Gene Symbol: CRM1
Description: exportin CRM1
Alias: KAP124, XPO1, exportin CRM1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Noguchi E, Saitoh Y, Sazer S, Nishimoto T. Disruption of the YRB2 gene retards nuclear protein export, causing a profound mitotic delay, and can be rescued by overexpression of XPO1/CRM1. J Biochem. 1999;125:574-85 pubmed
    ..The cold sensitive colony-formation of Deltayrb2 cells was rescued by both XPO1/CRM1 and GSP1, but not CDC5, carried on a multicopy vector. XPO1/CRM1 rescued Deltayrb2 even in a single copy...
  2. Stade K, Ford C, Guthrie C, Weis K. Exportin 1 (Crm1p) is an essential nuclear export factor. Cell. 1997;90:1041-50 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae. The presented data are consistent with the conclusion that Crm1p is a carrier for the NES-mediated protein export pathway. We propose CRM1 be renamed exportin 1 (XPO1).
  3. Hackmann A, Gross T, Baierlein C, Krebber H. The mRNA export factor Npl3 mediates the nuclear export of large ribosomal subunits. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1024-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in NPL3 lead to export defects of the large subunit and genetic interactions with other pre-60S export factors...
  4. Seedorf M, Damelin M, Kahana J, Taura T, Silver P. Interactions between a nuclear transporter and a subset of nuclear pore complex proteins depend on Ran GTPase. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:1547-57 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that transport receptors such as Pse1p interact in a Ran-dependent manner with certain nucleoporins. These nucleoporins may represent major docking sites for Pse1p as it moves in or out of the nucleus via the NPC. ..
  5. Bourens M, Racki W, Bécam A, Panozzo C, Boulon S, Bertrand E, et al. Mutations in a small region of the exportin Crm1p disrupt the daughter cell-specific nuclear localization of the transcription factor Ace2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biol Cell. 2008;100:343-54 pubmed
    ..We have shown that extragenic suppressors of the Deltacbk1 aggregation phenotype are located in the nuclear exportin CRM1 and ACE2...
  6. Seiser R, Sundberg A, Wollam B, Zobel Thropp P, Baldwin K, Spector M, et al. Ltv1 is required for efficient nuclear export of the ribosomal small subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2006;174:679-91 pubmed
    ..Ltv1 interacts with Crm1, co-sediments in sucrose gradients with 43S/40S subunits, and copurifies with late 43S particles...
  7. Maurer P, Redd M, Solsbacher J, Bischoff F, Greiner M, Podtelejnikov A, et al. The nuclear export receptor Xpo1p forms distinct complexes with NES transport substrates and the yeast Ran binding protein 1 (Yrb1p). Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:539-49 pubmed
    ..This Yrb1p/Xpo1p/Gsp1p complex is then completely dissociated after GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by the cytoplasmic GTPase activating protein Rna1p. ..
  8. Hung N, Lo K, Patel S, Helmke K, Johnson A. Arx1 is a nuclear export receptor for the 60S ribosomal subunit in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:735-44 pubmed
    We previously showed that nuclear export of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit relies on Nmd3 in a Crm1-dependent manner...
  9. Gadal O, Strauss D, Kessl J, Trumpower B, Tollervey D, Hurt E. Nuclear export of 60s ribosomal subunits depends on Xpo1p and requires a nuclear export sequence-containing factor, Nmd3p, that associates with the large subunit protein Rpl10p. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3405-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that nuclear export of 60S subunits requires the nuclear export sequence-containing nonribosomal protein Nmd3p, which directly binds to the large subunit protein Rpl10p. ..

More Information


  1. Neville M, Stutz F, Lee L, Davis L, Rosbash M. The importin-beta family member Crm1p bridges the interaction between Rev and the nuclear pore complex during nuclear export. Curr Biol. 1997;7:767-75 pubmed
    ..Here, we have studied this mechanism of nuclear to cytoplasmic transport. Viable mis-sense mutations in the CRM1 gene substantially reduced or eliminated the biological activity of Rev in S...
  2. Occhipinti L, Chang Y, Altvater M, Menet A, Kemmler S, Panse V. Non-FG mediated transport of the large pre-ribosomal subunit through the nuclear pore complex by the mRNA export factor Gle2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:8266-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that large complex cargos rely on non-FG as well as FG-interactions for their efficient translocation through the nuclear pore complex channel. ..
  3. West M, Hedges J, Lo K, Johnson A. Novel interaction of the 60S ribosomal subunit export adapter Nmd3 at the nuclear pore complex. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14028-37 pubmed
    ..The leucine-rich NES is recognized by the export receptor Crm1 to mediate export via interaction with the nuclear pore complex (NPC)...
  4. Li H, Tsang C, Watkins M, Bertram P, Zheng X. Nutrient regulates Tor1 nuclear localization and association with rDNA promoter. Nature. 2006;442:1058-61 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that TOR might be more intimately involved in gene regulation than previously thought. ..
  5. Brune C, Munchel S, Fischer N, Podtelejnikov A, Weis K. Yeast poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and functions in mRNA export. RNA. 2005;11:517-31 pubmed
    ..Here, we characterize Pab1 as an export cargo of the protein export factor Xpo1/Crm1...
  6. Strahm Y, Fahrenkrog B, Zenklusen D, Rychner E, Kantor J, Rosbach M, et al. The RNA export factor Gle1p is located on the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC and physically interacts with the FG-nucleoporin Rip1p, the DEAD-box protein Rat8p/Dbp5p and a new protein Ymr 255p. EMBO J. 1999;18:5761-77 pubmed
    ..We also describe a human functional homologue of Rip1p, called hCG1, which rescues Rip1p function in yeast, consistent with the evolutionary conservation of this NPC-associated protein. ..
  7. Bembenek J, Kang J, Kurischko C, Li B, Raab J, Belanger K, et al. Crm1-mediated nuclear export of Cdc14 is required for the completion of cytokinesis in budding yeast. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:961-71 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a requirement for Crm1p-dependent nuclear export of Cdc14p in coordinating mitotic exit and cytokinesis in budding yeast. ..
  8. Panozzo C, Bourens M, Nowacka A, Herbert C. Mutations in the C-terminus of the conserved NDR kinase, Cbk1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, make the protein independent of upstream activators. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;283:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the CBK1-S745F allele leads to a constitutively active form of Cbk1p that is independent of the upstream RAM network. We hypothesize that the mutant Cbk1-S745Fp mimics the effect of the phosphorylation of T743. ..
  9. Neumann B, Wu H, Hackmann A, Krebber H. Nuclear Export of Pre-Ribosomal Subunits Requires Dbp5, but Not as an RNA-Helicase as for mRNA Export. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149571 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings reveal that although different ribonucleoparticles, mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits, use shared export factors, they utilize different transport mechanisms. ..
  10. Hammell C, Gross S, Zenklusen D, Heath C, Stutz F, Moore C, et al. Coupling of termination, 3' processing, and mRNA export. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6441-57 pubmed
    ..Of the core 3' processing factors tested (Rna14p, Rna15p, Pcf11p, Hrp1p, Fip1p, and Cft1p), only Hrp1p shuttles. Overexpression of Rat8p/Dbp5p suppresses both 3' processing and mRNA export defects found in xpo1-1 cells.
  11. Wu J, Bao A, Chatterjee K, Wan Y, Hopper A. Genome-wide screen uncovers novel pathways for tRNA processing and nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics. Genes Dev. 2015;29:2633-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that mutations of CRM1 (Exportin-1), MEX67/MTR2 (TAP/p15), and five nucleoporins cause accumulation of unspliced tRNA, a hallmark of ..
  12. Dunn E, Hammell C, Hodge C, Cole C. Yeast poly(A)-binding protein, Pab1, and PAN, a poly(A) nuclease complex recruited by Pab1, connect mRNA biogenesis to export. Genes Dev. 2005;19:90-103 pubmed
    ..The studies presented here suggest that proper loading of Pab1 onto mRNAs and final trimming of the tail allows release from transcription sites and couples pre-mRNA processing to export. ..
  13. Murphy M, Olson B, Siliciano P. The yeast splicing factor Prp40p contains functional leucine-rich nuclear export signals that are essential for splicing. Genetics. 2004;166:53-65 pubmed
    ..The synthetic phenotypes caused by these mutations were suppressed by wild-type copies of CRM1 (XPO1), YNL187w, and SME1, respectively...
  14. Hodge C, Colot H, Stafford P, Cole C. Rat8p/Dbp5p is a shuttling transport factor that interacts with Rat7p/Nup159p and Gle1p and suppresses the mRNA export defect of xpo1-1 cells. EMBO J. 1999;18:5778-88 pubmed
    ..Dbp5p shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm in an Xpo1p-dependent manner. It accumulates in nuclei of xpo1-1 cells and in cells with mutations affecting Mex67p (mex67-5), Gsp1p (Ran) or Ran effectors...
  15. Yan C, Lee L, Davis L. Crm1p mediates regulated nuclear export of a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor. EMBO J. 1998;17:7416-29 pubmed
    ..Yap1p is constitutively nuclear in a crm1 mutant, and Crm1p binds to a nuclear export sequence (NES)-like sequence in Yap1p in the presence of RanGTP...
  16. Vega M, Riera A, Fernández Cid A, Herrero P, Moreno F. Hexokinase 2 Is an Intracellular Glucose Sensor of Yeast Cells That Maintains the Structure and Activity of Mig1 Protein Repressor Complex. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7267-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data indicate that Hxk2 is more intimately involved in gene regulation than previously thought. ..
  17. Saito N, Matsuura Y. A 2.1-Å-resolution crystal structure of unliganded CRM1 reveals the mechanism of autoinhibition. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:350-64 pubmed publisher
    b>CRM1 mediates nuclear export of numerous proteins and ribonucleoproteins containing a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)...
  18. Vergara S, Puig S, Thiele D. Early recruitment of AU-rich element-containing mRNAs determines their cytosolic fate during iron deficiency. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:417-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also suggest an important role for nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in this conserved family of proteins in the mechanism of ARE-mediated mRNA decay. ..
  19. Neuber A, Franke J, Wittstruck A, Schlenstedt G, Sommer T, Stade K. Nuclear export receptor Xpo1/Crm1 is physically and functionally linked to the spindle pole body in budding yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5348-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper we show that it is also a binding partner of the nuclear export receptor Xpo1/Crm1. Xpo1 binds its cargoes in a Ran-dependent fashion via a short leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)...
  20. Koyama M, Matsuura Y. An allosteric mechanism to displace nuclear export cargo from CRM1 and RanGTP by RanBP1. EMBO J. 2010;29:2002-13 pubmed publisher
    The karyopherin CRM1 mediates nuclear export of proteins and ribonucleoproteins bearing a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)...
  21. Ferrigno P, Posas F, Koepp D, Saito H, Silver P. Regulated nucleo/cytoplasmic exchange of HOG1 MAPK requires the importin beta homologs NMD5 and XPO1. EMBO J. 1998;17:5606-14 pubmed
    ..Similarly, export of dephosphorylated HOG1 from the nucleus requires the activity of the NES receptor XPO1/CRM1. Our findings define the requirements for the regulated nuclear transport of a stress-activated MAP kinase.
  22. Merwin J, Bogar L, Poggi S, Fitch R, Johnson A, Lycan D. Genetic analysis of the ribosome biogenesis factor Ltv1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2014;198:1071-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Ltv1 has a canonical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) at its extreme C terminus that is both necessary for Crm1 interaction and Ltv1 export...
  23. Scott R, Cairo L, Van de Vosse D, Wozniak R. The nuclear export factor Xpo1p targets Mad1p to kinetochores in yeast. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an important function for Xpo1p in mediating intranuclear transport events and identify a signaling pathway between kinetochores and NPCs. ..
  24. Fung H, Fu S, Chook Y. Nuclear export receptor CRM1 recognizes diverse conformations in nuclear export signals. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    Nuclear export receptor CRM1 binds highly variable nuclear export signals (NESs) in hundreds of different cargoes. Previously we have shown that CRM1 binds NESs in both polypeptide orientations (Fung et al., 2015)...
  25. Lopreiato R, Facchin S, Sartori G, Arrigoni G, Casonato S, Ruzzene M, et al. Analysis of the interaction between piD261/Bud32, an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the Grx4 glutaredoxin. Biochem J. 2004;377:395-405 pubmed
    ..The functional significance of the interaction between Bud32 and the putative protease Ykr038/Kae1 is supported by its evolutionary conservation. ..
  26. Li F, Zheng L, Chen X, Zhao X, Briggs S, Du H. Gcn5-mediated Rph1 acetylation regulates its autophagic degradation under DNA damage stress. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:5183-5197 pubmed publisher
    ..We also determine that Rph1 and nuclear export protein Crm1 interact, which is required for Rph1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm...
  27. Pelaez R, Herrero P, Moreno F. Nuclear export of the yeast hexokinase 2 protein requires the Xpo1 (Crm1)-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20548-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the Hxk2 protein is an export substrate of the carrier protein Xpo1 (Crm1)...
  28. Saitoh Y, Ogawa K, Nishimoto T. Brl1p -- a novel nuclear envelope protein required for nuclear transport. Traffic. 2005;6:502-17 pubmed
    ..article, we identify a cold-sensitive mutant of Xpo1p designated as xop1-2 (but will be referred to from here on as xpo1-ok) that is synthetically lethal with srm1-1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae RCC1 homolog...
  29. Galani K, Hurt E, Simos G. The tRNA aminoacylation co-factor Arc1p is excluded from the nucleus by an Xpo1p-dependent mechanism. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:969-75 pubmed
    ..However, NLS-Arc1p accumulated in the nucleus when Xpo1/Crm1, the export receptor for NES-containing cargo proteins, was mutated...
  30. Hauk G, Bowman G. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131690 pubmed publisher
    ..A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out ..
  31. Moriggi G, Nieto B, Dosil M. Rrp12 and the Exportin Crm1 participate in late assembly events in the nucleolus during 40S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004836 pubmed publisher
    ..The exportin Crm1 is also required for the same pre-ribosome maturation events that involve Rrp12...
  32. Kunzler M, Gerstberger T, Stutz F, Bischoff F, Hurt E. Yeast Ran-binding protein 1 (Yrb1) shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and is exported from the nucleus via a CRM1 (XPO1)-dependent pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4295-308 pubmed
    ..By contrast, nuclear export of Yrb1 requires an intact RBD, which forms a ternary complex with the Xpo1 (Crm1) NES receptor in the presence of RanGTP...
  33. Staresincic L, Walker J, Dirac Svejstrup A, Mitter R, Svejstrup J. GTP-dependent binding and nuclear transport of RNA polymerase II by Npa3 protein. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that Npa3 defines an unconventional pathway for nuclear import of RNAPII, which involves GTP-dependent binding of Npa3 to the polymerase. ..
  34. Henry M, Mandel D, Routson V, Henry P. The yeast hnRNP-like protein Hrp1/Nab4 sccumulates in the cytoplasm after hyperosmotic stress: a novel Fps1-dependent response. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:3929-41 pubmed
    ..Hrp1p relocalization requires both the CRM1/XPO1 exportin and the FPS1 glycerol transporter genes but is independent of ongoing RNA transcription and protein ..
  35. Fernández García P, Pelaez R, Herrero P, Moreno F. Phosphorylation of yeast hexokinase 2 regulates its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction experiments of Hxk2 with Kap60 and Xpo1 indicated that nuclear import of the S14D mutant of Hxk2 is severely decreased but that the export is significantly ..
  36. González Aguilera C, Tous C, Babiano R, de la Cruz J, Luna R, Aguilera A. Nab2 functions in the metabolism of RNA driven by polymerases II and III. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2729-40 pubmed publisher
  37. Thomson E, Tollervey D. The final step in 5.8S rRNA processing is cytoplasmic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:976-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in situ hybridization detected 3'-extended forms of 5.8S rRNA in the cytoplasm, which were lost when Crm1-dependent preribosome export was blocked by treatment with leptomycin B (LMB)...
  38. Taura T, Krebber H, Silver P. A member of the Ran-binding protein family, Yrb2p, is involved in nuclear protein export. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7427-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Yrb2p acts inside the nucleus to mediate the action of Xpo1p in at least one of several nuclear export pathways. ..
  39. Wu H, Becker D, Krebber H. Telomerase RNA TLC1 shuttling to the cytoplasm requires mRNA export factors and is important for telomere maintenance. Cell Rep. 2014;8:1630-1638 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that TLC1 export into the cytoplasm requires not only the Ran GTPase-dependent karyopherin Crm1/Xpo1 but also the mRNA export machinery...
  40. Koyama M, Shirai N, Matsuura Y. Structural insights into how Yrb2p accelerates the assembly of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex. Cell Rep. 2014;9:983-95 pubmed publisher
    Proteins and ribonucleoproteins containing a nuclear export signal (NES) assemble with the exportin Xpo1p (yeast CRM1) and Gsp1p-GTP (yeast Ran-GTP) in the nucleus and exit through the nuclear pore complex...
  41. Fischer U, Schäuble N, Schütz S, Altvater M, Chang Y, Faza M, et al. A non-canonical mechanism for Crm1-export cargo complex assembly. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    The transport receptor Crm1 mediates the export of diverse cargos containing leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs) through complex formation with RanGTP...
  42. Kim J, Rose M. A mechanism for the coordination of proliferation and differentiation by spatial regulation of Fus2p in budding yeast. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1110-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, potential premature activation of Fus2p in mitosis is prevented by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation that overrides the mating pheromone-induced phosphorylation that drives nuclear export. ..
  43. Mazanka E, Alexander J, Yeh B, Charoenpong P, Lowery D, Yaffe M, et al. The NDR/LATS family kinase Cbk1 directly controls transcriptional asymmetry. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e203 pubmed publisher
  44. Zeitler B, Weis K. The FG-repeat asymmetry of the nuclear pore complex is dispensable for bulk nucleocytoplasmic transport in vivo. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:583-90 pubmed
    ..The mutant Nups localize properly within the NPC and exhibit exchanged binding specificity for the export factor Xpo1. Surprisingly, we were unable to detect any defects in the Kap95, Kap121, Xpo1, or mRNA transport pathways in cells ..
  45. Carvalho J, Zheng X. Domains of Gln3p interacting with karyopherins, Ure2p, and the target of rapamycin protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16878-86 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find a lysine/arginine-rich domain essential for the rapamycin-sensitive function, but dispensable for its localization. Our results reveal key domains of Gln3p important for its function and regulation. ..
  46. Koyama M, Hirano H, Shirai N, Matsuura Y. Crystal structure of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex bound to the SxFG/PxFG repeats of the nucleoporin Nup42p. Genes Cells. 2017;22:861-875 pubmed publisher
    Xpo1p (yeast CRM1) is the major nuclear export receptor that carries a plethora of proteins and ribonucleoproteins from the nucleus to cytoplasm...