Gene Symbol: CDC34
Description: SCF E2 ubiquitin-protein ligase catalytic subunit CDC34
Alias: DNA6, UBC3, SCF E2 ubiquitin-protein ligase catalytic subunit CDC34
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c
Products:     CDC34

Top Publications

  1. Goebl M, Yochem J, Jentsch S, McGrath J, Varshavsky A, Byers B. The yeast cell cycle gene CDC34 encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Science. 1988;241:1331-5 pubmed
    Mutants in the gene CDC34 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are defective in the transition from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle...
  2. Goebl M, Goetsch L, Byers B. The Ubc3 (Cdc34) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme is ubiquitinated and phosphorylated in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3022-9 pubmed
    The transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the activity of the Ubc3 (Cdc34) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. S...
  3. Irniger S, Baumer M, Braus G. Glucose and ras activity influence the ubiquitin ligases APC/C and SCF in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2000;154:1509-21 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, cdc34-2 mutants, which are impaired in SCF function, are differently affected with respect to Ras activity...
  4. Lass A, Cocklin R, Scaglione K, Skowyra M, Korolev S, Goebl M, et al. The loop-less tmCdc34 E2 mutant defective in polyubiquitination in vitro and in vivo supports yeast growth in a manner dependent on Ubp14 and Cka2. Cell Div. 2011;6:7 pubmed publisher
    The S73/S97/loop motif is a hallmark of the Cdc34 family of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes that together with the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases promote degradation of proteins involved in cell cycle and growth regulation...
  5. Mathias N, Steussy C, Goebl M. An essential domain within Cdc34p is required for binding to a complex containing Cdc4p and Cdc53p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:4040-5 pubmed
    The CDC34 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating protein that transfers ubiquitin onto substrates to signal rapid degradation via the proteasome...
  6. Petroski M, Deshaies R. Mechanism of lysine 48-linked ubiquitin-chain synthesis by the cullin-RING ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF-Cdc34. Cell. 2005;123:1107-20 pubmed
    ..Sic1 and its ubiquitination by the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase SCF(Cdc4) and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34. We show that Sic1 ubiquitination can be separated into two steps: attachment of the first ubiquitin, which is ..
  7. Ptak C, Prendergast J, Hodgins R, Kay C, Chau V, Ellison M. Functional and physical characterization of the cell cycle ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme CDC34 (UBC3). Identification of a functional determinant within the tail that facilitates CDC34 self-association. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:26539-45 pubmed
    Like several other ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, the yeast cell cycle enzyme CDC34 (UBC3) has a carboxyl-terminal extension or tail...
  8. Kleiger G, Hao B, Mohl D, Deshaies R. The acidic tail of the Cdc34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme functions in both binding to and catalysis with ubiquitin ligase SCFCdc4. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:36012-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The first cullin-RING ligase discovered, yeast SCF(Cdc4), functions with the conjugating enzyme Cdc34 to regulate the cell cycle. Cdc34 orthologs are notable for their highly acidic C-terminal extension...
  9. Sadowski M, Suryadinata R, Lai X, Heierhorst J, Sarcevic B. Molecular basis for lysine specificity in the yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2316-29 pubmed publisher
    ..By studying the polyubiquitination of Sic1 by the E2 protein Cdc34 and the RING E3 Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF) protein, we now demonstrate that in addition to E2/E3-mediated positioning, ..

More Information


  1. Skowyra D, Koepp D, Kamura T, Conrad M, Conaway R, Conaway J, et al. Reconstitution of G1 cyclin ubiquitination with complexes containing SCFGrr1 and Rbx1. Science. 1999;284:662-5 pubmed
    ..was ubiquitinated by SCF (Skp1-Cdc53-F-box protein) complexes containing the F-box protein Grr1, Rbx1, and the E2 Cdc34. Rbx1 promotes association of Cdc34 with Cdc53 and stimulates Cdc34 auto-ubiquitination in the context of Cdc53 or ..
  2. Deffenbaugh A, Scaglione K, Zhang L, Moore J, Buranda T, Sklar L, et al. Release of ubiquitin-charged Cdc34-S - Ub from the RING domain is essential for ubiquitination of the SCF(Cdc4)-bound substrate Sic1. Cell. 2003;114:611-22 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae SCF(Cdc4) is a prototype of RING-type SCF E3s, which recruit substrates for polyubiquitination by the Cdc34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme...
  3. Sadowski M, Mawson A, Baker R, Sarcevic B. Cdc34 C-terminal tail phosphorylation regulates Skp1/cullin/F-box (SCF)-mediated ubiquitination and cell cycle progression. Biochem J. 2007;405:569-81 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 (cell division cycle 34) plays an essential role in promoting the G1-S-phase transition of the eukaryotic cell cycle and is phosphorylated in vivo...
  4. Sheu Y, Barral Y, Snyder M. Polarized growth controls cell shape and bipolar bud site selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5235-47 pubmed
    ..We propose that apical growth and repolarization at the site of cytokinesis are crucial for establishing spatial cues used by diploid yeast cells to position division planes. ..
  5. Scaglione K, Bansal P, Deffenbaugh A, Kiss A, Moore J, Korolev S, et al. SCF E3-mediated autoubiquitination negatively regulates activity of Cdc34 E2 but plays a nonessential role in the catalytic cycle in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5860-70 pubmed
    One of the several still unexplained aspects of the mechanism by which the Cdc34/SCF RING-type ubiquitin ligases work is the marked stimulation of Cdc34 autoubiquitination, a phenomenon of unknown mechanism and significance...
  6. Coccetti P, Tripodi F, Tedeschi G, Nonnis S, Marin O, Fantinato S, et al. The CK2 phosphorylation of catalytic domain of Cdc34 modulates its activity at the G1 to S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:1391-401 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 was recently shown to be phosphorylated by CK2 on the C-terminal tail. Here we present novel findings indicating that in budding yeast CK2 phosphorylates Cdc34 within the N-terminal catalytic domain...
  7. Kleiger G, Saha A, Lewis S, Kuhlman B, Deshaies R. Rapid E2-E3 assembly and disassembly enable processive ubiquitylation of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase substrates. Cell. 2009;139:957-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that chain assembly by ubiquitin ligase SCF and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 is facilitated by the unusual nature of Cdc34-SCF transactions: Cdc34 binds SCF with nanomolar affinity, ..
  8. Patton E, Willems A, Sa D, Kuras L, Thomas D, Craig K, et al. Cdc53 is a scaffold protein for multiple Cdc34/Skp1/F-box proteincomplexes that regulate cell division and methionine biosynthesis in yeast. Genes Dev. 1998;12:692-705 pubmed
    ..of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor Sic1 is catalyzed by the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Cdc34 in conjunction with an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex composed of Skp1, Cdc53 and the F-box protein, Cdc4 (the ..
  9. Feldman R, Correll C, Kaplan K, Deshaies R. A complex of Cdc4p, Skp1p, and Cdc53p/cullin catalyzes ubiquitination of the phosphorylated CDK inhibitor Sic1p. Cell. 1997;91:221-30 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data illuminate the molecular basis for the G1/S transition in budding yeast and suggest a general mechanism for phosphorylation-targeted ubiquitination in eukaryotes. ..
  10. Skowyra D, Craig K, Tyers M, Elledge S, Harper J. F-box proteins are receptors that recruit phosphorylated substrates to the SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex. Cell. 1997;91:209-19 pubmed
    ..SCFCdc4, which functions as a Sic1 ubiquitin-ligase (E3) in combination with the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) Cdc34 and E1. Cdc4 assembled with Skp1 functions as the receptor that selectively binds phosphorylated Sic1...
  11. Bidlingmaier S, Snyder M. Large-scale identification of genes important for apical growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by directed allele replacement technology (DART) screening. Funct Integr Genomics. 2002;1:345-56 pubmed
    ..A total of 4,810 insertion alleles affecting 1,392 different yeast genes were transferred into a cdc34-2 mutant strain that arrests in the apical growth phase when grown at the restrictive temperature of 37 degrees C...
  12. Pitluk Z, McDonough M, Sangan P, Gonda D. Novel CDC34 (UBC3) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme mutants obtained by charge-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1210-9 pubmed
    b>CDC34 (UBC3) encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzyme required for transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the budding yeast cell cycle...
  13. Prendergast J, Ptak C, Kornitzer D, Steussy C, Hodgins R, Goebl M, et al. Identification of a positive regulator of the cell cycle ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 (Ubc3). Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:677-84 pubmed
    The Cdc34 (Ubc3) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an essential role in the progression of cells from the G1 to S phase of the cell division cycle...
  14. Verma R, Feldman R, Deshaies R. SIC1 is ubiquitinated in vitro by a pathway that requires CDC4, CDC34, and cyclin/CDK activities. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1427-37 pubmed
    ..Genetic data suggest that SIC1 proteolysis is mediated by the ubiquitin pathway and requires the action of CDC34, CDC4, CDC53, SKP1, and CLN/CDC28...
  15. Deshaies R, Chau V, Kirschner M. Ubiquitination of the G1 cyclin Cln2p by a Cdc34p-dependent pathway. EMBO J. 1995;14:303-12 pubmed
    ..These results provide a molecular framework for G1 cyclin instability and suggest that a multicomponent, regulated pathway specifies the selective ubiquitination of G1 cyclins. ..
  16. Cocklin R, Heyen J, Larry T, Tyers M, Goebl M. New insight into the role of the Cdc34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in cell cycle regulation via Ace2 and Sic1. Genetics. 2011;187:701-15 pubmed publisher
    The Cdc34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme plays a central role in progression of the cell cycle...
  17. Seol J, Feldman R, Zachariae W, Correll C, Lyapina S, Chi Y, et al. Cdc53/cullin and the essential Hrt1 RING-H2 subunit of SCF define a ubiquitin ligase module that activates the E2 enzyme Cdc34. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1614-26 pubmed
    ..Hrt1 assembles into recombinant SCF complexes and individually binds Cdc4, Cdc53 and Cdc34, but not Skp1...
  18. Tang X, Orlicky S, Lin Z, Willems A, Neculai D, Ceccarelli D, et al. Suprafacial orientation of the SCFCdc4 dimer accommodates multiple geometries for substrate ubiquitination. Cell. 2007;129:1165-76 pubmed
    ..This spatial variability may accommodate diverse acceptor lysine geometries in both substrates and the elongating ubiquitin chain and thereby increase catalytic efficiency. ..
  19. Schwob E, Bohm T, Mendenhall M, Nasmyth K. The B-type cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1 controls the G1 to S transition in S. cerevisiae. Cell. 1994;79:233-44 pubmed
    ..A sextuple clb1-6 mutant arrests as multibudded G1 cells that resemble cells lacking the Cdc34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme...
  20. Varelas X, Ptak C, Ellison M. Cdc34 self-association is facilitated by ubiquitin thiolester formation and is required for its catalytic activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5388-400 pubmed
    Using a coimmunoprecipitation strategy, we showed that the Cdc34 ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae self-associates in cell lysates, thereby indicating an in vivo interaction...
  21. Blondel M, Galan J, Chi Y, LaFourcade C, Longaretti C, Deshaies R, et al. Nuclear-specific degradation of Far1 is controlled by the localization of the F-box protein Cdc4. EMBO J. 2000;19:6085-97 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate the importance of subcellular localization of F-box proteins, and provide an example of how an extracellular signal regulates protein stability at the level of substrate localization. ..
  22. Eremenko E, Ben Zvi A, Morozova Roche L, Raveh D. Aggregation of human S100A8 and S100A9 amyloidogenic proteins perturbs proteostasis in a yeast model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58218 pubmed publisher
    ..were toxic when expressed on a background of unrelated metastable temperature-sensitive mutant proteins, Cdc53-1p, Cdc34-2p, Srp1-31p and Sec27-1p...
  23. Petroski M, Kleiger G, Deshaies R. Evaluation of a diffusion-driven mechanism for substrate ubiquitination by the SCF-Cdc34 ubiquitin ligase complex. Mol Cell. 2006;24:523-34 pubmed
    Release of ubiquitin-charged Cdc34 from the SCF ubiquitin ligase followed by diffusion-driven collision with substrate has been proposed to underlie ubiquitination of the canonical SCF substrate Sic1...
  24. Gulli M, Jaquenoud M, Shimada Y, Niederhauser G, Wiget P, Peter M. Phosphorylation of the Cdc42 exchange factor Cdc24 by the PAK-like kinase Cla4 may regulate polarized growth in yeast. Mol Cell. 2000;6:1155-67 pubmed
  25. Han J, Zhang H, Zhang H, Wang Z, Zhou H, Zhang Z. A Cul4 E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates histone hand-off during nucleosome assembly. Cell. 2013;155:817-29 pubmed publisher
  26. Scott D, Monda J, Grace C, Duda D, Kriwacki R, Kurz T, et al. A dual E3 mechanism for Rub1 ligation to Cdc53. Mol Cell. 2010;39:784-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal mechanisms by which two E3s function synergistically to promote UBL transfer from one E2 to a target. ..
  27. Takahashi S, Araki Y, Ohya Y, Sakuno T, Hoshino S, Kontani K, et al. Upf1 potentially serves as a RING-related E3 ubiquitin ligase via its association with Upf3 in yeast. RNA. 2008;14:1950-8 pubmed publisher
    ..from typical E3-RING fingers, the CH domain of yeast Upf1 specifically and directly interacted with the yeast E2 Ubc3. Interestingly, Upf1 served as a substrate for the in vitro self-ubiquitination, and the modification required its ..
  28. Zaidi I, Rabut G, Poveda A, Scheel H, Malmstrom J, Ulrich H, et al. Rtt101 and Mms1 in budding yeast form a CUL4(DDB1)-like ubiquitin ligase that promotes replication through damaged DNA. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:1034-40 pubmed publisher
    ..and Mms22 are functional subunits of an Rtt101-based ubiquitin ligase that associates with the conjugating-enzyme Cdc34. Replication forks in mms1Delta, mms22Delta and rtt101Delta cells are sensitive to collisions with drug-induced ..
  29. Arnason T, Pisclevich M, Dash M, Davies G, Harkness T. Novel interaction between Apc5p and Rsp5p in an intracellular signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:134-46 pubmed
    ..However, rsp5CA and Deltaubc7 mutations had opposite genetic effects on apc5CA and cdc34-2 phenotypes...
  30. Khong J, Zhang T, Gunaratne J, Blackstock W, Surana U. "Reductional anaphase" in replication-defective cells is caused by ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34-mediated deregulation of the spindle. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:2896-910 pubmed publisher
    ..the deregulation of spindle dynamics induced via a regulatory network involving the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) activator Cdh1...
  31. Tang X, Orlicky S, Mittag T, Csizmok V, Pawson T, Forman Kay J, et al. Composite low affinity interactions dictate recognition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 by the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Composite dynamic interactions of low affinity sites may be a general mechanism to establish phosphorylation thresholds in biological responses. ..
  32. Hoyt M. Eliminating all obstacles: regulated proteolysis in the eukaryotic cell cycle. Cell. 1997;91:149-51 pubmed
  33. Cope G, Suh G, Aravind L, Schwarz S, Zipursky S, Koonin E, et al. Role of predicted metalloprotease motif of Jab1/Csn5 in cleavage of Nedd8 from Cul1. Science. 2002;298:608-11 pubmed
    ..We propose that JAMM isopeptidases play important roles in a variety of physiological pathways. ..
  34. Ivanovska I, Rose M. SLG1 plays a role during G1 in the decision to enter or exit the cell cycle. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;262:1147-56 pubmed
    ..The slg1delta mutation displayed genetic interactions with cdc34, which encodes a regulator of exit from G1. This is consistent with a role of SLG1 in G1 regulation...
  35. Haas A, Reback P, Chau V. Ubiquitin conjugation by the yeast RAD6 and CDC34 gene products. Comparison to their putative rabbit homologs, E2(20K) AND E2(32K). J Biol Chem. 1991;266:5104-12 pubmed
    The recombinant yeast RAD6 and CDC34 gene products were expressed in Escherichia coli extracts and purified to apparent homogeneity...
  36. Kamura T, Conrad M, Yan Q, Conaway R, Conaway J. The Rbx1 subunit of SCF and VHL E3 ubiquitin ligase activates Rub1 modification of cullins Cdc53 and Cul2. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2928-33 pubmed
    ..and Cul2/Rbx1 modules that activate ubiquitination of target proteins by the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Cdc34 and Ubc5...
  37. Tang X, Orlicky S, Liu Q, Willems A, Sicheri F, Tyers M. Genome-wide surveys for phosphorylation-dependent substrates of SCF ubiquitin ligases. Methods Enzymol. 2005;399:433-58 pubmed
    ..Both methods have identified novel substrates of Cdc4 and may, in principle, be used to identify numerous new substrates of other SCF and SCF-like complexes from yeast to humans. ..
  38. Haririnia A, Verma R, Purohit N, Twarog M, Deshaies R, Bolon D, et al. Mutations in the hydrophobic core of ubiquitin differentially affect its recognition by receptor proteins. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:979-96 pubmed
    ..These studies emphasize an unexpected role for Ub's core in molecular recognition and suggest that the diversity of protein-protein interactions in which Ub engages placed enormous constraints on its evolvability. ..
  39. Willems A, Lanker S, Patton E, Craig K, Nason T, Mathias N, et al. Cdc53 targets phosphorylated G1 cyclins for degradation by the ubiquitin proteolytic pathway. Cell. 1996;86:453-63 pubmed
    ..Cdc53 also binds the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, Cdc34. These findings suggest that Cdc53 is a component of a ubiquitin-protein ligase complex that targets ..
  40. Schwer B, Saha N, Mao X, Chen H, Shuman S. Structure-function analysis of yeast mRNA cap methyltransferase and high-copy suppression of conditional mutants by AdoMet synthase and the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Cdc34p. Genetics. 2000;155:1561-76 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the growth defect of abd1 mutants is exacerbated by cdc34-2...
  41. Hsu J, Chang L, Jang L, Huang C, Lee F. The N-terminus of Vps74p is essential for the retention of glycosyltransferases in the Golgi but not for the modulation of apical polarized growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74715 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis has shown that Vps74p is required for the formation of abnormal elongated buds in cdc34-2 cells...
  42. Kus B, Caldon C, Andorn Broza R, Edwards A. Functional interaction of 13 yeast SCF complexes with a set of yeast E2 enzymes in vitro. Proteins. 2004;54:455-67 pubmed
    ..SCFs have been reconstituted and characterized to date; each of these ubiquitinates its target protein with the E2 Cdc34. We have reconstituted and purified 1 known and 12 novel yeast SCF complexes, and explored the ability of these ..
  43. Verma R, Annan R, Huddleston M, Carr S, Reynard G, Deshaies R. Phosphorylation of Sic1p by G1 Cdk required for its degradation and entry into S phase. Science. 1997;278:455-60 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a molecular model of how phosphorylation and proteolysis cooperate to bring about the G1/S transition in budding yeast. ..
  44. Suryadinata R, Holien J, Yang G, Parker M, Papaleo E, Sarcevic B. Molecular and structural insight into lysine selection on substrate and ubiquitin lysine 48 by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1732-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated determinants of lysine specificity of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34, toward substrate and Ub lysines...
  45. Lammer D, Mathias N, Laplaza J, Jiang W, Liu Y, Callis J, et al. Modification of yeast Cdc53p by the ubiquitin-related protein rub1p affects function of the SCFCdc4 complex. Genes Dev. 1998;12:914-26 pubmed
    ..A deletion allele of ENR2 is lethal with temperature-sensitive alleles of cdc34 and enhances the phenotypes of cdc4, cdc53, and skp1, strongly implying that Rub1p conjugation to Cdc53p is ..
  46. Liu Y, Mimura S, Kishi T, Kamura T. A longevity protein, Lag2, interacts with SCF complex and regulates SCF function. EMBO J. 2009;28:3366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Lag2 negatively controls the ubiquitylation activities of SCF E3 ligase by interrupting the association of Cdc34 to SCF complex...
  47. Phillips A, Zhang Y, Cunningham C, Zhou L, Forrest W, Liu P, et al. Conformational dynamics control ubiquitin-deubiquitinase interactions and influence in vivo signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that conformational dynamics are critical for ubiquitin-deubiquitinase interactions and imply that the fine tuning of motion has played a key role in the evolution of ubiquitin as a signaling hub. ..
  48. Elsasser S, Chi Y, Yang P, Campbell J. Phosphorylation controls timing of Cdc6p destruction: A biochemical analysis. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3263-77 pubmed
    ..However, stabilization through mutation of three N-terminal phosphorylation sites or of the single C-terminal phosphorylation site leads to dominant lethality when combined with certain mutations in the anaphase-promoting complex. ..
  49. Orlicky S, Tang X, Willems A, Tyers M, Sicheri F. Structural basis for phosphodependent substrate selection and orientation by the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase. Cell. 2003;112:243-56 pubmed
    ..These features account for the observed phosphorylation threshold in Sic1 recognition and suggest an equilibrium binding mode between a single receptor site in Cdc4 and multiple low-affinity CPD sites in Sic1. ..
  50. Willems A, Goh T, Taylor L, Chernushevich I, Shevchenko A, Tyers M. SCF ubiquitin protein ligases and phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999;354:1533-50 pubmed
    ..SCF complexes physically link substrate proteins to the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34, which catalyses substrate ubiquitination, leading to subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome...
  51. Lyapina S, Correll C, Kipreos E, Deshaies R. Human CUL1 forms an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin ligase complex (SCF) with SKP1 and an F-box protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7451-6 pubmed
  52. Cappell S, Baker R, Skowyra D, Dohlman H. Systematic analysis of essential genes reveals important regulators of G protein signaling. Mol Cell. 2010;38:746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Further genetic and biochemical analysis reveals that SCF(Cdc4) acts together with the Cdc34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme at the level of the G protein; promotes degradation of the G protein alpha subunit, ..
  53. Hurst J, Dohlman H. Dynamic ubiquitination of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) Ste7 determines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) specificity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18660-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a feedback loop wherein one MAPK limits the ubiquitination of an upstream MAPKK and thereby prevents spurious activation of a second competing MAPK. ..
  54. Michel J, McCarville J, Xiong Y. A role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cul8 ubiquitin ligase in proper anaphase progression. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22828-37 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that in addition to the anaphase promoting complex, mitotic progression may involve another E3 ubiquitin ligase mediated by Cul8 protein. ..
  55. Liakopoulos D, Büsgen T, Brychzy A, Jentsch S, Pause A. Conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to cullin-2 is linked to von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5510-5 pubmed
    ..A tumorigenic pVHL variant, however, is essentially deficient in this activity. Thus, ligation of NEDD8 to hCUL-2 is linked to pVHL activity and may be important for pVHL tumor suppressor function. ..
  56. Han J, Li Q, McCullough L, Kettelkamp C, Formosa T, Zhang Z. Ubiquitylation of FACT by the cullin-E3 ligase Rtt101 connects FACT to DNA replication. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Origin function is compromised in cells lacking Rtt101 or with an Spt16 mutation. These findings identify Spt16 as an Rtt101 substrate, and suggest that Spt16 ubiquitylation is important for FACT to function during DNA replication. ..
  57. Meimoun A, Holtzman T, Weissman Z, McBride H, Stillman D, Fink G, et al. Degradation of the transcription factor Gcn4 requires the kinase Pho85 and the SCF(CDC4) ubiquitin-ligase complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:915-27 pubmed
    ..SCF(CDC4), a recently characterized protein complex that acts in conjunction with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 to degrade cell cycle regulators, is also necessary for the degradation of the transcription factor Gcn4...
  58. Hiraishi H, Mochizuki M, Takagi H. Enhancement of stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 and ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:2762-5 pubmed
    ..Co-overexpression of Rsp5 and Ubc1, Ubc2, Ubc3, Ubc5, Ubc6, Ubc9, Ubc10, Ubc11, Ubc12, or Ubc13 further enhanced stress tolerance...
  59. Wheeler G, Quinn K, Perrone G, Dawes I, Grant C. Glutathione regulates the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase via the Met4 transcription factor. Mol Microbiol. 2002;46:545-56 pubmed
    ..The second contains CDC34, encoding a ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, indicating a link between the ubiquitin and GSH stress protective ..
  60. Yoon H, Carbon J. Genetic and biochemical interactions between an essential kinetochore protein, Cbf2p/Ndc10p, and the CDC34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4835-42 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of yeast CDC34 specifically suppresses the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of the ndc10-1 mutation...
  61. Hewawasam G, Mattingly M, Venkatesh S, Zhang Y, Florens L, Workman J, et al. Phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 facilitates Psh1 protein-assisted degradation of Cse4 protein. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:29297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of Psh1 did not control Psh1-Cse4 or Psh1-Ubc3(E2) interactions...
  62. Vendrell A, Martínez Pastor M, Gonzalez Novo A, Pascual Ahuir A, Sinclair D, Proft M, et al. Sir2 histone deacetylase prevents programmed cell death caused by sustained activation of the Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1062-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sir2 is involved in protection against Hog1-induced cell death and can suppress Hog1-induced ROS accumulation. Therefore, cell death seems to be dictated by the balance of ROS induced by Hog1 and the protective effect of Sir2. ..
  63. Ouni I, Flick K, Kaiser P. A transcriptional activator is part of an SCF ubiquitin ligase to control degradation of its cofactors. Mol Cell. 2010;40:954-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish an additional layer for substrate recruitment by SCF ubiquitin ligases and provide conceptual insight into coordinated regulation of protein complexes. ..
  64. Liu Q, Larsen B, Ricicova M, Orlicky S, Tekotte H, Tang X, et al. SCFCdc4 enables mating type switching in yeast by cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated elimination of the Ash1 transcriptional repressor. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:584-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The phosphorylation-dependent elimination of Ash1 by the ubiquitin-proteasome system thus underpins developmental asymmetry in budding yeast. ..
  65. Singer T, Haefner S, Hoffmann M, Fischer M, Ilyina J, Hilt W. Sit4 phosphatase is functionally linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Genetics. 2003;164:1305-21 pubmed
    ..Nearly identical synthetic effects were found when sit4 mutations were combined with defects of the Rad6/Ubc2- and Cdc34/Ubc3-dependent ubiquitination pathways...
  66. Jaquenoud M, Gulli M, Peter K, Peter M. The Cdc42p effector Gic2p is targeted for ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the SCFGrr1 complex. EMBO J. 1998;17:5360-73 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data indicate that degradation of Gic2p may be part of a mechanism which restricts cytoskeletal polarization in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ..
  67. Scott D, Monda J, Bennett E, Harper J, Schulman B. N-terminal acetylation acts as an avidity enhancer within an interconnected multiprotein complex. Science. 2011;334:674-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a link between acetylation and ubiquitin-like protein conjugation and define a mechanism for N-terminal acetylation-dependent recognition. ..
  68. Goranov A, Cook M, Ricicova M, Ben Ari G, Gonzalez C, Hansen C, et al. The rate of cell growth is governed by cell cycle stage. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1408-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study uncovers a fundamental relationship whereby cell cycle position regulates growth. ..
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