Gene Symbol: DYN1
Description: dynein heavy chain
Alias: DHC1, PAC6, dynein heavy chain
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Reck Peterson S, Yildiz A, Carter A, Gennerich A, Zhang N, Vale R. Single-molecule analysis of dynein processivity and stepping behavior. Cell. 2006;126:335-48 pubmed
  2. Muhua L, Adames N, Murphy M, Shields C, Cooper J. A cytokinesis checkpoint requiring the yeast homologue of an APC-binding protein. Nature. 1998;393:487-91 pubmed
    ..Another mutation affects Stt4, a phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase. Cold temperature is an environmental stimulus that causes misalignment of the mitotic spindle in yeast and appears to activate this checkpoint mechanism. ..
  3. Maekawa H, Priest C, Lechner J, Pereira G, Schiebel E. The yeast centrosome translates the positional information of the anaphase spindle into a cell cycle signal. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:423-36 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we present evidence that Spc72 has an additional function in SPOC regulation that is independent of the recruitment of Kin4. Thus, Spc72 provides a missing link between cytoplasmic MT function and components of the SPOC. ..
  4. Stuchell Brereton M, Siglin A, Li J, Moore J, Ahmed S, Williams J, et al. Functional interaction between dynein light chain and intermediate chain is required for mitotic spindle positioning. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2690-701 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these data provide the first direct evidence that LC occupancy in the dynein motor complex is important for function. ..
  5. Miller R, Heller K, Frisén L, Wallack D, Loayza D, Gammie A, et al. The kinesin-related proteins, Kip2p and Kip3p, function differently in nuclear migration in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:2051-68 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we propose that Kip3p functions, in part, by depolymerizing microtubules and is required for the Kar9p-dependent orientation of the cytoplasmic microtubules. ..
  6. Lee W, Kaiser M, Cooper J. The offloading model for dynein function: differential function of motor subunits. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:201-7 pubmed
    ..IC/Pac11 and LIC/Dyn3 are both essential for dynein function, similar to the heavy chain (HC/Dyn1)...
  7. Hwang E, Kusch J, Barral Y, Huffaker T. Spindle orientation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the transport of microtubule ends along polarized actin cables. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:483-8 pubmed
    ..We also present data suggesting that a similar process plays a role in orienting cytoplasmic microtubules in mating yeast cells. ..
  8. Kusch J, Meyer A, Snyder M, Barral Y. Microtubule capture by the cleavage apparatus is required for proper spindle positioning in yeast. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1627-39 pubmed
    ..Together, our results indicate that septins and septin-dependent kinases may coordinate microtubule and actin functions in cell division. ..
  9. Geiser J, Schott E, Kingsbury T, Cole N, Totis L, Bhattacharyya G, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required in the absence of the CIN8-encoded spindle motor act in functionally diverse mitotic pathways. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1035-50 pubmed
    ..Mutant alleles of eight genes caused phenotypes similar to dyn1 (encodes the dynein heavy chain), including a spindle-positioning defect...

More Information


  1. Chan L, Amon A. The protein phosphatase 2A functions in the spindle position checkpoint by regulating the checkpoint kinase Kin4. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1639-49 pubmed publisher
  2. Kim J, Jang S, Song K. Different levels of Bfa1/Bub2 GAP activity are required to prevent mitotic exit of budding yeast depending on the type of perturbations. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that there is a GAP-independent surveillance mechanism of Bfa1/Bub2, which, together with the GTP/GDP switch of Tem1, may be required for the genomic stability of cells with misaligned spindles. ..
  3. Lee W, Oberle J, Cooper J. The role of the lissencephaly protein Pac1 during nuclear migration in budding yeast. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:355-64 pubmed
    ..This localization did not depend on the dynein heavy chain Dyn1...
  4. Tang X, Germain B, Lee W. A novel patch assembly domain in Num1 mediates dynein anchoring at the cortex during spindle positioning. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:743-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the PA domain is an elongated dimer and discuss the mechanism by which it drives patch assembly. ..
  5. Saunders W, Koshland D, Eshel D, Gibbons I, Hoyt M. Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin- and dynein-related proteins required for anaphase chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 1995;128:617-24 pubmed
    ..The cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain homologue Dyn1p (also known as Dhc1p) participates in proper cellular positioning of the spindle...
  6. Yeh E, Yang C, Chin E, Maddox P, Salmon E, Lew D, et al. Dynamic positioning of mitotic spindles in yeast: role of microtubule motors and cortical determinants. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:3949-61 pubmed
    ..Cytoplasmic dynein is attenuated by these spindle polarity determinants and kinesin until anaphase onset, when dynein directs spindle elongation to distal points in the mother and bud. ..
  7. Moore J, Chudalayandi P, Heil Chapdelaine R, Cooper J. The spindle position checkpoint is coordinated by the Elm1 kinase. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that Elm1 promotes the activity of the checkpoint kinase Kin4. These findings reveal a novel function for Elm1 in the SPC and suggest how checkpoint activity may be linked to cellular organization. ..
  8. Miller R, Matheos D, Rose M. The cortical localization of the microtubule orientation protein, Kar9p, is dependent upon actin and proteins required for polarization. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:963-75 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Kar9p's function is specific for cytoplasmic microtubule orientation and that Kar9p's role in nuclear positioning is to coordinate the interactions between the actin and microtubule networks. ..
  9. Fraschini R, Bilotta D, Lucchini G, Piatti S. Functional characterization of Dma1 and Dma2, the budding yeast homologues of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dma1 and human Chfr. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3796-810 pubmed
    ..Although their primary functions remain to be defined, our data suggest that Dma1 and Dma2 might be required to ensure timely MEN activation in telophase. ..
  10. Li J, Lee W, Cooper J. NudEL targets dynein to microtubule ends through LIS1. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:686-90 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Ndl1 binds transiently to the plus end to promote targeting of LIS1, which cooperatively recruits dynein. ..
  11. Segal M, Clarke D, Maddox P, Salmon E, Bloom K, Reed S. Coordinated spindle assembly and orientation requires Clb5p-dependent kinase in budding yeast. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:441-52 pubmed
    ..In contrast, B-type cyclins, Clb3p and Clb4p, though partially redundant with Clb5p for an early role in spindle morphogenesis, preferentially promote spindle assembly. ..
  12. Qiu W, Derr N, Goodman B, Villa E, Wu D, Shih W, et al. Dynein achieves processive motion using both stochastic and coordinated stepping. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..However, coordination emerges as the distance between motor domains increases, implying that a tension-based mechanism governs these steps. This plasticity may allow tuning of dynein for its diverse cellular functions. ..
  13. Lee L, Klee S, Evangelista M, Boone C, Pellman D. Control of mitotic spindle position by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae formin Bni1p. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:947-61 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we present evidence that other bipolar bud site determinants together with cortical actin are also required for spindle orientation. ..
  14. Kahana J, Schlenstedt G, Evanchuk D, Geiser J, Hoyt M, Silver P. The yeast dynactin complex is involved in partitioning the mitotic spindle between mother and daughter cells during anaphase B. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:1741-56 pubmed
    ..Like strains lacking the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain Dyn1p or the centractin homologue Act5p, nip100Delta strains are viable but undergo a significant number of ..
  15. Miller R, Rose M. Kar9p is a novel cortical protein required for cytoplasmic microtubule orientation in yeast. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:377-90 pubmed
    ..The kar9 mitotic defect was similar to mutations in dhc1/dyn1 (dynein heavy chain gene), jnm1, and act5...
  16. DeZwaan T, Ellingson E, Pellman D, Roof D. Kinesin-related KIP3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for a distinct step in nuclear migration. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:1023-40 pubmed
    ..Mutations in KIP3 and in the dynein heavy chain gene defined two distinct phases of nuclear migration: a KIP3-dependent movement of the nucleus toward the ..
  17. Stelter P, Kunze R, Flemming D, Höpfner D, Diepholz M, Philippsen P, et al. Molecular basis for the functional interaction of dynein light chain with the nuclear-pore complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:788-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is possible that dynein light chain plays a role in organizing natively unfolded Phe-Gly repeats within the NPC scaffold to facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport. ..
  18. Falk J, Chan L, Amon A. Lte1 promotes mitotic exit by controlling the localization of the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12584-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The bud-localized MEN regulator Lte1, whose molecular function has long been unclear, prevents Kin4 that escapes into the bud from associating with SPBs in the daughter cell. ..
  19. Huang J, Roberts A, Leschziner A, Reck Peterson S. Lis1 acts as a "clutch" between the ATPase and microtubule-binding domains of the dynein motor. Cell. 2012;150:975-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss how these findings provide a conserved mechanism for dynein functions in living cells that require prolonged microtubule attachments. ..
  20. Gennerich A, Carter A, Reck Peterson S, Vale R. Force-induced bidirectional stepping of cytoplasmic dynein. Cell. 2007;131:952-65 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a model for how dynein's two motor domains coordinate their activities during normal processive motility and provide new clues for understanding dynein-based motility in living cells. ..
  21. Cho C, Reck Peterson S, Vale R. Regulatory ATPase sites of cytoplasmic dynein affect processivity and force generation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the nucleotide binding state at AAA3 and AAA4 can allosterically modulate microtubule binding affinity and affect dynein processivity and force production. ..
  22. DeWitt M, Chang A, Combs P, Yildiz A. Cytoplasmic dynein moves through uncoordinated stepping of the AAA+ ring domains. Science. 2012;335:221-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, dynein moves processively without interhead coordination, a mechanism fundamentally distinct from the hand-over-hand stepping of kinesin and myosin. ..
  23. Delgehyr N, Lopes C, Moir C, Huisman S, Segal M. Dissecting the involvement of formins in Bud6p-mediated cortical capture of microtubules in S. cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3803-14 pubmed publisher
  24. Markus S, Punch J, Lee W. Motor- and tail-dependent targeting of dynein to microtubule plus ends and the cell cortex. Curr Biol. 2009;19:196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Although previous studies have demonstrated cortical and plus-end targeting of dynein heavy chain (Dyn1/HC), the regulation of its recruitment to these sites remains elusive...
  25. Markus S, Lee W. Regulated offloading of cytoplasmic dynein from microtubule plus ends to the cortex. Dev Cell. 2011;20:639-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide direct support for an active microtubule-mediated delivery process that appears to be regulated by a conserved masking/unmasking mechanism. ..
  26. Cottingham F, Hoyt M. Mitotic spindle positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accomplished by antagonistically acting microtubule motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:1041-53 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that the spindle-positioning defects exhibited by dyn1 kip3 cells are caused, to a large extent, by the actions of kinesin- related Kip2p...
  27. Schmidt H, Gleave E, Carter A. Insights into dynein motor domain function from a 3.3-Å crystal structure. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:492-7, S1 pubmed publisher
    ..Nucleotide soaking experiments show that the main ATP hydrolysis site in dynein (AAA1) is in a low-nucleotide affinity conformation and reveal the nucleotide interactions of the other three sites (AAA2, AAA3 and AAA4). ..
  28. Carter A, Cho C, Jin L, Vale R. Crystal structure of the dynein motor domain. Science. 2011;331:1159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The arrangement of these elements provides clues as to how adenosine triphosphate-driven conformational changes might be transmitted across the motor domain. ..
  29. Woodruff J, Drubin D, Barnes G. Dynein-driven mitotic spindle positioning restricted to anaphase by She1p inhibition of dynactin recruitment. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3003-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that She1p restricts dynein-dependent spindle positioning to anaphase by inhibiting the association of dynein with the complete dynactin complex. ..
  30. Estrem C, Fees C, Moore J. Dynein is regulated by the stability of its microtubule track. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2047-2058 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that interplay among dynein, dynactin, and the stability of the microtubule substrate creates a mechanism that regulates accurate spindle positioning. ..
  31. Meednu N, Hoops H, D Silva S, Pogorzala L, Wood S, Farkas D, et al. The spindle positioning protein Kar9p interacts with the sumoylation machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008;180:2033-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which sumoylation regulates spindle positioning by restricting Kar9p to one SPB. These findings raise the possibility that sumoylation could regulate other microtubule-dependent processes. ..
  32. Cuschieri L, Miller R, Vogel J. Gamma-tubulin is required for proper recruitment and assembly of Kar9-Bim1 complexes in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4420-34 pubmed
    ..We propose that SPBs, via the tail of Tub4, promote the assembly of functional +TIP complexes before their deployment to microtubule +ends. ..
  33. Cottingham F, Gheber L, Miller D, Hoyt M. Novel roles for saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle motors. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:335-50 pubmed
  34. Hotz M, Leisner C, Chen D, Manatschal C, Wegleiter T, Ouellet J, et al. Spindle pole bodies exploit the mitotic exit network in metaphase to drive their age-dependent segregation. Cell. 2012;148:958-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that MEN signaling links Kar9 regulation to SPB identity through biasing and stabilizing the age-insensitive, cyclin-B-dependent mechanism of symmetry breaking. ..
  35. Chiroli E, Rancati G, Catusi I, Lucchini G, Piatti S. Cdc14 inhibition by the spindle assembly checkpoint prevents unscheduled centrosome separation in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2626-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, besides inhibiting sister chromatid separation, the SAC preserves the accurate transmission of chromosomes also by preventing SPBs to migrate far apart until the conditions to assemble a bipolar spindle are satisfied. ..
  36. Toropova K, Zou S, Roberts A, Redwine W, Goodman B, Reck Peterson S, et al. Lis1 regulates dynein by sterically blocking its mechanochemical cycle. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal that Lis1 keeps dynein in a persistent microtubule-bound state by directly blocking the progression of its mechanochemical cycle. ..
  37. Scarfone I, Venturetti M, Hotz M, Lengefeld J, Barral Y, Piatti S. Asymmetry of the budding yeast Tem1 GTPase at spindle poles is required for spindle positioning but not for mitotic exit. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004938 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, asymmetry of the Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 complex is crucial to control Kar9 distribution and spindle positioning during mitosis. ..
  38. Rao L, Romes E, Nicholas M, Brenner S, Tripathy A, Gennerich A, et al. The yeast dynein Dyn2-Pac11 complex is a dynein dimerization/processivity factor: structural and single-molecule characterization. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:2362-77 pubmed publisher
    ..and function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynein light (Dyn2) and intermediate (Pac11) chains in dynein heavy chain (Dyn1) movement...
  39. Steinberg Neifach O, Eshel D. Simultaneous expression of both MAT loci in haploid cells suppresses mutations in yeast microtubule motor genes. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;264:300-5 pubmed
    ..Cells deleted for DYN1 (the gene encoding the dynein heavy chain) and carrying the temperature-sensitive allele cin8-3 cannot grow at temperatures above 35 degrees C...
  40. Valerio Santiago M, Monje Casas F. Tem1 localization to the spindle pole bodies is essential for mitotic exit and impairs spindle checkpoint function. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:599-614 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that removal of Tem1 from the SPBs is critical for the SPOC to impede cell cycle progression. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that localization of Tem1 to the SPBs is a requirement for mitotic exit. ..
  41. Leisner C, Kammerer D, Denoth A, Britschi M, Barral Y, Liakopoulos D. Regulation of mitotic spindle asymmetry by SUMO and the spindle-assembly checkpoint in yeast. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the two seemingly independent spindle domains, kinetochores and astral microtubules, function in a tightly coordinated fashion. ..
  42. Huisman S, Bales O, Bertrand M, Smeets M, Reed S, Segal M. Differential contribution of Bud6p and Kar9p to microtubule capture and spindle orientation in S. cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:231-44 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate Bud6p function in MT capture at the cell cortex, independent of Kar9p-mediated MT delivery along actin cables. ..
  43. Zeng X, Kahana J, Silver P, Morphew M, McIntosh J, Fitch I, et al. Slk19p is a centromere protein that functions to stabilize mitotic spindles. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:415-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, these proteins seem to play overlapping roles in stabilizing spindle structure while acting from opposite ends of the microtubules. ..
  44. Chao J, Wong A, Tavassoli S, Young B, Chruscicki A, Fang N, et al. Polarization of the endoplasmic reticulum by ER-septin tethering. Cell. 2014;158:620-32 pubmed publisher
    ..ER-septin tethering polarizes the ER into separate mother and bud domains, one function of which is to position the spindle in the mother until M phase by confining the spindle capture protein Num1 to the mother ER. ..
  45. Liu W, Santiago Tirado F, Bretscher A. Yeast formin Bni1p has multiple localization regions that function in polarized growth and spindle orientation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define an unexpected complexity in the mechanism of formin localization and function. ..
  46. Merlini L, Fraschini R, Boettcher B, Barral Y, Lucchini G, Piatti S. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002670 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling. ..
  47. Juanes M, Twyman H, Tunnacliffe E, Guo Z, ten Hoopen R, Segal M. Spindle pole body history intrinsically links pole identity with asymmetric fate in budding yeast. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1310-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the pattern of SPB inheritance was also randomized. Spc72 differential recruitment imparting asymmetric aMT organization represents the most upstream determinant linking SPB historical identity and fate...
  48. Roberts A, Goodman B, Reck Peterson S. Reconstitution of dynein transport to the microtubule plus end by kinesin. elife. 2014;3:e02641 pubmed publisher
    ..This reveals how a minimal system of proteins transports a molecular motor to the start of its track.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02641.001. ..
  49. Hwang H, Song K. IBD2 encodes a novel component of the Bub2p-dependent spindle checkpoint in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2002;161:595-609 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that IBD2 encodes a novel component of the BUB2-dependent spindle checkpoint pathway that functions upstream of BUB2 and BFA1. ..
  50. Korolyev E, Steinberg Neifach O, Eshel D. Mutations in the yeast kinesin-like Cin8p are alleviated by osmotic support. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;244:379-83 pubmed
    ..yeast kinesin-like motor protein) in the absence of either Kip1p (a motor of the same family) or Dyn1p (the dynein heavy chain) is lethal...
  51. Hosotani T, Koyama H, Uchino M, Miyakawa T, Tsuchiya E. PKC1, a protein kinase C homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, participates in microtubule function through the yeast EB1 homologue, BIM1. Genes Cells. 2001;6:775-88 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Pkc1p plays a role which is relevant to microtubule functions and that this role is mediated by a hitherto unknown PKC signalling pathway and by Bim1p ..
  52. Markus S, Kalutkiewicz K, Lee W. She1-mediated inhibition of dynein motility along astral microtubules promotes polarized spindle movements. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2221-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal how inhibitory microtubule-associated proteins selectively regulate motor activity to achieve unidirectional nuclear transport and demonstrate a direct link between cell-cycle machinery and dynein pathway activity. ..
  53. Nicholas M, Berger F, Rao L, Brenner S, Cho C, Gennerich A. Cytoplasmic dynein regulates its attachment to microtubules via nucleotide state-switched mechanosensing at multiple AAA domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:6371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results elucidate the mechanisms of dynein-MT interactions, identify regulatory roles for AAA3, and help define the interplay between mechanical tension and nucleotide state in regulating dynein motility. ..
  54. Drechsler H, Tan A, Liakopoulos D. Yeast GSK-3 kinase regulates astral microtubule function through phosphorylation of the microtubule-stabilizing kinesin Kip2. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:3910-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that yeast GSK-3 spatially controls astral MT dynamics and the loading of dynein and Kar9 on astral MT plus ends by regulating Kip2 interactions with Bim1 and MTs. ..
  55. Laan L, Pavin N, Husson J, Romet Lemonne G, van Duijn M, López M, et al. Cortical dynein controls microtubule dynamics to generate pulling forces that position microtubule asters. Cell. 2012;148:502-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the intrinsic ability of cortical microtubule-dynein interactions to regulate microtubule dynamics and drive positioning processes in living cells. ..
  56. Hoepfner D, Schaerer F, Brachat A, Wach A, Philippsen P. Reorientation of mispositioned spindles in short astral microtubule mutant spc72Delta is dependent on spindle pole body outer plaque and Kar3 motor protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:1366-80 pubmed
    ..was dependent on the SPB outer plaque and the astral microtubule motor function of Kar3 but not Kip2/Kip3/Dhc1, or the cortex components Kar9/Num1...
  57. Gerson Gurwitz A, Movshovich N, Avunie R, Fridman V, Moyal K, Katz B, et al. Mid-anaphase arrest in S. cerevisiae cells eliminated for the function of Cin8 and dynein. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:301-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that at a non-permissive temperature, dyn1 Delta cells that carry a temperature-sensitive cin8 - 3 mutation arrest at mid-anaphase with a unique phenotype, ..
  58. Bhabha G, Cheng H, Zhang N, Moeller A, Liao M, Speir J, et al. Allosteric communication in the dynein motor domain. Cell. 2014;159:857-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results reveal how dynein's two major ATP-binding sites initiate and modulate conformational changes in the motor domain during motility. ..