Gene Symbol: CYC1
Description: cytochrome c
Alias: cytochrome c
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     CYC1

Top Publications

  1. McClelland L, Mou T, Jeakins Cooley M, Sprang S, Bowler B. Structure of a mitochondrial cytochrome c conformer competent for peroxidase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6648-53 pubmed publisher
    At the onset of apoptosis, the peroxidation of cardiolipin at the inner mitochondrial membrane by cytochrome c requires an open coordination site on the heme. We report a 1...
  2. Bandi S, Bowler B. Effect of an Ala81His mutation on the Met80 loop dynamics of iso-1-cytochrome c. Biochemistry. 2015;54:1729-42 pubmed publisher
    An A81H variant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c is prepared to test the hypothesis that the steric size of the amino acid at sequence position 81 of cytochrome c, which has evolved from Ala in yeast to Ile in mammals, slows the dynamics of ..
  3. McStay G, Su C, Thomas S, Xu J, Tzagoloff A. Characterization of assembly intermediates containing subunit 1 of yeast cytochrome oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:26546-56 pubmed publisher
  4. Erman J, Vitello L, Pearl N, Jacobson T, Francis M, Alberts E, et al. Binding of Yeast Cytochrome c to Forty-Four Charge-Reversal Mutants of Yeast Cytochrome c Peroxidase: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. Biochemistry. 2015;54:4845-54 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we constructed, expressed, and purified 46 charge-reversal mutants of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) and determined their electronic absorption spectra, their reaction with H2O2, and their steady-state catalytic ..
  5. Sun Z, Tessmer A, Hampsey M. Functional interaction between TFIIB and the Rpb9 (Ssu73) subunit of RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:2560-6 pubmed
    ..These results establish a functional interaction between TFIIB and the Rpb9 subunit of RNA polymerase II and suggest that these two components of the preinitiation complex interact during transcription start site selection. ..
  6. De Rocco D, Cerqua C, Goffrini P, Russo G, Pastore A, Meloni F, et al. Mutations of cytochrome c identified in patients with thrombocytopenia THC4 affect both apoptosis and cellular bioenergetics. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In both cases, we found reduction of respiratory level and increased apoptotic rate, supporting the pathogenetic role of CYCS in thrombocytopenia. ..
  7. Watanabe K, Yabe M, Kasahara K, Kokubo T. A Random Screen Using a Novel Reporter Assay System Reveals a Set of Sequences That Are Preferred as the TATA or TATA-Like Elements in the CYC1 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129357 pubmed publisher
    ..For this purpose, we conducted a randomized screen of the TATA element in the CYC1 promoter by using a novel reporter assay system and identified several hundreds of unique sequences that were ..
  8. Das B, Guo Z, Russo P, Chartrand P, Sherman F. The role of nuclear cap binding protein Cbc1p of yeast in mRNA termination and degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2827-38 pubmed
    The cyc1-512 mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes a 90% reduction in the level of iso-1-cytochrome c because of the lack of a proper 3'-end-forming signal, resulting in low levels of eight aberrantly long cyc1-512 mRNAs which ..
  9. Redzic J, Bowler B. Role of hydrogen bond networks and dynamics in positive and negative cooperative stabilization of a protein. Biochemistry. 2005;44:2900-8 pubmed
    Cooperativity mediated through hydrogen bond networks in yeast iso-1-cytochrome c was studied using a thermodynamic triple mutant cycle...

More Information


  1. Tzul F, Kurchan E, Bowler B. Sequence composition effects on denatured state loop formation in iso-1-cytochrome c variants: polyalanine versus polyglycine inserts. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:577-84 pubmed
    ..The underlying basis for the similar behavior of loops with polyalanine versus polyglycine inserts is discussed in terms of the current knowledge of the structure and loop formation kinetics of glycine versus alanine-rich peptides. ..
  2. Lee S, Moore C. Efficient mRNA polyadenylation requires a ubiquitin-like domain, a zinc knuckle, and a RING finger domain, all contained in the Mpe1 protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3955-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, an inhibitor of ubiquitin-mediated interactions blocks cleavage, demonstrating for the first time a direct role for ubiquitination in mRNA 3'-end processing. ..
  3. Nakani S, Viriyakul T, Mitchell R, Vitello L, Erman J. Characterization of a covalently linked yeast cytochrome c-cytochrome c peroxidase complex: evidence for a single, catalytically active cytochrome c binding site on cytochrome c peroxidase. Biochemistry. 2006;45:9887-93 pubmed
    A covalent complex between recombinant yeast iso-1-cytochrome c and recombinant yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (rCcP), in which the crystallographically defined cytochrome c binding site [Pelletier, H., and Kraut, J...
  4. Gilmore R, Stewart J, Sherman F. Amino acid replacements resulting from super-suppression of nonsense mutants of iso-1-cytochrome c from yeast. J Mol Biol. 1971;61:157-73 pubmed
  5. Mei H, Geren L, Miller M, Durham B, Millett F. Role of the low-affinity binding site in electron transfer from cytochrome C to cytochrome C peroxidase. Biochemistry. 2002;41:3968-76 pubmed
    The interaction of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (yCc) with the high- and low-affinity binding sites on cytochrome c peroxidase compound I (CMPI) was studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy. When 3 microM reduced yCc(II) was mixed with 0...
  6. Black K, Wallace C. Probing the role of the conserved beta-II turn Pro-76/Gly-77 of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;85:366-74 pubmed
    The loop segment comprising residues 70-84 in mitochondrial cytochrome c serves to direct the polypeptide backbone to permit the functionally required heme Fe - S (Met-80) co-ordination...
  7. Covian R, Trumpower B. Rapid electron transfer between monomers when the cytochrome bc1 complex dimer is reduced through center N. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22732-40 pubmed
  8. Agueci F, Polticelli F, Sinibaldi F, Piro M, Santucci R, Fiorucci L. Probing the effect of mutations on cytochrome C stability. Protein Pept Lett. 2007;14:335-9 pubmed
    ..The results obtained are discussed in the light of the three-dimensional structures of the two proteins. ..
  9. Berroteran R, Ware D, Hampsey M. The sua8 suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode replacements of conserved residues within the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and affect transcription start site selection similarly to sua7 (TFIIB) mutations. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:226-37 pubmed
    ..sua8 gene were found to be suppressors of an aberrant ATG translation initiation codon in the leader region of the cyc1 gene...
  10. Dabir D, Leverich E, Kim S, Tsai F, Hirasawa M, Knaff D, et al. A role for cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase in electron shuttling from Erv1. EMBO J. 2007;26:4801-11 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that Erv1 forms a 1:1 complex with cytochrome c and a reduced Erv1 can transfer electrons directly to the ferric form of the cytochrome...
  11. Yang H, Ren Q, Zhang Z. Cleavage of Mcd1 by caspase-like protease Esp1 promotes apoptosis in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..When apoptosis is induced, Esp1 is released from the anaphase inhibitor Pds1. The activated Esp1 acts as caspase-like protease for the cleavage of Mcd1, which enhances the cell death via its translocation from nucleus to mitochondria. ..
  12. Cherney M, Junior C, Bowler B. Mutation of trimethyllysine 72 to alanine enhances His79-heme-mediated dynamics of iso-1-cytochrome c. Biochemistry. 2013;52:837-46 pubmed publisher
    Trimethyllysine 72 (Tml72) of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c lies across the surface of the heme crevice loop (?-loop D, residues 70-85) like a brace. Lys72 is oriented similarly in horse cytochrome c (Cytc)...
  13. Sinibaldi F, Droghetti E, Polticelli F, Piro M, Di Pierro D, Ferri T, et al. The effects of ATP and sodium chloride on the cytochrome c-cardiolipin interaction: the contrasting behavior of the horse heart and yeast proteins. J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105:1365-72 pubmed publisher
  14. Lan W, Wang Z, Yang Z, Ying T, Zhang X, Tan X, et al. Structural basis for cytochrome c Y67H mutant to function as a peroxidase. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107305 pubmed publisher
  15. Pearce D, Sherman F. Differential ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the yeast apo-cytochrome c isozymes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:31829-36 pubmed
    ..imported into mitochondria, and subsequently modified by the covalent attachment of heme through the action of cytochrome c heme lyase, which is encoded by CYC3...
  16. Feng J, Murgida D, Kuhlmann U, Utesch T, Mroginski M, Hildebrandt P, et al. Gated electron transfer of yeast iso-1 cytochrome c on self-assembled monolayer-coated electrodes. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:15202-11 pubmed publisher
  17. Finnegan M, Bowler B. Propensities of aromatic amino acids versus leucine and proline to induce residual structure in the denatured-state ensemble of iso-1-cytochrome c. J Mol Biol. 2010;403:495-504 pubmed publisher
  18. Sun Z, Hampsey M. Identification of the gene (SSU71/TFG1) encoding the largest subunit of transcription factor TFIIF as a suppressor of a TFIIB mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3127-31 pubmed
    ..confers both a cold-sensitive growth defect and a downstream shift in transcription start-site selection at the cyc1 locus...
  19. Bestwick M, Jeong M, Khalimonchuk O, Kim H, Winge D. Analysis of Leigh syndrome mutations in the yeast SURF1 homolog reveals a new member of the cytochrome oxidase assembly factor family. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4480-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Leigh mutations, F(249)T and Y(344)D, in Shy1 failed to significantly attenuate the function of Shy1 in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) biogenesis as seen with the human mutations...
  20. Geier B, Schagger H, Ortwein C, Link T, Hagen W, Brandt U, et al. Kinetic properties and ligand binding of the eleven-subunit cytochrome-c oxidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated with a novel large-scale purification method. Eur J Biochem. 1995;227:296-302 pubmed
    ..This high content of fast enzyme was also reflected in the characteristics of optical and EPR spectra for cytochrome-c oxidase purified with our method. ..
  21. Das S, Saha U, Das B. Cbc2p, Upf3p and eIF4G are components of the DRN (Degradation of mRNA in the Nucleus) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2014;14:922-32 pubmed publisher
    ..g. IMP3 and YLR194c mRNAs); and (3) mutant mRNAs for example, lys2-187 and cyc1-512...
  22. Hunte C, Solmaz S, Lange C. Electron transfer between yeast cytochrome bc(1) complex and cytochrome c: a structural analysis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1555:21-8 pubmed
    ..Kinetic data show a bell-shaped ionic strength dependence of the cytochrome c reduction with a maximum activity near physiological ionic strength...
  23. Bandi S, Baddam S, Bowler B. Alkaline conformational transition and gated electron transfer with a Lys 79 --> his variant of iso-1-cytochrome c. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10643-54 pubmed
    ..effect on the dynamics of gated electron transfer (ET) reactions, a Lys 79 --> His (K79H) variant of iso-1-cytochrome c has been prepared...
  24. Battistuzzi G, Borsari M, De Rienzo F, Di Rocco G, Ranieri A, Sola M. Free energy of transition for the individual alkaline conformers of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c. Biochemistry. 2007;46:1694-702 pubmed
    ..the native (state III) to the alkaline (state IV) conformer for untrimethylated Saccharomyces cerevisiae iso-1-cytochrome c expressed in E. coli and its single and multiple lysine-depleted variants...
  25. Barrientos A, Pierre D, Lee J, Tzagoloff A. Cytochrome oxidase assembly does not require catalytically active cytochrome C. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8881-7 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the transfer of electrons from reduced cytochrome c to molecular oxygen...
  26. Bien M, Longen S, Wagener N, Chwalla I, Herrmann J, Riemer J. Mitochondrial disulfide bond formation is driven by intersubunit electron transfer in Erv1 and proofread by glutathione. Mol Cell. 2010;37:516-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The generation of these side products is efficiently counteracted by reduced glutathione. Thus, our findings suggest a role for a glutathione-dependent proofreading during oxidative protein folding by the mitochondrial disulfide relay. ..
  27. Bandi S, Bowler B. Probing the dynamics of a His73-heme alkaline transition in a destabilized variant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c with conformationally gated electron transfer methods. Biochemistry. 2011;50:10027-40 pubmed publisher
    The alkaline transition of cytochrome c involves substitution of the Met80 heme ligand of the native state with a lysine ligand from a surface ?-loop (residues 70 to 85)...
  28. Weinkam P, Pletneva E, Gray H, Winkler J, Wolynes P. Electrostatic effects on funneled landscapes and structural diversity in denatured protein ensembles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1796-801 pubmed publisher
    ..of protein energy landscapes play a role in the unfolded ensemble? We simulate the denatured ensemble of cytochrome c using a series of models...
  29. Kinoshita M, Kamagata K, Maeda A, Goto Y, Komatsuzaki T, Takahashi S. Development of a technique for the investigation of folding dynamics of single proteins for extended time periods. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10453-8 pubmed
    ..The technique was expected to reveal dynamics of proteins along the folding processes without artifacts caused by immobilization. ..
  30. Nakani S, Vitello L, Erman J. Characterization of four covalently-linked yeast cytochrome c/cytochrome c peroxidase complexes: Evidence for electrostatic interaction between bound cytochrome c molecules. Biochemistry. 2006;45:14371-8 pubmed
    Four covalent complexes between recombinant yeast cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase (rCcP) were synthesized via disulfide bond formation using specifically designed protein mutants (Papa, H. S., and Poulos, T. L...
  31. Zanetti Polzi L, Daidone I, Bortolotti C, Corni S. Surface packing determines the redox potential shift of cytochrome c adsorbed on gold. J Am Chem Soc. 2014;136:12929-37 pubmed publisher
    Thermodynamic and dynamic properties of iso-1-cytochrome c covalently bound to a bare gold surface are here investigated by large scale atomistic simulations...
  32. Martin H, Eckerskorn C, Gartner F, Rassow J, Lottspeich F, Pfanner N. The yeast mitochondrial intermembrane space: purification and analysis of two distinct fractions. Anal Biochem. 1998;265:123-8 pubmed
    ..fractions were obtained: a soluble IMS with cytochrome b2 as key marker and a salt-extractable IMS with cytochrome c as key marker. The identity of several proteins was determined by amino-terminal amino acid sequencing...