Gene Symbol: FAR1
Description: cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibiting protein FAR1
Alias: cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibiting protein FAR1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     FAR1

Top Publications

  1. Butty A, Pryciak P, Huang L, Herskowitz I, Peter M. The role of Far1p in linking the heterotrimeric G protein to polarity establishment proteins during yeast mating. Science. 1998;282:1511-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gbetagamma to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient. ..
  2. Nern A, Arkowitz R. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Cdc42p exchange factor Cdc24p. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:1115-22 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the nucleus serves as a store of preformed Cdc24p-Far1p complex which is required for chemotropism. ..
  3. Henchoz S, Chi Y, Catarin B, Herskowitz I, Deshaies R, Peter M. Phosphorylation- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Far1p in budding yeast. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3046-60 pubmed
    ..Cells that overexpress Far1-22p arrested in G1 as large unbudded cells with low Cdc28p-Clnp kinase activity...
  4. Lyons D, Mahanty S, Choi K, Manandhar M, Elion E. The SH3-domain protein Bem1 coordinates mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade activation with cell cycle control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4095-106 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, Bem1 also copurifies with Far1, a Fus3 substrate required for G1 arrest and proper polarized growth during mating...
  5. Chang F, Herskowitz I. Identification of a gene necessary for cell cycle arrest by a negative growth factor of yeast: FAR1 is an inhibitor of a G1 cyclin, CLN2. Cell. 1990;63:999-1011 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae a cells. We have identified a gene, FAR1 (for "factor arrest"), which is necessary for cell cycle arrest but not for other responses to alpha ..
  6. Fu X, Ng C, Feng D, Liang C. Cdc48p is required for the cell cycle commitment point at Start via degradation of the G1-CDK inhibitor Far1p. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:21-6 pubmed
  7. Cherkasova V, Lyons D, Elion E. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Genetics. 1999;151:989-1004 pubmed
    ..To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway...
  8. Jeoung D, Oehlen L, Cross F. Cln3-associated kinase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by the mating factor pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:433-41 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of Cln1- and Cln2-associated kinase activity by the mating factor pathway acting through Far1 has been described...
  9. Oehlen L, McKinney J, Cross F. Ste12 and Mcm1 regulate cell cycle-dependent transcription of FAR1. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2830-7 pubmed
    ..The cell cycle transcription pattern for FAR1 was changed in ste12- cells: the gene was still significantly expressed in G2/M, but transcript levels were ..

More Information


  1. Peter M, Herskowitz I. Direct inhibition of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28-Cln by Far1. Science. 1994;265:1228-31 pubmed
    ..The Far1 protein is required for cell cycle arrest and associates with the Cdc28-Cln complex...
  2. Nern A, Arkowitz R. A Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma protein complex required for yeast orientation during mating. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:1187-202 pubmed
    ..Cdc24p localizes to sites of polarized growth suggesting that this complex is localized. In the absence of CDC24-FAR1-mediated chemotropism, a bud site selection protein, Bud1p/Rsr1p, is essential for morphological changes in ..
  3. Elion E, Satterberg B, Kranz J. FUS3 phosphorylates multiple components of the mating signal transduction cascade: evidence for STE12 and FAR1. Mol Biol Cell. 1993;4:495-510 pubmed
    ..One substrate is likely to be the transcription factor STE12. A second is likely to be FAR1, a protein required for G1 arrest...
  4. Gartner A, Jovanovic A, Jeoung D, Bourlat S, Cross F, Ammerer G. Pheromone-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest requires Far1 phosphorylation, but may not involve inhibition of Cdc28-Cln2 kinase, in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3681-91 pubmed
    ..Previous data have indicated that Far1, a factor dedicated to pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest, is under positive and negative posttranslational ..
  5. Tyers M, Futcher B. Far1 and Fus3 link the mating pheromone signal transduction pathway to three G1-phase Cdc28 kinase complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:5659-69 pubmed
    ..Each complex has a specific array of coprecipitated in vitro substrates. We identify one of these as Far1, a protein required for pheromone-induced arrest at Start...
  6. Peter M, Gartner A, Horecka J, Ammerer G, Herskowitz I. FAR1 links the signal transduction pathway to the cell cycle machinery in yeast. Cell. 1993;73:747-60 pubmed
    ..Prior work indicates that FUS3, a member of the MAP kinase family, and FAR1, whose molecular activity is unknown, contribute to cell cycle arrest by inhibiting G1 cyclins...
  7. Blondel M, Galan J, Chi Y, LaFourcade C, Longaretti C, Deshaies R, et al. Nuclear-specific degradation of Far1 is controlled by the localization of the F-box protein Cdc4. EMBO J. 2000;19:6085-97 pubmed
    b>Far1 is a bifunctional protein that is required to arrest the cell cycle and establish cell polarity during yeast mating...
  8. Blondel M, Alepuz P, Huang L, Shaham S, Ammerer G, Peter M. Nuclear export of Far1p in response to pheromones requires the export receptor Msn5p/Ste21p. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2284-300 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that nuclear export of Far1p by Msn5p/Ste21p coordinates the two separable functions of Far1p during mating. ..
  9. Fujimura Kamada K, Hirai T, Tanaka K. Essential role of the NH2-terminal region of Cdc24 guanine nucleotide exchange factor in its initial polarized localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:2-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the NH2-terminal region unmasks the DH and PB1 domains, leading to the activation of Cdc42 and interaction with Bem1, respectively, to initiate cell polarization. ..
  10. Wang X, Sheff M, Simpson D, Elion E. Ste11p MEKK signals through HOG, mating, calcineurin and PKC pathways to regulate the FKS2 gene. BMC Mol Biol. 2011;12:51 pubmed publisher
    ..The patterns of control by Ste11p targets revealed novel functional linkages, cross-regulation, redundancy and compensation. ..
  11. Pope P, Bhaduri S, Pryciak P. Regulation of cyclin-substrate docking by a G1 arrest signaling pathway and the Cdk inhibitor Far1. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1390-1396 pubmed publisher
    ..This arrest requires the protein Far1, which is thought to antagonize the G1/S transition by acting as a Cdk inhibitor (CKI), although the mechanisms ..
  12. Strickfaden S, Pryciak P. Distinct roles for two Galpha-Gbeta interfaces in cell polarity control by a yeast heterotrimeric G protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:181-97 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer can function in a partially dissociated state, tethered by the N-terminal interface. ..
  13. Shimada Y, Wiget P, Gulli M, Bi E, Peter M. The nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24p may be regulated by auto-inhibition. EMBO J. 2004;23:1051-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results support a two-step molecular mechanism for the site-specific activation of Cdc24p, which involves Rsr1p/Bud1p and the adaptor protein Bem1p. ..
  14. Shimada Y, Gulli M, Peter M. Nuclear sequestration of the exchange factor Cdc24 by Far1 regulates cell polarity during yeast mating. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:117-24 pubmed
    ..Cdc24, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the yeast GTPase Cdc42, is sequestered in the cell nucleus by Far1. Export of Cdc24 to a site of cell polarization is mediated by two mechanisms...
  15. Busti S, Gotti L, Balestrieri C, Querin L, Drovandi G, Felici G, et al. Overexpression of Far1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, induces a large transcriptional reprogramming in which RNA synthesis senses Far1 in a Sfp1-mediated way. Biotechnol Adv. 2012;30:185-201 pubmed publisher
    The FAR1 gene encodes an 830 residue bifunctional protein, whose major function is inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase complexes involved in the G1/S transition. FAR1 transcription is maximal between mitosis and early G1 phase...
  16. Wiget P, Shimada Y, Butty A, Bi E, Peter M. Site-specific regulation of the GEF Cdc24p by the scaffold protein Far1p during yeast mating. EMBO J. 2004;23:1063-74 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that Gbetagamma not only targets Far1p to the correct site but may also trigger a conformational change in Far1p that is required for its ability to activate Cdc24p in vivo. ..
  17. Leberer E, Dignard D, Harcus D, Hougan L, Whiteway M, Thomas D. Cloning of Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE5 as a suppressor of a Ste20 protein kinase mutant: structural and functional similarity of Ste5 to Far1. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;241:241-54 pubmed
    ..Transcription is slightly induced by treatment of cells with pheromone. Ste5 has homology with Far1, a yeast protein required for efficient mating and the pheromone-inducible inhibition of a G1 cyclin, Cln2...
  18. Breitkreutz A, Boucher L, Tyers M. MAPK specificity in the yeast pheromone response independent of transcriptional activation. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1266-71 pubmed
    ..vivo and in an in vitro-reconstituted MAPK system, Fus3, but not Kss1, exhibits strong substrate selectivity toward Far1, a bifunctional protein required for polarization and G(1) arrest...
  19. Kõivomägi M, Ord M, Iofik A, Valk E, Venta R, Faustova I, et al. Multisite phosphorylation networks as signal processors for Cdk1. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:1415-24 pubmed publisher
  20. Remenyi A, Good M, Bhattacharyya R, Lim W. The role of docking interactions in mediating signaling input, output, and discrimination in the yeast MAPK network. Mol Cell. 2005;20:951-62 pubmed
    ..The cell cycle arrest mediator Far1, a mating-specific substrate, has a docking motif that selectively binds Fus3...
  21. Bhaduri S, Valk E, Winters M, Gruessner B, Loog M, Pryciak P. A docking interface in the cyclin Cln2 promotes multi-site phosphorylation of substrates and timely cell-cycle entry. Curr Biol. 2015;25:316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this docking function helps ensure full phosphorylation of substrates with multiple phosphorylation sites, and this contributes to punctual cell-cycle entry. ..
  22. Niu W, Li Z, Zhan W, Iyer V, Marcotte E. Mechanisms of cell cycle control revealed by a systematic and quantitative overexpression screen in S. cerevisiae. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000120 pubmed publisher
    ..This work thus implicates new genes in cell cycle progression, complements previous screens, and lays the foundation for future experiments to define more precisely roles for these genes in cell cycle progression. ..
  23. Alberghina L, Rossi R, Querin L, Wanke V, Vanoni M. A cell sizer network involving Cln3 and Far1 controls entrance into S phase in the mitotic cycle of budding yeast. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:433-43 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that an increased level of the cyclin-dependent inhibitor Far1 increases cell size, whereas far1 Delta cells start bud emergence and DNA replication at a smaller size than wild ..
  24. Butty A, Perrinjaquet N, Petit A, Jaquenoud M, Segall J, Hofmann K, et al. A positive feedback loop stabilizes the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24 at sites of polarization. EMBO J. 2002;21:1565-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest that Bem1 functions in a positive feedback loop: local activation of Cdc24 produces Cdc42-GTP, which recruits Bem1. In turn, Bem1 stabilizes Cdc24 at the site of polarization, leading to apical growth. ..
  25. Horecka J, Sprague G. Identification and characterization of FAR3, a gene required for pheromone-mediated G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996;144:905-21 pubmed
    ..Several of these mutants identified previously known genes, including CLN3, FUS3, and FAR1. In addition, a new gene, FAR3, was identified and characterized...
  26. Gelin Licht R, Paliwal S, Conlon P, Levchenko A, Gerst J. Scp160-dependent mRNA trafficking mediates pheromone gradient sensing and chemotropism in yeast. Cell Rep. 2012;1:483-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of ligand-activated RNA targeting in the development of a simple eukaryote. ..
  27. Tang X, Orlicky S, Liu Q, Willems A, Sicheri F, Tyers M. Genome-wide surveys for phosphorylation-dependent substrates of SCF ubiquitin ligases. Methods Enzymol. 2005;399:433-58 pubmed
    ..Both methods have identified novel substrates of Cdc4 and may, in principle, be used to identify numerous new substrates of other SCF and SCF-like complexes from yeast to humans. ..
  28. Wittenberg C, Sugimoto K, Reed S. G1-specific cyclins of S. cerevisiae: cell cycle periodicity, regulation by mating pheromone, and association with the p34CDC28 protein kinase. Cell. 1990;62:225-37 pubmed
    ..This physical interaction is consistent with the genetic interaction between the CLN genes and CDC28 and suggests that Cln proteins are an essential component of the active protein kinase complex required for the G1 to S transition. ..