Gene Symbol: ELP3
Description: Elongator subunit ELP3
Alias: HPA1, KAT9, KTI8, TOT3, Elongator subunit ELP3
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     ELP3

Top Publications

  1. Frohloff F, Fichtner L, Jablonowski D, Breunig K, Schaffrath R. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator mutations confer resistance to the Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin. EMBO J. 2001;20:1993-2003 pubmed
    ..Of these we identified the TOT1, TOT2 and TOT3 genes (isoallelic with ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3, respectively) coding for the histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-associated Elongator complex of RNA polymerase II ..
  2. Rahl P, Chen C, Collins R. Elp1p, the yeast homolog of the FD disease syndrome protein, negatively regulates exocytosis independently of transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell. 2005;17:841-53 pubmed
    ..Our results raise the possibility that regulation of polarized exocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved function of the entire Elongator complex and that FD results from a dysregulation of neuronal exocytosis. ..
  3. Winkler G, Petrakis T, Ethelberg S, Tokunaga M, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. RNA polymerase II elongator holoenzyme is composed of two discrete subcomplexes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32743-9 pubmed
    ..factor composed of two discrete subcomplexes: one comprised of the previously identified Elp1, Elp2, and Elp3 proteins and another comprised of three novel polypeptides, termed Elp4, Elp5, and Elp6...
  4. Di Santo R, Bandau S, Stark M. A conserved and essential basic region mediates tRNA binding to the Elp1 subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator complex. Mol Microbiol. 2014;92:1227-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the conserved basic region in Elp1 may be essential for tRNA wobble uridine modification by acting as tRNA binding motif. ..
  5. Fichtner L, Frohloff F, Bürkner K, Larsen M, Breunig K, Schaffrath R. Molecular analysis of KTI12/TOT4, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin action. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:783-91 pubmed
    ..Consistent with a regulatory role, the presence of a potential P-loop motif conserved between yeast and human TOT4 homologues suggests capability of ATP or GTP binding and P-loop deletion renders Tot4p biologically inactive. ..
  6. Winkler G, Kristjuhan A, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Svejstrup J. Elongator is a histone H3 and H4 acetyltransferase important for normal histone acetylation levels in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3517-22 pubmed
    ..form of RNA polymerase II is associated with the Elongator complex, which has the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Elp3 as a subunit...
  7. Petrakis T, Søgaard T, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Svejstrup J. Physical and functional interaction between Elongator and the chromatin-associated Kti12 protein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19454-60 pubmed
    ..However, a variety of genetic experiments comparing the effects of mutation in ELP3 and KTI12 alone and in combination with other transcription factor mutations clearly demonstrate a significant ..
  8. Jablonowski D, Fichtner L, Stark M, Schaffrath R. The yeast elongator histone acetylase requires Sit4-dependent dephosphorylation for toxin-target capacity. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1459-69 pubmed
    ..Together with the findings that sit4Delta and totDelta cells phenocopy protection against zymocin and the ceramide-induced G1 block, Sit4 is functionally linked to Elongator in cell cycle events targetable by antizymotics. ..
  9. Mehlgarten C, Schaffrath R. Mutant casein kinase I (Hrr25p/Kti14p) abrogates the G1 cell cycle arrest induced by Kluyveromyces lactiszymocin in budding yeast. Mol Genet Genomics. 2003;269:188-96 pubmed

More Information


  1. Fichtner L, Schaffrath R. KTI11 and KTI13, Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes controlling sensitivity to G1 arrest induced by Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:865-75 pubmed
    ..Combining disruptions in KTI11 or KTI13 with a deletion in TOT3/ELP3 coding for the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) Elongator histone acetyltransferase (HAT) yielded synthetic effects on ..
  2. Johansson M, Esberg A, Huang B, Bjork G, Byström A. Eukaryotic wobble uridine modifications promote a functionally redundant decoding system. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3301-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the observation that the mcm(5)U(34)- and some ncm(5)U(34)-containing tRNAs efficiently read G-ending codons challenges the notion that eukaryotes do not use U-G wobbling. ..
  3. Wittschieben B, Fellows J, Du W, Stillman D, Svejstrup J. Overlapping roles for the histone acetyltransferase activities of SAGA and elongator in vivo. EMBO J. 2000;19:3060-8 pubmed
    b>Elp3 and Gcn5 are histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that function in transcription as subunits of Elongator and SAGA/ADA, respectively...
  4. Keogh M, Mennella T, Sawa C, Berthelet S, Krogan N, Wolek A, et al. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone H2A variant Htz1 is acetylated by NuA4. Genes Dev. 2006;20:660-5 pubmed
    ..Function-specific modifications may help explain how the same component of chromatin can function in diverse pathways. ..
  5. Zabel R, Bär C, Mehlgarten C, Schaffrath R. Yeast alpha-tubulin suppressor Ats1/Kti13 relates to the Elongator complex and interacts with Elongator partner protein Kti11. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:175-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, our data suggest that Kti13 and Kti11 support Elongator functions and that they both share Elongator-independent role(s) that are important for cell viability. ..
  6. Glatt S, Létoquart J, Faux C, Taylor N, Seraphin B, Müller C. The Elongator subcomplex Elp456 is a hexameric RecA-like ATPase. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:314-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a role of Elongator in tRNA modification, explain the importance of each of the Elp4, Elp5 and Elp6 subunits for complex integrity and suggest a model for the overall architecture of the holo-Elongator complex. ..
  7. Fichtner L, Jablonowski D, Schierhorn A, Kitamoto H, Stark M, Schaffrath R. Elongator's toxin-target (TOT) function is nuclear localization sequence dependent and suppressed by post-translational modification. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:1297-307 pubmed
    ..Similarly, KAP120 deletion rescues cells from zymocin, suggesting that Elongator's TOT function requires NLS- and karyopherin-dependent nuclear import. ..
  8. Mehlgarten C, Jablonowski D, Wrackmeyer U, Tschitschmann S, Sondermann D, Jäger G, et al. Elongator function in tRNA wobble uridine modification is conserved between yeast and plants. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1082-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that yeast elp3 and elp1 mutants expressing the respective Arabidopsis Elongator homologues AtELP3/ELO3 and AtELP1/ELO2 assemble ..
  9. Li Q, Fazly A, Zhou H, Huang S, Zhang Z, Stillman B. The elongator complex interacts with PCNA and modulates transcriptional silencing and sensitivity to DNA damage agents. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000684 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells lacking Elp3 (K-acetyltransferase Kat9), the catalytic subunit of the six-subunit Elongator complex, partially lose silencing of ..
  10. Huang B, Lu J, Byström A. A genome-wide screen identifies genes required for formation of the wobble nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RNA. 2008;14:2183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Like the absence of the mcm(5) side chain, the lack of the s(2) group renders tRNA(mcm5s2UUC Glu) less sensitive to gamma-toxin, reinforcing the importance of the wobble nucleoside mcm(5)s(2)U for tRNA cleavage by gamma-toxin. ..
  11. Frohloff F, Jablonowski D, Fichtner L, Schaffrath R. Subunit communications crucial for the functional integrity of the yeast RNA polymerase II elongator (gamma-toxin target (TOT)) complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:956-61 pubmed
    ..Tot4p also binds pol II hyperphosphorylated at its C-terminal domain Ser(5) raising the possibility that Tot4p bridges the contact between Elongator and pol II. ..
  12. Fichtner L, Frohloff F, Jablonowski D, Stark M, Schaffrath R. Protein interactions within Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator, a complex essential for Kluyveromyces lactis zymocicity. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:817-26 pubmed
    ..TOT1 and TOT2 are essential for Tot4-Tot2 and Tot4-Tot3 interactions respectively...
  13. Wittschieben B, Otero G, de Bizemont T, Fellows J, Erdjument Bromage H, Ohba R, et al. A novel histone acetyltransferase is an integral subunit of elongating RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Mol Cell. 1999;4:123-8 pubmed
    ..Here we identify Elp3, the 60-kilodalton subunit of elongator/RNAPII holoenzyme, as a highly conserved histone acetyltransferase (HAT) ..
  14. Chen C, Huang B, Eliasson M, Ryden P, Byström A. Elongator complex influences telomeric gene silencing and DNA damage response by its role in wobble uridine tRNA modification. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002258 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that the reported differences in telomeric gene silencing and DNA damage response of various elp3 alleles correlated with the levels of modified nucleosides at U??...
  15. Krogan N, Greenblatt J. Characterization of a six-subunit holo-elongator complex required for the regulated expression of a group of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8203-12 pubmed
    ..RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was originally reported to have three subunits, Elp1, Elp2, and Elp3. Using the tandem affinity purification (TAP) procedure, we have purified a six-subunit yeast Holo-Elongator ..
  16. Greenwood C, Selth L, Dirac Svejstrup A, Svejstrup J. An iron-sulfur cluster domain in Elp3 important for the structural integrity of elongator. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Elp3 subunit possesses a C-terminal histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain and an N-terminal sequence that resembles an ..
  17. Santisteban M, Hang M, Smith M. Histone variant H2A.Z and RNA polymerase II transcription elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1848-60 pubmed publisher
  18. Deshpande S, Sadhale P, Vijayraghavan U. Involvement of S. cerevisiae Rpb4 in subset of pathways related to transcription elongation. Gene. 2014;545:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..strong genetic interaction of rpb4? with mutants in many transcription elongation factors such as Paf1, Spt4, Dst1, Elp3 and Rpb9...
  19. Tigano M, Ruotolo R, Dallabona C, Fontanesi F, Barrientos A, Donnini C, et al. Elongator-dependent modification of cytoplasmic tRNALysUUU is required for mitochondrial function under stress conditions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:8368-80 pubmed publisher
    ..g. ELP3) and urmylation (e.g., NCS6) pathways. ELP3 or NCS6 deletants had impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis...
  20. Fellows J, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Svejstrup J. The Elp2 subunit of elongator and elongating RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a WD40 repeat protein. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12896-9 pubmed
    ..Generally, different combinations of double and triple ELP gene deletions cause the same phenotypes as single ELP1, ELP2, or ELP3 deletion, providing genetic evidence that the ELP gene products work together in a complex.
  21. Turner E, Malo M, Pisclevich M, Dash M, Davies G, Arnason T, et al. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae anaphase-promoting complex interacts with multiple histone-modifying enzymes to regulate cell cycle progression. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1418-31 pubmed publisher
    ..mutants that genetically interact with the apc5(CA) (chromatin assembly) mutant, we found that deletion of GCN5 or ELP3 severely hampered apc5(CA) temperature-sensitive (ts) growth...
  22. Xu H, Lin Z, Li F, Diao W, Dong C, Zhou H, et al. Dimerization of elongator protein 1 is essential for Elongator complex assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:10697-702 pubmed publisher
  23. Li Y, Takagi Y, Jiang Y, Tokunaga M, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. A multiprotein complex that interacts with RNA polymerase II elongator. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29628-31 pubmed
    ..Preferential interaction of the Hap complex with free rather than RNA polymerase II-associated Elongator suggests a role in the regulation of Elongator activity. ..
  24. Glatt S, Zabel R, Vonkova I, Kumar A, Netz D, Pierik A, et al. Structure of the Kti11/Kti13 heterodimer and its double role in modifications of tRNA and eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Structure. 2015;23:149-60 pubmed publisher
  25. Klassen R, Grunewald P, Thüring K, Eichler C, Helm M, Schaffrath R. Loss of anticodon wobble uridine modifications affects tRNA(Lys) function and protein levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0119261 pubmed publisher
    ..However, an elp3 disruption strain displays synthetic sick interaction and synergistic temperature sensitivity when combined with ..
  26. Scheidt V, Jüdes A, Bär C, Klassen R, Schaffrath R. Loss of wobble uridine modification in tRNA anticodons interferes with TOR pathway signaling. Microb Cell. 2014;1:416-424 pubmed publisher
    ..in TOR pathway genes (tip41?, sap190?, ppm1?, rrd1?) and U34 modification defects (elp3?, kti12?, urm1?, ncs2?) and found the rapamycin hypersensitivity in the latter is ..
  27. Verzijlbergen K, Faber A, Stulemeijer I, van Leeuwen F. Multiple histone modifications in euchromatin promote heterochromatin formation by redundant mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BMC Mol Biol. 2009;10:76 pubmed publisher
    ..defect in strains lacking Dot1 was dependent on methylation of H3K4 by Set1 and histone acetylation by Gcn5, Elp3, and Sas2 in euchromatin...
  28. Daudén M, Kosinski J, Kolaj Robin O, Desfosses A, Ori A, Faux C, et al. Architecture of the yeast Elongator complex. EMBO Rep. 2017;18:264-279 pubmed publisher
    ..solved by an integrative structure determination approach showing that two copies of the Elp1, Elp2, and Elp3 subunits form a two-lobed scaffold, which binds Elp456 asymmetrically...
  29. Lin Z, Dong M, Zhang Y, Lee E, Lin H. Cbr1 is a Dph3 reductase required for the tRNA wobble uridine modification. Nat Chem Biol. 2016;12:995-997 pubmed publisher
    ..The NADH- and Cbr1-dependent reduction of Dph3 may provide a regulatory linkage between cellular metabolic state and protein translation. ..
  30. Xu H, Bygdell J, Wingsle G, Byström A. Yeast Elongator protein Elp1p does not undergo proteolytic processing in exponentially growing cells. Microbiologyopen. 2015;4:867-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, our results indicate that N-terminal truncation of Elp1p is not likely to regulate Elongator complex activity. ..
  31. Jona G, Wittschieben B, Svejstrup J, Gileadi O. Involvement of yeast carboxy-terminal domain kinase I (CTDK-I) in transcription elongation in vivo. Gene. 2001;267:31-6 pubmed
    ..The inviability of ctk1 elp3 double mutants can be rescued by expression of an Elp3 mutant that has retained its ability to form the Elongator ..
  32. Matsumoto T, Yun C, Yoshikawa H, Nishida H. Comparative studies of genome-wide maps of nucleosomes between deletion mutants of elp3 and hos2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16372 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleosome position, we compared nucleosome maps of the following three yeast strains; strain BY4741 (control), the elp3 (one of histone acetyltransferase genes) deletion mutant, and the hos2 (one of histone deactylase genes) deletion ..
  33. Abdel Fattah W, Jablonowski D, Di Santo R, Thüring K, Scheidt V, Hammermeister A, et al. Phosphorylation of Elp1 by Hrr25 is required for elongator-dependent tRNA modification in yeast. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004931 pubmed publisher
  34. Van Mullem V, Wery M, Werner M, Vandenhaute J, Thuriaux P. The Rpb9 subunit of RNA polymerase II binds transcription factor TFIIE and interferes with the SAGA and elongator histone acetyltransferases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10220-5 pubmed
    ..Tfa1 is immunoprecipitated by RNA polymerase II. This co-purification is strongly reduced in rpb9-Delta, suggesting that Rpb9 contributes to the recruitment of TFIIE on RNA polymerase II. ..
  35. Xue Y, Kowalska A, Grabowska K, Przybyt K, Cichewicz M, Del Rosario B, et al. Histone chaperones Nap1 and Vps75 regulate histone acetylation during transcription elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1645-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This work sheds further light on the importance of histone chaperones as general regulators of transcription elongation. ..
  36. Formosa T, Ruone S, Adams M, Olsen A, Eriksson P, Yu Y, et al. Defects in SPT16 or POB3 (yFACT) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause dependence on the Hir/Hpc pathway: polymerase passage may degrade chromatin structure. Genetics. 2002;162:1557-71 pubmed
    ..Mutations that impair the reassembly activity cause chromatin to accumulate in an abnormally disrupted state, imposing a requirement for a nucleosome reassembly function that we propose is provided by Hir/Hpc proteins. ..
  37. Laribee R, Krogan N, Xiao T, Shibata Y, Hughes T, Greenblatt J, et al. BUR kinase selectively regulates H3 K4 trimethylation and H2B ubiquitylation through recruitment of the PAF elongation complex. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1487-93 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal a novel function for the BUR kinase in transcriptional regulation through the selective control of histone modifications. ..
  38. Dong C, Lin Z, Diao W, Li D, Chu X, Wang Z, et al. The Elp2 subunit is essential for elongator complex assembly and functional regulation. Structure. 2015;23:1078-86 pubmed publisher
    ..structure-guided mutational analyses that the WD40 fold integrity of Elp2 is necessary for its binding to Elp1 and Elp3 subunits in multiple species...
  39. Setiaputra D, Cheng D, Lu S, Hansen J, Dalwadi U, Lam C, et al. Molecular architecture of the yeast Elongator complex reveals an unexpected asymmetric subunit arrangement. EMBO Rep. 2017;18:280-291 pubmed publisher
    ..from cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry, we constructed a multiscale molecular model that showed the two Elp3, the main catalytic subunit, are located in two distinct environments...
  40. Han Q, Lu J, Duan J, Su D, Hou X, Li F, et al. Gcn5- and Elp3-induced histone H3 acetylation regulates hsp70 gene transcription in yeast. Biochem J. 2008;409:779-88 pubmed
    ..The HATs (histone acetyltransferases) Gcn5 (general control non-derepressible 5) and Elp3 (elongation protein 3) modulated hsp70 gene transcription by affecting the acetylation status of histone H3...