Gene Symbol: CHS3
Description: chitin synthase CHS3
Alias: CAL1, CSD2, DIT101, KTI2, chitin synthase CHS3
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     CHS3

Top Publications

  1. Santos B, Snyder M. Targeting of chitin synthase 3 to polarized growth sites in yeast requires Chs5p and Myo2p. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:95-110 pubmed
    ..We suggest a model in which Chs3p polarization to cortical sites in yeast is dependent on both Chs5p and the actin cytoskeleton/Myo2p. ..
  2. Sacristan C, Reyes A, Roncero C. Neck compartmentalization as the molecular basis for the different endocytic behaviour of Chs3 during budding or hyperpolarized growth in yeast cells. Mol Microbiol. 2012;83:1124-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In this scenario, correct assembly of the chitin ring is dependent on the anchoring of Chs3 to the septin ring through Chs4...
  3. Ono N, Yabe T, Sudoh M, Nakajima T, Yamada Okabe T, Arisawa M, et al. The yeast Chs4 protein stimulates the trypsin-sensitive activity of chitin synthase 3 through an apparent protein-protein interaction. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 2):385-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, it was demonstrated that stimulation of non-zymogenic Chs3p activity by Chs4p requires the amino acid region from 269 to 563 of Chs4p, and it seems that Chs4p activates Chs3p through protein-protein interaction. ..
  4. Chuang J, Schekman R. Differential trafficking and timed localization of two chitin synthase proteins, Chs2p and Chs3p. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:597-610 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that the trafficking of Chs2p and Chs3p diverges after endocytosis; Chs3p is not delivered to the vacuole, but instead may be recycled. ..
  5. Trautwein M, Schindler C, Gauss R, Dengjel J, Hartmann E, Spang A. Arf1p, Chs5p and the ChAPs are required for export of specialized cargo from the Golgi. EMBO J. 2006;25:943-54 pubmed
    ..In addition, they are all at least partially localized to the TGN in a Chs5p-dependent manner. Most importantly, several ChAPs can interact physically with Chs3p. We propose that the ChAPs facilitate export of cargo out of the Golgi...
  6. Copic A, Starr T, Schekman R. Ent3p and Ent5p exhibit cargo-specific functions in trafficking proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1803-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the clathrin adaptors AP-1, Ent3p, Ent5p, and the Ggas cooperate in different ways to sort proteins between the TGN and the endosomes. ..
  7. Lam K, Davey M, Sun B, Roth A, Davis N, Conibear E. Palmitoylation by the DHHC protein Pfa4 regulates the ER exit of Chs3. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:19-25 pubmed
    The yeast chitin synthase Chs3 provides a well-studied paradigm for polytopic membrane protein trafficking...
  8. Meissner D, Odman Naresh J, Vogelpohl I, Merzendorfer H. A novel role of the yeast CaaX protease Ste24 in chitin synthesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, ste24Delta cells showed a decrease in chitin levels and Chs3-green fluorescent protein localized less frequently at the bud neck...
  9. Cos T, Ford R, Trilla J, Duran A, Cabib E, Roncero C. Molecular analysis of Chs3p participation in chitin synthase III activity. Eur J Biochem. 1998;256:419-26 pubmed
    ..Since this region is not present in Chs1 or Chs2, it may be involved in the specific regulation of CSIII. ..

More Information


  1. Valdivia R, Baggott D, Chuang J, Schekman R. The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane proteins. Dev Cell. 2002;2:283-94 pubmed
    ..Similarly, in AP-1 deficient cells, the resident TGN/early endosome syntaxin, Tlg1p, is missorted. We propose that clathrin and AP-1 act to recycle Chs3p and Tlg1p from the early endosome to the TGN. ..
  2. Larson J, Bharucha J, Ceaser S, Salamon J, Richardson C, Rivera S, et al. Protein phosphatase type 1 directs chitin synthesis at the bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3040-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the essential role of Bni4 is to target Glc7 to the neck and activate it toward substrates necessary for CSIII recruitment and synthesis of chitin at the bud neck. ..
  3. Sanchatjate S, Schekman R. Chs5/6 complex: a multiprotein complex that interacts with and conveys chitin synthase III from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4157-66 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model of protein sorting at the TGN that involves a peripheral, possibly coat, complex that includes multiple related copies of a specificity determining subunit. ..
  4. Lagorce A, Le Berre Anton V, Aguilar Uscanga B, Martin Yken H, Dagkessamanskaia A, Francois J. Involvement of GFA1, which encodes glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, in the activation of the chitin synthesis pathway in response to cell-wall defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:1697-707 pubmed chitin in the transformed cells, whereas chitin content was barely affected by the joint overexpression of CHS3 and CHS7...
  5. Cid V, Duran A, del Rey F, Snyder M, Nombela C, Sanchez M. Molecular basis of cell integrity and morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol Rev. 1995;59:345-86 pubmed
    ..Our aim is to offer an overall view of the current understanding of cell wall dynamics and of the complex network that controls polarized growth at particular stages of the budding yeast cell cycle and life cycle. ..
  6. Demarini D, Adams A, Fares H, De Virgilio C, Valle G, Chuang J, et al. A septin-based hierarchy of proteins required for localized deposition of chitin in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:75-93 pubmed
    ..In contrast, localization of the septins is essentially normal in bni4, chs4, and chs3 mutant strains and in strains that accumulate excess Bni4p...
  7. Ziman M, Chuang J, Schekman R. Chs1p and Chs3p, two proteins involved in chitin synthesis, populate a compartment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endocytic pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:1909-19 pubmed
  8. Reyes A, Sanz M, Duran A, Roncero C. Chitin synthase III requires Chs4p-dependent translocation of Chs3p into the plasma membrane. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1998-2009 pubmed
    ..Chs4p thus promotes Chs3p translocation into the plasma membrane in a stable and active form. Proper CSIII turnover is maintained through the endocytic internalization of Chs3p. ..
  9. Valdivieso M, Ferrario L, Vai M, Duran A, Popolo L. Chitin synthesis in a gas1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4752-7 pubmed
    ..b>CHS3 expression was not affected in the gas1 mutant...
  10. Pammer M, Briza P, Ellinger A, Schuster T, Stucka R, Feldmann H, et al. DIT101 (CSD2, CAL1), a cell cycle-regulated yeast gene required for synthesis of chitin in cell walls and chitosan in spore walls. Yeast. 1992;8:1089-99 pubmed
    ..Mutant dit101, however, was additionally lacking the chitosan layer of the spore wall...
  11. Liu X, Zhang X, Zhang Z. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is required for cell wall structure and for tolerance to cell wall-perturbing agents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell wall analysis indicated an increase of cell wall chitin and cell wall thickness in sod1Delta mutant compared to wild type. These results indicate a novel direct connection between antioxidative functions and cell wall homeostasis. ..
  12. Pan H, Wang N, Tachikawa H, Nakanishi H, Gao X. β-1,6-glucan synthesis-associated genes are required for proper spore wall formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2017;34:431-446 pubmed publisher
    ..The proof for this model was obtained from the effect of the additional deletion of CHS3 that resulted in the absence of the chitosan layer...
  13. Gohlke S, Muthukrishnan S, Merzendorfer H. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Structural Organization of Chs3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    Chitin biosynthesis in yeast is accomplished by three chitin synthases (Chs) termed Chs1, Chs2 and Chs3, of which the latter accounts for most of the chitin deposited within the cell wall...
  14. Oh Y, Schreiter J, Okada H, Wloka C, Okada S, Yan D, et al. Hof1 and Chs4 Interact via F-BAR Domain and Sel1-like Repeats to Control Extracellular Matrix Deposition during Cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2017;27:2878-2886.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..and secondary septa that are catalyzed by chitin synthase-II (Chs2) and chitin synthase-III (the catalytic subunit Chs3 and its activator Chs4), respectively [18, 19]...
  15. Ortiz D, Novick P. Ypt32p regulates the translocation of Chs3p from an internal pool to the plasma membrane. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006;85:107-16 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of Ypt32p also disrupts the localization of the late Golgi protein Sec7. We propose that Ypt31/32p have a role in regulating the delivery of Chs3p to the plasma membrane and deposition of chitin at the cell surface. ..
  16. Sestak S, Hagen I, Tanner W, Strahl S. Scw10p, a cell-wall glucanase/transglucosidase important for cell-wall stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology. 2004;150:3197-208 pubmed
    ..Deletion of CHS3 proved the critical role of chitin in scw4scw10...
  17. Popolo L, Gilardelli D, Bonfante P, Vai M. Increase in chitin as an essential response to defects in assembly of cell wall polymers in the ggp1delta mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:463-9 pubmed
    ..Chitin is essential to compensate for the defects due to the lack of Ggp1p. Moreover, the activities of Ggp1p and Chs3p are essential to the formation of the organized structure of the cell wall in vegetative cells. ..
  18. Rockwell N, Wolfger H, Kuchler K, Thorner J. ABC transporter Pdr10 regulates the membrane microenvironment of Pdr12 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Membr Biol. 2009;229:27-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Calcofluor sensitivity was attributable to a partial defect in endocytosis of the chitin synthase Chs3, while sorbate resistance was attributable to accumulation of a higher than normal level of the sorbate ..
  19. Cui T, Peterson T, Burd C. A CDC25 family protein phosphatase gates cargo recognition by the Vps26 retromer subunit. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
  20. Rockenbauch U, Ritz A, Sacristan C, Roncero C, Spang A. The complex interactions of Chs5p, the ChAPs, and the cargo Chs3p. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4402-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The cargo Chs3p probably also uses a complex motif for the interaction with Chs6, as the C-terminus of Chs3p interacts with Chs6p and is necessary, but not sufficient, for TGN export. ..
  21. Iwamoto M, Fairclough S, Rudge S, Engebrecht J. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sps1p regulates trafficking of enzymes required for spore wall synthesis. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:536-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that Sps1p promotes sporulation, in part, by regulating the intracellular movement of proteins required for spore wall formation. ..
  22. Arcones I, Sacristan C, Roncero C. Maintaining protein homeostasis: early and late endosomal dual recycling for the maintenance of intracellular pools of the plasma membrane protein Chs3. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:4021-4032 pubmed
    The major chitin synthase activity in yeast cells, Chs3, has become a paradigm in the study of the intracellular traffic of transmembrane proteins due to its tightly regulated trafficking...
  23. Sanz M, Castrejon F, Duran A, Roncero C. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bni4p directs the formation of the chitin ring and also participates in the correct assembly of the septum structure. Microbiology. 2004;150:3229-41 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Bni4p is not only required for the assembly of the chitin ring, but is also involved in septum architecture and the maintenance of neck integrity. ..
  24. Jakobsen M, Cheng Z, Lam S, Roth Johnson E, Barfield R, Schekman R. Phosphorylation of Chs2p regulates interaction with COPII. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that dephosphorylation functions as a molecular switch for regulated ER exit of Chs2p. ..
  25. Ragni E, Piberger H, Neupert C, García Cantalejo J, Popolo L, Arroyo J, et al. The genetic interaction network of CCW12, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for cell wall integrity during budding and formation of mating projections. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:107 pubmed publisher
    ..Among those are BCK1, CHS3, EDE1, PFD1, SLT2 and SLA1 that were also identified in the SGA...
  26. Labedzka K, Tian C, Nussbaumer U, Timmermann S, Walther P, Müller J, et al. Sho1p connects the plasma membrane with proteins of the cytokinesis network through multiple isomeric interaction states. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to the overlapping binding specificities of its members the HICS complex is best described as ensembles of isomeric interaction states that precisely coordinate the different functions of the interactors during cytokinesis. ..
  27. Schmidt M, Varma A, Drgon T, Bowers B, Cabib E. Septins, under Cla4p regulation, and the chitin ring are required for neck integrity in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2128-41 pubmed
    ..kinase of the PAK type, and CDC11, encoding a septin, were isolated in a screen for synthetic lethality with CHS3, which encodes the chitin synthase III catalytic moiety...
  28. Starr T, Pagant S, Wang C, Schekman R. Sorting signals that mediate traffic of chitin synthase III between the TGN/endosomes and to the plasma membrane in yeast. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46386 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a role for active protein sorting at the trans-Golgi en route to the plasma membrane (PM) and suggest a possible mechanism to regulate protein trafficking. ..
  29. Schmidt M, Drgon T, Bowers B, Cabib E. Hyperpolarized growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cak1P212S and cla4 mutants weakens cell walls and renders cells dependent on chitin synthase 3. FEMS Yeast Res. 2008;8:362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The results underline the importance of a minor cell wall component, the chitin of lateral walls, for the integrity of the cell in a stress situation. ..
  30. Sobering A, Watanabe R, Romeo M, Yan B, Specht C, Orlean P, et al. Yeast Ras regulates the complex that catalyzes the first step in GPI-anchor biosynthesis at the ER. Cell. 2004;117:637-48 pubmed
    ..We propose that diminished GPI-anchor protein production contributes to hyperactive Ras phenotypes. ..
  31. Sacristan C, Manzano López J, Reyes A, Spang A, Muñiz M, Roncero C. Oligomerization of the chitin synthase Chs3 is monitored at the Golgi and affects its endocytic recycling. Mol Microbiol. 2013;90:252-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Chs3, the catalytic subunit of chitin synthase III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a complex polytopic membrane protein whose plasma membrane expression is tightly controlled: export from the ER requires interaction with Chs7; exit from ..
  32. Pan H, Wang N, Tachikawa H, Gao X, Nakanishi H. Osw2 is required for proper assembly of glucan and/or mannan layers of the yeast spore wall. J Biochem. 2018;163:293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that deletion of both OSW2 and CHS3 results in a synthetic sporulation defect...
  33. Castrejon F, Gomez A, Sanz M, Duran A, Roncero C. The RIM101 pathway contributes to yeast cell wall assembly and its function becomes essential in the absence of mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2p. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:507-17 pubmed
    ..In addition, these results provide new experimental evidence of the direct involvement of the PKC signal transduction pathway through the Sltp2 kinase in the construction of yeast cell walls. ..
  34. Kalebina T, Farkas V, Laurinavichiute D, Gorlovoy P, Fominov G, Bartek P, et al. Deletion of BGL2 results in an increased chitin level in the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2003;84:179-84 pubmed
    ..Chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) activity was increased by 60 % in bgl2Delta mutant. No increase in chitin synthase 3 (Chs3) activity in bgl2Delta cells was observed, while they became more sensitive to Nikkomycin Z...
  35. Ohya Y, Goebl M, Goodman L, Petersen Bjørn S, Friesen J, Tamanoi F, et al. Yeast CAL1 is a structural and functional homologue to the DPR1 (RAM) gene involved in ras processing. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:12356-60 pubmed
    A 2.3-kilobase pair DNA fragment of the yeast CAL1 gene was cloned by complementation of the cal1-1 mutation, which causes a defect in nuclear division and bud formation (Ohya, Y., Ohsumi, Y., and Anraku, Y. (1984) Mol. & Gen. Genet...
  36. Chin C, Tan K, Onishi M, Chew Y, Augustine B, Lee W, et al. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006195 pubmed publisher
    ..breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation...
  37. Cabib E, Schmidt M. Chitin synthase III activity, but not the chitin ring, is required for remedial septa formation in budding yeast. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;224:299-305 pubmed
    ..Thus, the unique function of the chitin ring seems to be maintenance of the integrity of the mother-bud neck, as we recently found, and the importance of chitin in septum closure, both in normal and abnormal situations, is underlined. ..
  38. Schmidt M, Bowers B, Varma A, Roh D, Cabib E. In budding yeast, contraction of the actomyosin ring and formation of the primary septum at cytokinesis depend on each other. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:293-302 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in a chs3 background the chs2 mutation is lethal and the myo1 defect is greatly worsened, suggesting that the synthesis of ..
  39. Osmond B, Specht C, Robbins P. Chitin synthase III: synthetic lethal mutants and "stress related" chitin synthesis that bypasses the CSD3/CHS6 localization pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11206-10 pubmed
    ..Saccharomyces strains for mutants that are synthetically lethal with deletion of the major chitin synthase gene CHS3. In addition to finding, not surprisingly, that mutations in major cell wall-related genes such as FKS1 (glucan ..