Gene Symbol: CHO2
Description: phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
Alias: PEM1, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Kodaki T, Yamashita S. Yeast phosphatidylethanolamine methylation pathway. Cloning and characterization of two distinct methyltransferase genes. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:15428-35 pubmed
    The structural genes (PEM1 and PEM2) encoding the enzymes involved in the yeast phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) methylation pathway were cloned by means of genetic complementation using yeast mutants...
  2. Summers E, Letts V, McGraw P, Henry S. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cho2 mutants are deficient in phospholipid methylation and cross-pathway regulation of inositol synthesis. Genetics. 1988;120:909-22 pubmed
    ..Biochemical analysis suggested that these mutants define a locus, designated CHO2, that may encode a methyltransferase...
  3. Preitschopf W, Lückl H, Summers E, Henry S, Paltauf F, Kohlwein S. Molecular cloning of the yeast OPI3 gene as a high copy number suppressor of the cho2 mutation. Curr Genet. 1993;23:95-101 pubmed
    By functional complementation of the auxotrophic requirements for choline of a cdg1, cho2 double-mutant, by transformation with a genomic DNA library in a high copy number plasmid, two different types of complementing DNA inserts were ..
  4. Harrison R, Papp B, Pal C, Oliver S, Delneri D. Plasticity of genetic interactions in metabolic networks of yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2307-12 pubmed
    ..Our work supports the view that functional redundancy may be more apparent than real, and it offers a unified framework for the evolution of environmental adaptation and mutational robustness. ..
  5. Wilson Zbinden C, Dos Santos A, Stoffel Studer I, van der Vaart A, Hofmann K, Reggiori F, et al. Autophagy competes for a common phosphatidylethanolamine pool with major cellular PE-consuming pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2015;199:475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to the deletion of CHO2, a gene encoding the enzyme converting PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC), deletion of ATG7 was able to restore ..
  6. Boumann H, Gubbens J, Koorengevel M, Oh C, Martin C, Heck A, et al. Depletion of phosphatidylcholine in yeast induces shortening and increased saturation of the lipid acyl chains: evidence for regulation of intrinsic membrane curvature in a eukaryote. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1006-17 pubmed
    ..The shortening and increased saturation of the PE acyl chains were shown to decrease the nonbilayer propensity of PE. The results point to a regulatory mechanism in yeast that maintains intrinsic membrane curvature in an optimal range. ..
  7. Riekhof W, Wu J, Gijón M, Zarini S, Murphy R, Voelker D. Lysophosphatidylcholine metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of P-type ATPases in transport and a broad specificity acyltransferase in acylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36853-61 pubmed
    ..These results establish a new pathway for the net synthesis of PtdCho in yeast and provide new tools for the study of PtdCho synthesis, transport, and remodeling...
  8. Gaynor P, Carman G. Phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase activities from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzymological and kinetic properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1045:156-63 pubmed
    ..Using gene disruption mutants of the S. cerevisiae OP13 and CHO2 genes, we independently studied the enzymological properties of microsome-associated PEMT and PLMT, respectively...
  9. Garbarino J, Padamsee M, Wilcox L, Oelkers P, D Ambrosio D, Ruggles K, et al. Sterol and diacylglycerol acyltransferase deficiency triggers fatty acid-mediated cell death. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:30994-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..In metazoans, many of these processes are implicated in insulin secretion thus linking lipotoxicity with early aspects of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. ..

More Information


  1. He X, Qian W, Wang Z, Li Y, Zhang J. Prevalent positive epistasis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic networks. Nat Genet. 2010;42:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We offer mechanistic explanations of these findings and experimentally validate them for 61 S. cerevisiae gene pairs. ..
  2. BeGora M, Macleod M, McCarry B, Summers P, Weretilnyk E. Identification of phosphomethylethanolamine N-methyltransferase from Arabidopsis and its role in choline and phospholipid metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..two methylation steps was cloned from Arabidopsis by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cho2, opi3 mutant...
  3. Gulshan K, Moye Rowley W. Vacuolar import of phosphatidylcholine requires the ATP-binding cassette transporter Ybt1. Traffic. 2011;12:1257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data describe a novel vacuolar route for lipid remodeling and reutilization in addition to previously described enzymatic avenues in the cytoplasm...
  4. Thibault G, Shui G, Kim W, McAlister G, Ismail N, Gygi S, et al. The membrane stress response buffers lethal effects of lipid disequilibrium by reprogramming the protein homeostasis network. Mol Cell. 2012;48:16-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the UPR maintains protein biogenesis, quality control, and membrane integrity-functions otherwise lethally compromised in lipid dysregulated cells. ..
  5. Tavassoli S, Chao J, Young B, Cox R, Prinz W, de Kroon A, et al. Plasma membrane--endoplasmic reticulum contact sites regulate phosphatidylcholine synthesis. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:434-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Opi3 activity requires Osh3, which localizes to PM-ER contacts where it might facilitate in trans catalysis by Opi3. Thus, membrane contact sites provide a structural mechanism to regulate lipid synthesis. ..
  6. Sakakibara K, Eiyama A, Suzuki S, Sakoh Nakatogawa M, Okumura N, Tani M, et al. Phospholipid methylation controls Atg32-mediated mitophagy and Atg8 recycling. EMBO J. 2015;34:2703-19 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine by the two methyltransferases Cho2 and Opi3...
  7. Sadhu M, Moresco J, Zimmer A, Yates J, Rine J. Multiple inputs control sulfur-containing amino acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1653-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutants defective in MET regulon repression reveal that loss of Cho2, which is required for the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to produce phosphatidylcholine, leads to ..
  8. Bilgin M, Markgraf D, Duchoslav E, Knudsen J, Jensen O, de Kroon A, et al. Quantitative profiling of PE, MMPE, DMPE, and PC lipid species by multiple precursor ion scanning: a tool for monitoring PE metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1811:1081-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we benchmarked the mass-tag strategy by specific and sensitive profiling of intermediate MMPE and DMPE species in liver. ..
  9. Annan R, Lee A, Reid I, Sayad A, Whiteway M, Hallett M, et al. A biochemical genomics screen for substrates of Ste20p kinase enables the in silico prediction of novel substrates. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8279 pubmed publisher
  10. Federovitch C, Jones Y, Tong A, Boone C, Prinz W, Hampton R. Genetic and structural analysis of Hmg2p-induced endoplasmic reticulum remodeling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4506-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These phospholipid effects, unlike Hmg2p-induced ER remodeling, required the enzymatic activity of Hmg2p. Together, our results indicate that, although related, Hmg2p- and Hmg1p-induced ER remodeling are mechanistically distinct. ..