Gene Symbol: CYR1
Description: adenylate cyclase
Alias: CDC35, FIL1, HSR1, SRA4, TSM0185, adenylate cyclase
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Vanhalewyn M, Dumortier F, Debast G, Colombo S, Ma P, Winderickx J, et al. A mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylate cyclase, Cyr1K1876M, specifically affects glucose- and acidification-induced cAMP signalling and not the basal cAMP level. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:363-76 pubmed
    ..Subsequent analysis showed that lcr1 was allelic to CYR1/CDC35, encoding adenylate cyclase, and that it contained an A to T substitution at position 5627...
  2. Toda T, Cameron S, Sass P, Zoller M, Wigler M. Three different genes in S. cerevisiae encode the catalytic subunits of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Cell. 1987;50:277-87 pubmed
    ..The amino-terminal regions show no homology to each other and are heterogeneous in length. The TPK1 gene carried on a multicopy plasmid can suppress both a temperature-sensitive ras2 gene and adenylate cyclase gene.
  3. Dubacq C, Guerois R, Courbeyrette R, Kitagawa K, Mann C. Sgt1p contributes to cyclic AMP pathway activity and physically interacts with the adenylyl cyclase Cyr1p/Cdc35p in budding yeast. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:568-82 pubmed
    ..SGT1 is an allele-specific suppressor of cdc35-1, a thermosensitive mutation in the leucine-rich repeat domain of the adenylyl cyclase Cyrlp/Cdc35p...
  4. Cannon J, Tatchell K. Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes encoding subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:2653-63 pubmed
    ..behaves like spontaneous dominant SRA3 mutations by suppressing ras2-530 (RAS2::LEU2 disruption), cdc25, and cdc35 mutations...
  5. Matsumoto K, Uno I, Oshima Y, Ishikawa T. Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants deficient in adenylate cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:2355-9 pubmed
    ..Some of the mutants isolated were deficient in adenylate cyclase activity and mapped at a locus, cyr1, located near the centromere of chromosome X...
  6. Crechet J, Jacquet E, Bernardi A, Parmeggiani A. Analysis of the role of the hypervariable region of yeast Ras2p and its farnesylation in the interaction with exchange factors and adenylyl cyclase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:17754-61 pubmed
    ..The use of Ha-Ras/Ras2p chimaeras of different length emphasized the key role of the hypervariable region of Ras2p in inducing maximum activation of adenylyl cyclase and for a productive interaction with membrane-bound GEF. ..
  7. Li J, Lu N, Huang B. [Roles of G-protein beta and gamma subunits in the interaction of G beta gamma with adenylyl cyclases II]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2001;23:115-8 pubmed
  8. Nicastro R, Tripodi F, Gaggini M, Castoldi A, Reghellin V, Nonnis S, et al. Snf1 Phosphorylates Adenylate Cyclase and Negatively Regulates Protein Kinase A-dependent Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:24715-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Snf1 and adenylate cyclase (Cyr1) interact in a nutrient-independent manner...
  9. Torbensen R, Møller H, Gresham D, Alizadeh S, Ochmann D, Boles E, et al. Amino acid transporter genes are essential for FLO11-dependent and FLO11-independent biofilm formation and invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41272 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased intracellular amino acid pools in the PTR3(647::CWNKNPLSSIN)-containing strain opens the possibility that Gap1 regulates the FLO genes through alteration of the amino acid pool sizes. ..

More Information


  1. Kataoka T, Broek D, Wigler M. DNA sequence and characterization of the S. cerevisiae gene encoding adenylate cyclase. Cell. 1985;43:493-505 pubmed
    We have cloned CYR1, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding adenylate cyclase. The DNA sequence of CYR1 can encode a protein of 2026 amino acids...
  2. Belotti F, Tisi R, Paiardi C, Rigamonti M, Groppi S, Martegani E. Localization of Ras signaling complex in budding yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:1208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..cAMP is produced by adenylate cyclase, which is activated both by Gpr1/Gpa2 system and Ras proteins, regulated by Cdc25/Sdc25 guanine exchange ..
  3. Roosen J, Engelen K, Marchal K, Mathys J, Griffioen G, Cameroni E, et al. PKA and Sch9 control a molecular switch important for the proper adaptation to nutrient availability. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:862-80 pubmed
    ..This mechanism allows fine-tuning various nutritional responses in yeast cells, allowing them to adapt metabolism and growth appropriately. ..
  4. Peeters T, Louwet W, Geladé R, Nauwelaers D, Thevelein J, Versele M. Kelch-repeat proteins interacting with the Galpha protein Gpa2 bypass adenylate cyclase for direct regulation of protein kinase A in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13034-9 pubmed
    ..extracellular ligand-sensitive G protein-coupled receptor, a G protein signal transmitter, and the effector, adenylate cyclase, of which the product, cAMP, acts as an intracellular second messenger...
  5. Schultz J, Carlson M. Molecular analysis of SSN6, a gene functionally related to the SNF1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:3637-45 pubmed
    ..We showed that ssn6 partially restored invertase expression in a cyr1-2 mutant, although ssn6 was clearly not epistatic to cyr1-2...
  6. Marshall M, Gibbs J, Scolnick E, Sigal I. An adenylate cyclase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is stimulated by RAS proteins with effector mutations. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:52-61 pubmed
    ..The SSR2-1 mutation was mapped to the structural gene for adenylate cyclase (CYR1), and the gene containing SSR2-1 was cloned and sequenced...
  7. Tripp M, Pinon R. Control of the cAMP pathway by the cell cycle start function, CDC25, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Gen Microbiol. 1986;132:1143-51 pubmed
    ..The thermolabile adenylate cyclase mutant cyr1-2(ts) is phenotypically similar to the temperature-sensitive mutant cdc25(ts) in that both ..
  8. Granek J, Murray D, Kayrkçi O, Magwene P. The genetic architecture of biofilm formation in a clinical isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2013;193:587-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Principal among these is CYR1, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes production of cAMP...
  9. Powers S, O Neill K, Wigler M. Dominant yeast and mammalian RAS mutants that interfere with the CDC25-dependent activation of wild-type RAS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:390-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that these mutant RAS genes interfere with the normal interaction of RAS and CDC25 proteins and suggest that this interaction is direct and has evolutionarily conserved features. ..
  10. Matsumoto K, Uno I, Ishikawa T. Identification of the structural gene and nonsense alleles for adenylate cyclase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1984;157:277-82 pubmed
    ..b>Adenylate cyclase activity observed in these tetraploid strains was proportional to the dosage of the active CYR1+ gene...
  11. Zeller C, Parnell S, Dohlman H. The RACK1 ortholog Asc1 functions as a G-protein beta subunit coupled to glucose responsiveness in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25168-76 pubmed
    ..In addition, Asc1 binds to the effector enzyme adenylyl cyclase (Cyr1), and diminishes the production of cAMP in response to glucose stimulation...
  12. Frederick D, Tatchell K. The REG2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a type 1 protein phosphatase-binding protein that functions with Reg1p and the Snf1 protein kinase to regulate growth. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2922-31 pubmed
    ..The snf1 mutation also suppresses the glucose repression defects of reg1. Together, our data are consistent with a model in which Reg1p and Reg2p control the activity of PP1 toward substrates that are phosphorylated by the Snf1p kinase. ..
  13. Shima F, Okada T, Kido M, Sen H, Tanaka Y, Tamada M, et al. Association of yeast adenylyl cyclase with cyclase-associated protein CAP forms a second Ras-binding site which mediates its Ras-dependent activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:26-33 pubmed particular farnesylation, of Ras is crucial for activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase (CYR1)...
  14. Reinders A, Bürckert N, Boller T, Wiemken A, De Virgilio C. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cAMP-dependent protein kinase controls entry into stationary phase through the Rim15p protein kinase. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2943-55 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results place Rim15p immediately downstream and under negative control of cAPK and define a positive regulatory role of Rim15p for entry into both meiosis and stationary phase. ..
  15. Versele M, Thevelein J, Van Dijck P. The high general stress resistance of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fil1 adenylate cyclase mutant (Cyr1Lys1682) is only partially dependent on trehalose, Hsp104 and overexpression of Msn2/4-regulated genes. Yeast. 2004;21:75-86 pubmed deficient in fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance (fil1), as a partially inactivating mutant in adenylate cyclase. We have now investigated possible causes of its high stress resistance...
  16. Searle J, Wood M, Kaur M, Tobin D, Sanchez Y. Proteins in the nutrient-sensing and DNA damage checkpoint pathways cooperate to restrain mitotic progression following DNA damage. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002176 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that there is cross-talk between the DNA damage checkpoint and the proteins that integrate nutrient and stress signals to regulate PKA. ..
  17. Fabrizio P, Liou L, Moy V, Diaspro A, Valentine J, Gralla E, et al. SOD2 functions downstream of Sch9 to extend longevity in yeast. Genetics. 2003;163:35-46 pubmed
    ..Chronological life-span extension in S. cerevisiae cyr1 and sch9 mutants is mediated by the stress-resistance proteins Msn2/Msn4 and Rim15...
  18. Jungbluth M, Mösch H, Taxis C. Acetate regulation of spore formation is under the control of the Ras/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway and carbon dioxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:1021-32 pubmed publisher acetate takes place after commitment to meiosis and depends on PKA and appropriate A kinase activation by Ras/Cyr1 adenylyl cyclase but not by activation through the Gpa2/Gpr1 branch...
  19. Pedruzzi I, Bürckert N, Egger P, De Virgilio C. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras/cAMP pathway controls post-diauxic shift element-dependent transcription through the zinc finger protein Gis1. EMBO J. 2000;19:2569-79 pubmed
    ..Moreover, PDS element-driven expression, which is negatively regulated by the Ras/cAMP pathway and which is induced upon nutrient limitation, is almost entirely dependent on the presence of Gis1. ..
  20. Colombo S, Paiardi C, Pardons K, Winderickx J, Martegani E. Evidence for adenylate cyclase as a scaffold protein for Ras2-Ira interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisie. Cell Signal. 2014;26:1147-54 pubmed publisher
    Data in literature suggest that budding yeast adenylate cyclase forms a membrane-associated complex with the upstream components of the cAMP/PKA pathway...
  21. Mitsuzawa H. Responsiveness to exogenous cAMP of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain conferred by naturally occurring alleles of PDE1 and PDE2. Genetics. 1993;135:321-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, P-28-24C was found to carry a mutation conferring slow growth that lies in CYR1, which encodes adenylate cyclase, and the slow growth phenotype caused by the cyr1 mutation was suppressed by the pde2 mutation...
  22. Toda T, Cameron S, Sass P, Wigler M. SCH9, a gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes a protein distinct from, but functionally and structurally related to, cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits. Genes Dev. 1988;2:517-27 pubmed
    ..function, multicopy plasmids containing SCH9 suppress the growth defects of strains lacking the RAS genes, the CYR1 gene, which encodes adenylyl cyclase, and the TPK genes, which encode the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic ..
  23. Lesuisse E, Horion B, Labbe P, Hilger F. The plasma membrane ferrireductase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is partially controlled by cyclic AMP. Biochem J. 1991;280 ( Pt 2):545-8 pubmed
    ..The ferrireductase activity of cdc25 and cdc35 mutants dropped when the cells were shifted to a non-permissive temperature...
  24. Nishida Y, Shima F, Sen H, Tanaka Y, Yanagihara C, Yamawaki Kataoka Y, et al. Coiled-coil interaction of N-terminal 36 residues of cyclase-associated protein with adenylyl cyclase is sufficient for its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ras pathway. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:28019-24 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the coiled-coil mechanism as a basis of the CAP-adenylyl cyclase interaction. ..
  25. Mitts M, Grant D, Heideman W. Adenylate cyclase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a peripheral membrane protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:3873-83 pubmed
    The adenylate cyclase system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains the CYR1 polypeptide, responsible for catalyzing formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP, and two RAS polypeptides, which mediate stimulation of cAMP synthesis ..
  26. Feger G, De Vendittis E, Vitelli A, Masturzo P, Zahn R, Verrotti A, et al. Identification of regulatory residues of the yeast adenylyl cyclase. EMBO J. 1991;10:349-59 pubmed
    ..This region could be physiologically involved in the negative control of the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain. ..
  27. Garrett J. The control of morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Elm1 kinase is responsive to RAS/cAMP pathway activity and tryptophan availability. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:809-20 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of Elm1 partially rescues the ts phenotype of cdc25 and cyr1 mutants...
  28. Matsuura A, Anraku Y. Characterization of the MKS1 gene, a new negative regulator of the Ras-cyclic AMP pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;238:6-16 pubmed
    ..product is a negative regulator downstream of the Ras-cAMP pathway: (i) overexpression of MKS1 inhibits growth of cyr1 disruptant cells on YPD medium containing a low concentration of cAMP; (ii) overexpression of MKS1 does not affect ..
  29. McDonald C, Wagner M, Dunham M, Shin M, Ahmed N, Winter E. The Ras/cAMP pathway and the CDK-like kinase Ime2 regulate the MAPK Smk1 and spore morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2009;181:511-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The suppressors are partial function alleles of CDC25 and CYR1, which encode the Ras GDP/GTP exchange factor and adenyl cyclase, respectively, and MDS3, which encodes a kelch-..
  30. Mitsuzawa H, Uno I, Oshima T, Ishikawa T. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in the RAS2 and CYR1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1989;123:739-48 pubmed
    ..contains two ras homologues, RAS1 and RAS2, whose products have been shown to modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase encoded by the CYR1 gene...
  31. Mitts M, Bradshaw Rouse J, Heideman W. Interactions between adenylate cyclase and the yeast GTPase-activating protein IRA1. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:4591-8 pubmed
    The adenylate cyclase system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains many proteins, including the CYR1 polypeptide, which is responsible for catalyzing the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP, RAS1 and RAS2 polypeptides, which ..
  32. Flom G, Langner E, Johnson J. Identification of an Hsp90 mutation that selectively disrupts cAMP/PKA signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2012;58:149-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Through its interaction with the adenylate cyclase Cyr1, the Sgt1 cochaperone modulates the activity of the cAMP pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  33. Matsumoto K, Uno I, Ishikawa T. Control of cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective in adenylate cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Exp Cell Res. 1983;146:151-61 pubmed
    ..terminal nuclear phenotype and DNA content of nuclei indicated that cyr1 mutants of yeast defective in adenylate cyclase activity were arrested at the G1 phase of the cell cycle...
  34. Sasaki T, Toh e A, Kikuchi Y. Extragenic suppressors that rescue defects in the heat stress response of the budding yeast mutant tom1. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;262:940-8 pubmed
    ..These were classified into eight complementation groups and six of the genes were identified: tmr1/cyr1, tmnr2/sch9, tmr3/zuo1, tmr4, tmr5/mot1, tmr6/sse1, tmr7 and tmr8/kre6...
  35. Mintzer K, Field J. The SH3 domain of the S. cerevisiae Cdc25p binds adenylyl cyclase and facilitates Ras regulation of cAMP signalling. Cell Signal. 1999;11:127-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, pre-incubation with Ras enhanced the SH3-bound adenylyl cyclase activity. These studies suggest that a direct interaction between Cdc25 and adenylyl cyclase promotes efficient assembly of the adenylyl cyclase complex. ..