Gene Symbol: CLN2
Description: cyclin CLN2
Alias: cyclin CLN2
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Manukyan A, Zhang J, Thippeswamy U, Yang J, Zavala N, Mudannayake M, et al. Ccr4 alters cell size in yeast by modulating the timing of CLN1 and CLN2 expression. Genetics. 2008;179:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of CLN1, CLN2, CLN3, and SWI4 reduces the size of ccr4 delta cells, suggesting that ccr4 delta cells have a G(1)-phase cyclin ..
  2. Reynard G, Reynolds W, Verma R, Deshaies R. Cks1 is required for G(1) cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase activity in budding yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5858-64 pubmed
    ..We show here that Cks1 is required for the protein kinase activity of budding yeast G(1) cyclin-CDK complexes. Cln2 and Cdc28 subunits coexpressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells fail to exhibit protein kinase activity towards ..
  3. de Bruin R, McDonald W, Kalashnikova T, Yates J, Wittenberg C. Cln3 activates G1-specific transcription via phosphorylation of the SBF bound repressor Whi5. Cell. 2004;117:887-98 pubmed
    ..Like mammalian Rb, Whi5 is a G1-specific transcriptional repressor antagonized by CDK. ..
  4. Zimmerman Z, Kellogg D. The Sda1 protein is required for passage through start. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:201-19 pubmed
    ..Cells arrested by loss of Sda1 function have a 1N DNA content, fail to produce the G1 cyclin Cln2, and remain responsive to mating pheromone, indicating that they arrest in G1 before Start...
  5. Kõivomägi M, Valk E, Venta R, Iofik A, Lepiku M, Balog E, et al. Cascades of multisite phosphorylation control Sic1 destruction at the onset of S phase. Nature. 2011;480:128-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Sic1 destruction depends on a more complex process in which both Cln2-Cdk1 and Clb5-Cdk1 act in processive multiphosphorylation cascades leading to the phosphorylation of a small number ..
  6. Landry B, Doyle J, Toczyski D, Benanti J. F-box protein specificity for g1 cyclins is dictated by subcellular localization. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002851 pubmed publisher
    ..The related cyclin Cln2 is cytoplasmic and exclusively targeted by Grr1...
  7. Miller M, Cross F. Mechanisms controlling subcellular localization of the G(1) cyclins Cln2p and Cln3p in budding yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6292-311 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of hypophosphorylated Cln2 in the nucleus is an energy-dependent process, but may not involve the RAN GTPase...
  8. de Bruin R, Kalashnikova T, Wittenberg C. Stb1 collaborates with other regulators to modulate the G1-specific transcriptional circuit. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The repression during G(1) also depends upon Sin3. We speculate that the interaction between Stb1 and Sin3 regulates the Sin3/HDAC complex at G(1)-specific promoters. ..
  9. Tyers M, Tokiwa G, Futcher B. Comparison of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae G1 cyclins: Cln3 may be an upstream activator of Cln1, Cln2 and other cyclins. EMBO J. 1993;12:1955-68 pubmed
    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the G1 cyclins Cln1, Cln2 and Cln3 regulate entry into the cell cycle (Start) by activating the Cdc28 protein kinase...

More Information


  1. Gartner A, Jovanovic A, Jeoung D, Bourlat S, Cross F, Ammerer G. Pheromone-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest requires Far1 phosphorylation, but may not involve inhibition of Cdc28-Cln2 kinase, in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3681-91 pubmed
    ..wild-type Far1 protein, not the T306-to-A substitution product, can be found in stable association with the Cdc28-Cln2 complex...
  2. Gray J, Ogas J, Kamada Y, Stone M, Levin D, Herskowitz I. A role for the Pkc1 MAP kinase pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bud emergence and identification of a putative upstream regulator. EMBO J. 1997;16:4924-37 pubmed
    ..Swi4 activates transcription of many genes at the G1-S transition, including CLN1 and CLN2. We find that swi4 mutants are defective specifically in bud emergence...
  3. Cross F. Cell cycle arrest caused by CLN gene deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resembles START-I arrest and is independent of the mating-pheromone signalling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:6482-90 pubmed
    Null mutations in three genes encoding cyclin-like proteins (CLN1, CLN2, and CLN3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause cell cycle arrest in G1 (cln arrest)...
  4. Sreenivasan A, Bishop A, Shokat K, Kellogg D. Specific inhibition of Elm1 kinase activity reveals functions required for early G1 events. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6327-37 pubmed
    ..of septins, and inhibition of Elm1 kinase activity in a strain lacking the redundant G(1) cyclins CLN1 and CLN2 is lethal...
  5. Verma R, Feldman R, Deshaies R. SIC1 is ubiquitinated in vitro by a pathway that requires CDC4, CDC34, and cyclin/CDK activities. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1427-37 pubmed
    ..The complementary C-terminal segment of SIC1 binds to the S-phase cyclin CLB5, indicating a modular structure for SIC1. ..
  6. Ho Y, Costanzo M, Moore L, Kobayashi R, Andrews B. Regulation of transcription at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae start transition by Stb1, a Swi6-binding protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:5267-78 pubmed
    ..In vivo accumulation of Stb1 phosphoforms was dependent on CLN1, CLN2, and CLN3, which encode G(1)-specific cyclins for the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28, and Stb1 was phosphorylated by ..
  7. Skowyra D, Koepp D, Kamura T, Conrad M, Conaway R, Conaway J, et al. Reconstitution of G1 cyclin ubiquitination with complexes containing SCFGrr1 and Rbx1. Science. 1999;284:662-5 pubmed
    ..Rbx1, which is also a component of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor complex, may define a previously unrecognized class of E3-associated proteins. ..
  8. Costanzo M, Nishikawa J, Tang X, Millman J, Schub O, Breitkreuz K, et al. CDK activity antagonizes Whi5, an inhibitor of G1/S transcription in yeast. Cell. 2004;117:899-913 pubmed
    ..Elimination of CDK activity at the end of mitosis allows Whi5 to reenter the nucleus to again repress G1/S transcription. These findings harmonize G1/S control in eukaryotes. ..
  9. Edgington N, Futcher B. Relationship between the function and the location of G1 cyclins in S. cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4599-611 pubmed
    ..b>Cln2 was found in both nucleus and cytoplasm. A substrate of Cln2, Sic1, was also in both compartments...
  10. Skotheim J, Di Talia S, Siggia E, Cross F. Positive feedback of G1 cyclins ensures coherent cell cycle entry. Nature. 2008;454:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..models proposing a linear cascade of Start activation, transcriptional positive feedback of the G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 induces the near-simultaneous expression of the approximately 200-gene G1/S regulon...
  11. Fu X, Ng C, Feng D, Liang C. Cdc48p is required for the cell cycle commitment point at Start via degradation of the G1-CDK inhibitor Far1p. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:21-6 pubmed
  12. Bhaduri S, Pryciak P. Cyclin-specific docking motifs promote phosphorylation of yeast signaling proteins by G1/S Cdk complexes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Two such proteins, Ste5 and Ste20, are phosphorylated only when Cdk is associated with the G1/S cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 and not G1, S, or M cyclins. The basis of this cyclin specificity is unknown...
  13. Egelhofer T, Villen J, McCusker D, Gygi S, Kellogg D. The septins function in G1 pathways that influence the pattern of cell growth in budding yeast. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2022 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of Shs1 by G1 cyclin-dependent kinases plays a role in events that influence Cdk1 inhibitory phosphorylation...
  14. Cvrckova F, De Virgilio C, Manser E, Pringle J, Nasmyth K. Ste20-like protein kinases are required for normal localization of cell growth and for cytokinesis in budding yeast. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1817-30 pubmed
    ..a novel yeast STE20 homolog, CLA4, in a screen for mutations lethal in the absence of the G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2. Cla4 is involved in budding and cytokinesis and interacts with Cdc42, a GTPase required for polarized cell growth...
  15. Wittenberg C, Sugimoto K, Reed S. G1-specific cyclins of S. cerevisiae: cell cycle periodicity, regulation by mating pheromone, and association with the p34CDC28 protein kinase. Cell. 1990;62:225-37 pubmed
    The S. cerevisiae CLN genes encode cyclin homologs essential for progression from G1 to S phase. The CLN2 gene encodes a 62 kd polypeptide that accumulates periodically, peaking during G1 and decreasing rapidly thereafter, and is rapidly ..
  16. Berset C, Griac P, Tempel R, La Rue J, Wittenberg C, Lanker S. Transferable domain in the G(1) cyclin Cln2 sufficient to switch degradation of Sic1 from the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(Cdc4) to SCF(Grr1). Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4463-76 pubmed
    Degradation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G(1) cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and involves the SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex containing the F-box protein Grr1 (SCF(Grr1))...
  17. Blondel M, Galan J, Chi Y, LaFourcade C, Longaretti C, Deshaies R, et al. Nuclear-specific degradation of Far1 is controlled by the localization of the F-box protein Cdc4. EMBO J. 2000;19:6085-97 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate the importance of subcellular localization of F-box proteins, and provide an example of how an extracellular signal regulates protein stability at the level of substrate localization. ..
  18. Peter M, Herskowitz I. Direct inhibition of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28-Cln by Far1. Science. 1994;265:1228-31 pubmed
    ..The kinase activity of Cdc28-Cln was directly inhibited by Far1 both in vivo and in vitro, thus demonstrating that Far1 acts at the final step in the alpha-factor response pathway by inhibiting a G1 cyclin-dependent kinase. ..
  19. Willems A, Lanker S, Patton E, Craig K, Nason T, Mathias N, et al. Cdc53 targets phosphorylated G1 cyclins for degradation by the ubiquitin proteolytic pathway. Cell. 1996;86:453-63 pubmed
    ..division is initiated in late G1 phase once the Cdc28 cyclin-dependent kinase is activated by the G1 cyclins Cln1, Cln2, and Cln3...
  20. Ohyama Y, Kasahara K, Kokubo T. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ssd1p promotes CLN2 expression by binding to the 5'-untranslated region of CLN2 mRNA. Genes Cells. 2010;15:1169-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that CLN2 expression was significantly reduced by taf1-ts2, but not by taf1-N568?, although both mutations display similar ..
  21. Epstein C, Cross F. Genes that can bypass the CLN requirement for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle START. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:2041-7 pubmed
    Cell cycle START in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires at least one of the three CLN genes (CLN1, CLN2, or CLN3)...
  22. Schneider B, Yang Q, Futcher A. Linkage of replication to start by the Cdk inhibitor Sic1. Science. 1996;272:560-2 pubmed
    ..was the only nonredundant essential function of Clns, because a sic1 deletion rescued the inviability of the cln1 cln2 cln3 triple mutant. In sic1 mutants, DNA replication became uncoupled from budding...
  23. Chang F, Herskowitz I. Identification of a gene necessary for cell cycle arrest by a negative growth factor of yeast: FAR1 is an inhibitor of a G1 cyclin, CLN2. Cell. 1990;63:999-1011 pubmed
    ..The sequence of FAR1 indicates no significant similarities to known proteins. A null mutation in the CLN2 gene, which codes for a G1 cyclin, reverses the effect of a far1 null mutation: far1- cln2- strains arrest in ..
  24. Seol J, Feldman R, Zachariae W, Correll C, Lyapina S, Chi Y, et al. Cdc53/cullin and the essential Hrt1 RING-H2 subunit of SCF define a ubiquitin ligase module that activates the E2 enzyme Cdc34. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1614-26 pubmed
    ..Conditional inactivation of hrt1(ts) results in stabilization of the SCFCdc4 substrates Sic1 and Cln2 and cell cycle arrest at G1/S...
  25. Wijnen H, Futcher B. Genetic analysis of the shared role of CLN3 and BCK2 at the G(1)-S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1999;153:1131-43 pubmed
    ..We isolated high-copy suppressors of the cln3 bck2 growth defect; all of these had the ability to increase CLN2 expression. One of these suppressors was the negative regulator of meiosis RME1...
  26. Kishi T, Yamao F. An essential function of Grr1 for the degradation of Cln2 is to act as a binding core that links Cln2 to Skp1. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 24):3655-61 pubmed
    ..Grr1, which is required for degradation of G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 as well as for regulation of glucose repression, is an F-box protein and interacts with Skp1 through the F-box ..
  27. Fernandez Sarabia M, Sutton A, Zhong T, Arndt K. SIT4 protein phosphatase is required for the normal accumulation of SWI4, CLN1, CLN2, and HCS26 RNAs during late G1. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2417-28 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the RNA levels of the G1 cyclins CLN1, CLN2, and HCS26 increase dramatically during the late G1 phase of the cell cycle...
  28. Hadwiger J, Wittenberg C, Richardson H, de Barros Lopes M, Reed S. A family of cyclin homologs that control the G1 phase in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:6255-9 pubmed
    ..CLN1 and CLN2 encode closely related proteins that also share homology with cyclins...
  29. Skowyra D, Craig K, Tyers M, Elledge S, Harper J. F-box proteins are receptors that recruit phosphorylated substrates to the SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex. Cell. 1997;91:209-19 pubmed F-box protein involved in Cln destruction, forms complexes with Skp1 and Cdc53 and binds phosphorylated Cln1 and Cln2, but not Sic1...
  30. Richardson H, Wittenberg C, Cross F, Reed S. An essential G1 function for cyclin-like proteins in yeast. Cell. 1989;59:1127-33 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae were found to share limited homology with cyclins. Mutational elimination of the CLN1, CLN2, and DAF1/WHI1 products leads to cell cycle arrest independent of cell type, while expression of any one of the ..
  31. Lanker S, Valdivieso M, Wittenberg C. Rapid degradation of the G1 cyclin Cln2 induced by CDK-dependent phosphorylation. Science. 1996;271:1597-601 pubmed
    ..G1-specific accumulation of one G1 cyclin, Cln2, results from periodic gene expression coupled with rapid protein turnover...
  32. Miller M, Cross F. Distinct subcellular localization patterns contribute to functional specificity of the Cln2 and Cln3 cyclins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:542-55 pubmed
    ..The data presented here support the idea that cyclin function is regulated at the level of subcellular localization and that subcellular localization contributes to the functional specificity of Cln2p and Cln3p. ..
  33. Sawarynski K, Kaplun A, Tzivion G, Brush G. Distinct activities of the related protein kinases Cdk1 and Ime2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1773:450-6 pubmed
    ..The G1 cyclin-CDK complexes Cln1-Cdk1 and Cln2-Cdk1 initiate the process of Sic1 removal by directly catalyzing Sic1 phosphorylation at multiple sites...
  34. Ogas J, Andrews B, Herskowitz I. Transcriptional activation of CLN1, CLN2, and a putative new G1 cyclin (HCS26) by SWI4, a positive regulator of G1-specific transcription. Cell. 1991;66:1015-26 pubmed
    ..Two carry G1 cyclin genes, CLN1 and CLN2; another carries HCS26, coding for a putative cyclin, a/alpha swi4- mutants exhibit 3- to 20-fold reductions in the ..
  35. Oehlen L, Cross F. G1 cyclins CLN1 and CLN2 repress the mating factor response pathway at Start in the yeast cell cycle. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1058-70 pubmed
    ..This reduction in signaling activity in post-Start cells was correlated with the presence of CLN1 or CLN2 transcripts and was not observed in synchronized cells lacking functional CLN1 and CLN2 genes...
  36. Elion E, Brill J, Fink G. FUS3 represses CLN1 and CLN2 and in concert with KSS1 promotes signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:9392-6 pubmed
    ..FUS3 mediates cell cycle arrest during mating through transcriptional repression of two G1 cyclins (CLN1 and CLN2) and through posttranscriptional inhibition of a third G1 cyclin (CLN3)...
  37. Deshaies R, Chau V, Kirschner M. Ubiquitination of the G1 cyclin Cln2p by a Cdc34p-dependent pathway. EMBO J. 1995;14:303-12 pubmed
    ..These results provide a molecular framework for G1 cyclin instability and suggest that a multicomponent, regulated pathway specifies the selective ubiquitination of G1 cyclins. ..
  38. Levine K, Huang K, Cross F. Saccharomyces cerevisiae G1 cyclins differ in their intrinsic functional specificities. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:6794-803 pubmed functionally redundant for cell cycle Start: any single CLN gene is sufficient to promote Start, while the cln1 cln2 cln3 triple mutant is Start defective and inviable...
  39. Cherkasova V, Lyons D, Elion E. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Genetics. 1999;151:989-1004 pubmed
    ..Fus3p and Kss1p together promote G1 arrest by repressing transcription of G1/S cyclin genes (CLN1, CLN2, CLB5) by a mechanism that blocks their activation by Cln3p/Cdc28p kinase...
  40. Oda Y, Huang K, Cross F, Cowburn D, Chait B. Accurate quantitation of protein expression and site-specific phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6591-6 pubmed vivo phosphorylation sites in the PAK-related yeast Ste20 protein kinase that depend specifically on the G1 cyclin Cln2. The present method is general and affords a quantitative description of cellular differences at the level of ..
  41. Takahata S, Yu Y, Stillman D. The E2F functional analogue SBF recruits the Rpd3(L) HDAC, via Whi5 and Stb1, and the FACT chromatin reorganizer, to yeast G1 cyclin promoters. EMBO J. 2009;28:3378-89 pubmed publisher
    Regulation of the CLN1 and CLN2 G1 cyclin genes controls cell cycle progression. The SBF activator binds to these promoters but is kept inactive by the Whi5 and Stb1 inhibitors...
  42. Yu L, Qi M, Sheff M, Elion E. Counteractive control of polarized morphogenesis during mating by mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3 and G1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1739-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, loss of Cln2 or Cdc28 cyclin-dependent kinase restores polarized localization of Bni1, Ste5, and Ste20 to a fus3 mutant...
  43. Knaus M, Pelli Gulli M, van Drogen F, Springer S, Jaquenoud M, Peter M. Phosphorylation of Bem2p and Bem3p may contribute to local activation of Cdc42p at bud emergence. EMBO J. 2007;26:4501-13 pubmed
  44. Hsieh M, Chen R. Cdc48 and cofactors Npl4-Ufd1 are important for G1 progression during heat stress by maintaining cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18988 pubmed publisher
    ..5°C. Reporter assays show that the promoter activity of G1 cyclin CLN1, but not CLN2, is reduced in cdc48-3 at 38.5°C...
  45. Albrecht D, Ceschin J, Dompierre J, Gueniot F, Pinson B, Daignan Fornier B. Chemo-Genetic Interactions Between Histone Modification and the Antiproliferation Drug AICAR Are Conserved in Yeast and Humans. Genetics. 2016;204:1447-1460 pubmed
    ..on Cln3 subcellular localization and at the Cln1 protein level, while the bre1 or set1 deletion affected CLN1 and CLN2 expression...
  46. Kito K, Kawaguchi N, Okada S, Ito T. Discrimination between stable and dynamic components of protein complexes by means of quantitative proteomics. Proteomics. 2008;8:2366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We successfully applied this strategy to analyze two yeast protein complexes, eIF2B-eIF2 and cyclin-Cdc28. ..
  47. Vallen E, Cross F. Mutations in RAD27 define a potential link between G1 cyclins and DNA replication. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4291-302 pubmed
    ..of the various CLN genes, we examined mutations that result in lethality in conjunction with loss of cln1 and cln2. We have isolated alleles of RAD27/ERC11/YKL510, the yeast homolog of the gene encoding flap endonuclease 1, FEN-1...
  48. Mitchell D, Sprague G. The phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator, Ncs1p (Rrd1p), functions with Cla4p to regulate the G(2)/M transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:488-500 pubmed
    ..Strains lacking both NCS1 and NOH1 were inviable and arrested as unbudded cells, implying that PTPA function is required for proper G(1) progression. ..
  49. Yuste Rojas M, Cross F. Mutations in CDC14 result in high sensitivity to cyclin gene dosage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;263:60-72 pubmed
    ..from the late mitotic arrest of the sic1::TRP1 cdc14-1 and the cdc14-1 hct1::LEU2 double mutants and of the cdc14 CLN2 overexpressor...
  50. Mizunuma M, Hirata D, Miyakawa T. Implication of Pkc1p protein kinase C in sustaining Cln2p level and polarized bud growth in response to calcium signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4219-29 pubmed
    ..The Pkc1p novel function was required for posttranscriptional upregulation of Cln2p and appeared to be important for the coordinated regulation of polar bud growth and the cell cycle. ..
  51. Kaplan Y, Kupiec M. A role for the yeast cell cycle/splicing factor Cdc40 in the G1/S transition. Curr Genet. 2007;51:123-40 pubmed the isolated cDNAs does not (at least solely) involve up-regulation of the known positive START regulators CLN2, CLN3, DCR2 and GID8, or of the large and small essential ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) subunits, RNR1 and RNR2...
  52. Keck J, Jones M, Wong C, Binkley J, Chen D, Jaspersen S, et al. A cell cycle phosphoproteome of the yeast centrosome. Science. 2011;332:1557-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work establishes the extent and complexity of this prominent posttranslational modification in centrosome biology and provides specific examples of phosphorylation control in centrosome function. ..
  53. Levine K, Oehlen L, Cross F. Isolation and characterization of new alleles of the cyclin-dependent kinase gene CDC28 with cyclin-specific functional and biochemical defects. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:290-302 pubmed
    The G1 cyclin Cln2 negatively regulates the mating-factor pathway. In a genetic screen to identify factors required for this regulation, we identified an allele of CDC28 (cdc28-csr1) that blocked this function of Cln2...
  54. Mizunuma M, Ogawa T, Koyama T, Shitamukai A, Tsubakiyama R, Komaruyama T, et al. Evidence of antagonistic regulation of restart from G(1) delay in response to osmotic stress by the Hog1 and Whi3 in budding yeast. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:2002-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Hog1 activity is required for restart from G1 arrest under osmotic stress conditions, whereas Whi3 acts as a negative regulator for this restart mechanism. ..
  55. Santisteban M, Arents G, Moudrianakis E, Smith M. Histone octamer function in vivo: mutations in the dimer-tetramer interfaces disrupt both gene activation and repression. EMBO J. 1997;16:2493-506 pubmed
    ..At restrictive temperature, mutant cells fail to express the CLN1, CLN2, SWI4 and SWI6 genes, and have reduced levels of CLN3 mRNA...
  56. Bai L, Charvin G, Siggia E, Cross F. Nucleosome-depleted regions in cell-cycle-regulated promoters ensure reliable gene expression in every cell cycle. Dev Cell. 2010;18:544-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that the NDR function in limiting stochasticity in gene expression promotes the ubiquity and conservation of promoter NDR. PAPERCLIP: ..
  57. Willems A, Goh T, Taylor L, Chernushevich I, Shevchenko A, Tyers M. SCF ubiquitin protein ligases and phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999;354:1533-50 pubmed
    ..The concepts of SCF ubiquitin ligase function are illustrated by analysis of the degradation pathway for the G1 cyclin Cln2. Through mass spectrometric analysis of Cdc53 associated proteins, we have identified three novel F-box ..
  58. Schwab M, Neutzner M, Mocker D, Seufert W. Yeast Hct1 recognizes the mitotic cyclin Clb2 and other substrates of the ubiquitin ligase APC. EMBO J. 2001;20:5165-75 pubmed
    ..We propose that proteins of the Cdc20 family are substrate recognition subunits of the ubiquitin ligase APC. ..
  59. Benton B, Plump S, Roos J, Lennarz W, Cross F. Over-expression of S. cerevisiae G1 cyclins restores the viability of alg1 N-glycosylation mutants. Curr Genet. 1996;29:106-13 pubmed
    ..We have identified mutations in ALG1 (ERC14), a gene required for N-glycosylation, which are inviable in a cln1 cln2 background but are rescued by over-expression of CLNs...
  60. Bouquin N, Johnson A, Morgan B, Johnston L. Association of the cell cycle transcription factor Mbp1 with the Skn7 response regulator in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3389-400 pubmed
    ..Thus, Skn7 and Mbp1 seem to form a transcription factor independent of MBF. Genetic data suggest that this new transcription factor could be involved in the bud-emergence process. ..
  61. Benton B, Tinkelenberg A, Gonzalez I, Cross F. Cla4p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc42p-activated kinase involved in cytokinesis, is activated at mitosis. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:5067-76 pubmed GIN4 and CLA4 were isolated in a screen for mutants that are inviable with deletions in the G1 cyclins CLN1 and CLN2. cln1 cln2 cla4 and cln1 cln2 gin4 cells arrest with a cytokinesis defect; this defect was efficiently rescued by ..
  62. Ceccarelli E, Mann C. A Cdc28 mutant uncouples G1 cyclin phosphorylation and ubiquitination from G1 cyclin proteolysis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41725-32 pubmed
    Proteolysis of the yeast G(1) cyclins is triggered by their Cdc28-dependent phosphorylation. Phosphorylated Cln1 and Cln2 are ubiquitinated by the SCF-Grr1 complex and then degraded by the 26 S proteasome...
  63. Ren P, MALIK A, Zeng F. Identification of YPL014W (Cip1) as a novel negative regulator of cyclin-dependent kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Cells. 2016;21:543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Cip1 specifically interacts with G1 /S-phase Cln2-Cdk1 complex but not with S-phase Clb5-Cdk1 or M-phase Clb2-Cdk1 complexes...
  64. Miller M, Cross F, Groeger A, Jameson K. Identification of novel and conserved functional and structural elements of the G1 cyclin Cln3 important for interactions with the CDK Cdc28 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2005;22:1021-36 pubmed a loss of Cln3 function, showing cyclin fold structure similar to that previously observed for the G1 cyclin Cln2. A clustered-charge-to-alanine scan mutagenesis revealed two regions of Cln3 important for Cln3-dependent ..
  65. Visintin R, Craig K, Hwang E, Prinz S, Tyers M, Amon A. The phosphatase Cdc14 triggers mitotic exit by reversal of Cdk-dependent phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 1998;2:709-18 pubmed
    ..Feedback between these pathways may lead to precipitous collapse of mitotic CDK activity and help coordinate exit from mitosis. ..
  66. Loeb J, Kerentseva T, Pan T, Sepulveda Becerra M, Liu H. Saccharomyces cerevisiae G1 cyclins are differentially involved in invasive and pseudohyphal growth independent of the filamentation mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Genetics. 1999;153:1535-46 pubmed
    ..cln1 cln2 double mutants are more defective in pseudohyphal development and haploid invasive growth than cln1 strains...
  67. McCourt P, Gallo Ebert C, Gonghong Y, Jiang Y, Nickels J. PP2A(Cdc55) regulates G1 cyclin stability. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..PP2A(Cdc55)) containing the mammalian PPP2R2/PR55 B subunit ortholog Cdc55 regulates the stability of the G1 cyclin Cln2 by directly regulating its phosphorylation state...
  68. Martin Yken H, Dagkessamanskaia A, Talibi D, Francois J. KNR4 is a member of the PKC1 signalling pathway and genetically interacts with BCK2, a gene involved in cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2002;41:323-32 pubmed
    ..In particular, the microarray data showed up-regulation of SWI4, which may account for the suppression of the cell lysis of a pkc1 null mutant, due to overexpression of BCK2. ..
  69. Cross F, Levine K. Genetic analysis of the relationship between activation loop phosphorylation and cyclin binding in the activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc28p cyclin-dependent kinase. Genetics. 2000;154:1549-59 pubmed
    ..This conclusion was supported by analysis of suppressors of a mutation in the Cdk phosphothreonine-binding pocket created by cyclin binding. ..