP kinase cascade. Dev Cell. 2002;2:593-605 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that Stt4-Mss4 generates PI4,5P(2) at the plasma membrane, required to recruit/activate effector proteins such as Rom2. ..
  5. Chin C, Tan K, Onishi M, Chew Y, Augustine B, Lee W, et al. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006195 pubmed publisher
    ..observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation...
  6. Merlini L, Bolognesi A, Juanes M, Vandermoere F, Courtellemont T, Pascolutti R, et al. Rho1- and Pkc1-dependent phosphorylation of the F-BAR protein Syp1 contributes to septin ring assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:3245-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Rho1 and Pkc1 coordinate septin ring assembly with membrane and cell wall remodeling partly by controlling Syp1 residence at the bud neck. ..
  7. Chen E, Kaiser C. LST8 negatively regulates amino acid biosynthesis as a component of the TOR pathway. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:333-47 pubmed
    ..Finally, the different effects of lst8 alleles on the activation of either the Rtg1/3p or Gln3p transcription factors reveal that these two pathways constitute distinct, genetically separable outputs of the Tor-Lst8 regulatory complex. ..
  8. Vink E, Vossen J, Ram A, van den Ende H, Brekelmans S, de Nobel H, et al. The protein kinase Kic1 affects 1,6-beta-glucan levels in the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology. 2002;148:4035-48 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that Kic1 affects cell wall construction in multiple ways and in particular in regulating 1,6-beta-glucan levels in the wall. ..
  9. Luo G, Costanzo M, Boone C, Dickson R. Nutrients and the Pkh1/2 and Pkc1 protein kinases control mRNA decay and P-body assembly in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8759-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammals may use similar regulatory mechanisms because components of the decay apparatus and signaling pathways are conserved. ..

More Information


  1. Okada H, Abe M, Asakawa Minemura M, Hirata A, Qadota H, Morishita K, et al. Multiple functional domains of the yeast l,3-beta-glucan synthase subunit Fks1p revealed by quantitative phenotypic analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants. Genetics. 2010;184:1013-24 pubmed publisher
    ..the quantitative cell morphology and biochemical properties of 10 different temperature-sensitive mutants of FKS1, a putative catalytic subunit of GS...
  2. Sakane H, Yamamoto T, Tanaka K. The functional relationship between the Cdc50p-Drs2p putative aminophospholipid translocase and the Arf GAP Gcs1p in vesicle formation in the retrieval pathway from yeast early endosomes to the TGN. Cell Struct Funct. 2006;31:87-108 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Cdc50p-Drs2p plays an important role in the Arf1p-mediated formation of CCVs for the retrieval pathway from early endosomes to the TGN. ..
  3. Mackin N, Sousou T, Erdman S. The PXL1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a paxillin-like protein functioning in polarized cell growth. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1904-17 pubmed
    ..PXL1 also displays genetic interactions with the Rho1 effector FKS1. Pxl1p may therefore function as a modulator of Rho-GTPase signaling...
  4. Douglas C, Foor F, Marrinan J, Morin N, Nielsen J, Dahl A, et al. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 (ETG1) gene encodes an integral membrane protein which is a subunit of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:12907-11 pubmed
    ..mutations in FKS1 confer hypersensitivity to the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A, while mutations in ETG1 confer resistance to the cell-wall-active echinocandins (inhibitors of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase) and, in some ..
  5. Inoue S, Takewaki N, Takasuka T, Mio T, Adachi M, Fujii Y, et al. Characterization and gene cloning of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eur J Biochem. 1995;231:845-54 pubmed
    ..With the information of these amino acid sequences, we cloned two genes, GSC1 and GSC2 (glucan synthase of S...
  6. Ketela T, Green R, Bussey H. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mid2p is a potential cell wall stress sensor and upstream activator of the PKC1-MPK1 cell integrity pathway. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3330-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have identified an open reading frame, MTL1, which encodes a protein with both structural and functional similarity to Mid2p. ..
  7. Poon P, Cassel D, Spang A, Rotman M, Pick E, Singer R, et al. Retrograde transport from the yeast Golgi is mediated by two ARF GAP proteins with overlapping function. EMBO J. 1999;18:555-64 pubmed
    ..An in vitro assay indicates that efficient retrieval from the Golgi to the ER requires these two proteins. These findings suggest that Glo3 and Gcs1 ARF GAPs mediate retrograde vesicular transport from the Golgi to the ER. ..
  8. Kikuchi Y, Mizuuchi E, Nogami S, Morishita S, Ohya Y. Involvement of Rho-type GTPase in control of cell size in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007;7:569-78 pubmed
    ..Analyses of mutants defective in Rho1p effector proteins indicate that Skn7p, Fks1p and Mpk1p are involved in cell-size control. Thus, Rho1p and its downstream regulatory pathways are involved in controlling cell size in S. cerevisiae. ..
  9. deHart A, Schnell J, Allen D, Tsai J, Hicke L. Receptor internalization in yeast requires the Tor2-Rho1 signaling pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:4676-84 pubmed
    ..A rho1 mutant specifically defective in activation of the glucan synthase Fks1/2 does not internalize alpha-factor efficiently, and fks1Delta cells exhibit a similar phenotype...
  10. Osmond B, Specht C, Robbins P. Chitin synthase III: synthetic lethal mutants and "stress related" chitin synthesis that bypasses the CSD3/CHS6 localization pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11206-10 pubmed
    ..In addition to finding, not surprisingly, that mutations in major cell wall-related genes such as FKS1 (glucan synthase) and mutations in any of the Golgi glycosylation complex genes (MNN9 family) are lethal in ..
  11. Garrett Engele P, Moilanen B, Cyert M. Calcineurin, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, is essential in yeast mutants with cell integrity defects and in mutants that lack a functional vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4103-14 pubmed
    ..CND1 is identical to the gene identified previously as FKS1, ETG1, and CWH53, cnd1 mutants are sensitive to FK506 and cyclosporin A and exhibit slow growth that is improved by the addition of ..
  12. Ishihara S, Hirata A, Nogami S, Beauvais A, Latge J, Ohya Y. Homologous subunits of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase are important for spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:143-56 pubmed
    ..wall, is synthesized by 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, which is composed of a putative catalytic subunit encoded by FKS1 and FKS2. Although another homolog, encoded by FKS3, was identified by homology searching, its function is unknown...
  13. Mazur P, Baginsky W. In vitro activity of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase requires the GTP-binding protein Rho1. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:14604-9 pubmed
    ..Specific ADP-ribosylation of Rho1p by exoenzyme C3 inactivates glucan synthase activity specified by FKS1 and FKS2 as demonstrated in membrane preparations from fks2 and fks1 deletion strains, respectively, and in the ..
  14. Sekiya Kawasaki M, Abe M, Saka A, Watanabe D, Kono K, Minemura Asakawa M, et al. Dissection of upstream regulatory components of the Rho1p effector, 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2002;162:663-76 pubmed
    ..Yeast GS is composed of a putative catalytic subunit encoded by FKS1 and FKS2 and a regulatory subunit encoded by RHO1...
  15. Suzuki M, Igarashi R, Sekiya M, Utsugi T, Morishita S, Yukawa M, et al. Dynactin is involved in a checkpoint to monitor cell wall synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:861-71 pubmed
    ..Components of the dynactin complex are required to achieve the G2 arrest whilst keeping cells highly viable. Thus, the dynactin complex has a function in a checkpoint that monitors cell wall synthesis. ..
  16. Cabib E, Blanco N, Grau C, Rodriguez Peña J, Arroyo J. Crh1p and Crh2p are required for the cross-linking of chitin to beta(1-6)glucan in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:921-35 pubmed
    ..Crh1p and Crh2p are the first proteins directly implicated in the formation of cross-links between cell wall components in fungi. ..
  17. Mazur P, Morin N, Baginsky W, El Sherbeini M, Clemas J, Nielsen J, et al. Differential expression and function of two homologous subunits of yeast 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:5671-81 pubmed
    ..Previous work has shown that the FKS1 gene encodes a 215-kDa integral membrane protein (Fks1p) which mediates sensitivity to the echinocandin class of ..
  18. Eng W, Faucette L, McLaughlin M, Cafferkey R, Koltin Y, Morris R, et al. The yeast FKS1 gene encodes a novel membrane protein, mutations in which confer FK506 and cyclosporin A hypersensitivity and calcineurin-dependent growth. Gene. 1994;151:61-71 pubmed
    ..We and others have defined the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 gene by recessive mutations resulting in 100-1000-fold hypersensitivity to FK506 and CsA (as compared to wild type),..
  19. Green R, Lesage G, Sdicu A, Menard P, Bussey H. A synthetic analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress sensor Mid2p, and identification of a Mid2p-interacting protein, Zeo1p, that modulates the PKC1-MPK1 cell integrity pathway. Microbiology. 2003;149:2487-99 pubmed
    ..These include WSC1 and ROM2, upstream elements in cell integrity pathway signalling, and FKS1 and SMI1, required for 1,3-beta-glucan synthesis...
  20. Zhao C, Jung U, Garrett Engele P, Roe T, Cyert M, Levin D. Temperature-induced expression of yeast FKS2 is under the dual control of protein kinase C and calcineurin. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1013-22 pubmed
    b>FKS1 and FKS2 are alternative subunits of the glucan synthase complex, which is responsible for synthesizing 1,3-beta-glucan chains, the major structural polymer of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall...
  21. Mol P, Park H, Mullins J, Cabib E. A GTP-binding protein regulates the activity of (1-->3)-beta-glucan synthase, an enzyme directly involved in yeast cell wall morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:31267-74 pubmed
    ..These results show that the GTP-binding protein not only regulates glucan synthase activity but can be regulated in turn, constituting a potential link between cell cycle controls and wall morphogenesis. ..
  22. Dijkgraaf G, Abe M, Ohya Y, Bussey H. Mutations in Fks1p affect the cell wall content of beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-glucan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2002;19:671-90 pubmed
    Fks1p and Fks2p are related proteins thought to be catalytic subunits of the beta-1,3-glucan synthase. Analysis of fks1 delta mutants showed a partial K1 killer toxin-resistant phenotype and a 30% reduction in alkali-soluble beta-1,3-..
  23. Johnson M, Edlind T. Topological and mutational analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:952-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Fks1, with orthologs in nearly all fungi as well as plants and many protists, plays a central role in fungal cell wall formation as the putative catalytic component of ?-1,3-glucan synthase...
  24. Meitinger F, Richter H, Heisel S, Hub B, Seufert W, Pereira G. A safeguard mechanism regulates Rho GTPases to coordinate cytokinesis with the establishment of cell polarity. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001495 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide unexpected insights into the temporal control of cytokinesis and describe the importance of a Gps1-dependent mechanism for highly accurate polarity switching between two closely connected locations. ..
  25. Watanabe D, Abe M, Ohya Y. Yeast Lrg1p acts as a specialized RhoGAP regulating 1,3-beta-glucan synthesis. Yeast. 2001;18:943-51 pubmed
    Selection of an extragenic suppressor of fks1-1154 Deltafks2, mutations in the catalytic subunits of yeast 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (GS) conferring temperature-sensitivity, led to the LRG1 gene, which was originally identified as a LIM-..
  26. Romero C, Desai P, DeLillo N, Vancura A. Expression of FLR1 transporter requires phospholipase C and is repressed by Mediator. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5677-85 pubmed
    ..The results thus suggest another layer of complexity in regulation of pleiotropic drug resistance...
  27. Castrejon F, Gomez A, Sanz M, Duran A, Roncero C. The RIM101 pathway contributes to yeast cell wall assembly and its function becomes essential in the absence of mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2p. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:507-17 pubmed
    ..In addition, these results provide new experimental evidence of the direct involvement of the PKC signal transduction pathway through the Sltp2 kinase in the construction of yeast cell walls. ..
  28. Parent S, Nielsen J, Morin N, Chrebet G, Ramadan N, Dahl A, et al. Calcineurin-dependent growth of an FK506- and CsA-hypersensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Gen Microbiol. 1993;139:2973-84 pubmed
    ..The mutation (fks1) also confers a slow growth phenotype which is partially suppressed by exogenously added Ca2+ and exacerbated by ..
  29. Utsugi T, Minemura M, Hirata A, Abe M, Watanabe D, Ohya Y. Movement of yeast 1,3-beta-glucan synthase is essential for uniform cell wall synthesis. Genes Cells. 2002;7:1-9 pubmed
    ..The cell wall thickness of the mutants becomes irregular, eventually leading to cell lysis. We propose that GS movement is necessary for proper cell wall remodelling. ..