Gene Symbol: BUD6
Description: Bud6p
Alias: AIP3, Bud6p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Evangelista M, Blundell K, Longtine M, Chow C, Adames N, Pringle J, et al. Bni1p, a yeast formin linking cdc42p and the actin cytoskeleton during polarized morphogenesis. Science. 1997;276:118-22 pubmed
    ..the Rho-related guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42p, with actin, and with two actin-associated proteins, profilin and Bud6p (Aip3p). Both Bni1p and Bud6p (like Cdc42p and actin) localized to the tips of mating projections...
  2. Amberg D, Zahner J, Mulholland J, Pringle J, Botstein D. Aip3p/Bud6p, a yeast actin-interacting protein that is involved in morphogenesis and the selection of bipolar budding sites. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:729-53 pubmed
    ..two-hybrid system and a screen for mutants that affect the bipolar budding pattern identified the same gene, AIP3/BUD6. This gene is not essential for mitotic growth but is necessary for normal morphogenesis...
  3. ten Hoopen R, Cepeda García C, Fernández Arruti R, Juanes M, Delgehyr N, Segal M. Mechanism for astral microtubule capture by cortical Bud6p priming spindle polarity in S. cerevisiae. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1075-83 pubmed publisher
    ..yeast, this process begins with the capture of pole-derived astral microtubules (MTs) by the polarity determinant Bud6p at the cortex of the bud in G(1)...
  4. Miller R, Matheos D, Rose M. The cortical localization of the microtubule orientation protein, Kar9p, is dependent upon actin and proteins required for polarization. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:963-75 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Kar9p's function is specific for cytoplasmic microtubule orientation and that Kar9p's role in nuclear positioning is to coordinate the interactions between the actin and microtubule networks. ..
  5. Kadota J, Yamamoto T, Yoshiuchi S, Bi E, Tanaka K. Septin ring assembly requires concerted action of polarisome components, a PAK kinase Cla4p, and the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5329-45 pubmed
    ..Bni1p, a formin family protein, is a member of the polarisome complex with Spa2p, Bud6p, and Pea2p...
  6. Pruyne D, Bretscher A. Polarization of cell growth in yeast. I. Establishment and maintenance of polarity states. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 3):365-75 pubmed
    ..Given that many of these signaling pathways are present in both fungi and animals, they are probably ancient and conserved mechanisms for regulating polarity. ..
  7. Jaquenoud M, Peter M. Gic2p may link activated Cdc42p to components involved in actin polarization, including Bni1p and Bud6p (Aip3p). Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6244-58 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Gic2p displayed multiple genetic interactions with Bni1p, Bud6p (Aip3p), and Spa2p, suggesting that Gic2p may regulate their function in vivo...
  8. Zahner J, Harkins H, Pringle J. Genetic analysis of the bipolar pattern of bud site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1857-70 pubmed
    ..of budding pattern had mutations in four previously known genes (BUD2, BUD5, SPA2, and BNI1) and one novel gene (BUD6), respectively...
  9. Nelson S, Cooper J. A novel pathway that coordinates mitotic exit with spindle position. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3440-50 pubmed
    ..Each component of this pathway is required for the spindle position checkpoint to delay mitotic exit until the spindle is positioned correctly. ..

More Information


  1. Huisman S, Bales O, Bertrand M, Smeets M, Reed S, Segal M. Differential contribution of Bud6p and Kar9p to microtubule capture and spindle orientation in S. cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:231-44 pubmed
    ..This program requires Bud6p/Aip3p to direct the old pole to the bud and confine the new pole to the mother cell...
  2. Segal M, Bloom K, Reed S. Bud6 directs sequential microtubule interactions with the bud tip and bud neck during spindle morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:3689-702 pubmed
    ..These differences are mediated by the relative partition of Bud6 between the bud tip and bud neck, distinguishing haploids from diploids...
  3. Kikyo M, Tanaka K, Kamei T, Ozaki K, Fujiwara T, Inoue E, et al. An FH domain-containing Bnr1p is a multifunctional protein interacting with a variety of cytoskeletal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Oncogene. 1999;18:7046-54 pubmed
    ..Bnr1p also directly interacted with Bud6p, a novel actin-binding protein...
  4. Roemer T, Vallier L, Sheu Y, Snyder M. The Spa2-related protein, Sph1p, is important for polarized growth in yeast. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 4):479-94 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Spa2p and Sph1p comprise two related proteins important for the control of cell morphogenesis in yeast. ..
  5. Moseley J, Sagot I, Manning A, Xu Y, Eck M, Pellman D, et al. A conserved mechanism for Bni1- and mDia1-induced actin assembly and dual regulation of Bni1 by Bud6 and profilin. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:896-907 pubmed
    ..In addition, we purified the Bni1-interacting half of the cell polarity factor Bud6 and found that it binds specifically to actin monomers and, like profilin, promotes rapid nucleotide exchange on ..
  6. Moseley J, Goode B. Differential activities and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae formin proteins Bni1 and Bnr1 by Bud6. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28023-33 pubmed
    ..However, the cell polarity factor Bud6/Aip3 specifically bound to and stimulated Bni1, but not Bnr1...
  7. Tcheperegine S, Gao X, Bi E. Regulation of cell polarity by interactions of Msb3 and Msb4 with Cdc42 and polarisome components. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8567-80 pubmed
    ..A functional equivalent of the polarisome probably exists in other fungi and mammals. ..
  8. Graziano B, DuPage A, Michelot A, Breitsprecher D, Moseley J, Sagot I, et al. Mechanism and cellular function of Bud6 as an actin nucleation-promoting factor. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4016-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Proper cable assembly further requires Bud6. Previously it was shown that Bud6 enhances Bni1-mediated actin assembly in vitro, but the biochemical mechanism ..
  9. Delgehyr N, Lopes C, Moir C, Huisman S, Segal M. Dissecting the involvement of formins in Bud6p-mediated cortical capture of microtubules in S. cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3803-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A player in this asymmetric commitment, Bud6p, promotes cortical capture of astral microtubules...
  10. Shcheprova Z, Baldi S, Frei S, Gonnet G, Barral Y. A mechanism for asymmetric segregation of age during yeast budding. Nature. 2008;454:728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data involve septin-dependent diffusion barriers in the confinement of ageing factors to one daughter cell during asymmetric cell division. ..
  11. Loewen C, Young B, Tavassoli S, Levine T. Inheritance of cortical ER in yeast is required for normal septin organization. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:467-83 pubmed
    ..This perturbation leads to a delay in the transition through G2, activating the Saccharomyces wee1 kinase (Swe1) and the morphogenesis checkpoint. Thus, we identify a mechanism involved in sensing the distribution of ER. ..
  12. Tu D, Graziano B, Park E, Zheng W, Li Y, Goode B, et al. Structure of the formin-interaction domain of the actin nucleation-promoting factor Bud6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E3424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The Saccharomyces cerevisiae formin Bni1 and its associated nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) Bud6 generate actin cables and mediate polarized cell growth...
  13. Amberg D, Basart E, Botstein D. Defining protein interactions with yeast actin in vivo. Nat Struct Biol. 1995;2:28-35 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the patterns for profilin and the SH3 domain proteins suggest a shared binding site and commonality in mechanism. ..
  14. Sheu Y, Santos B, Fortin N, Costigan C, Snyder M. Spa2p interacts with cell polarity proteins and signaling components involved in yeast cell morphogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4053-69 pubmed
    ..Spa2p interacts with Pea2p and Bud6p (Aip3p) as determined by the two-hybrid system; all of these proteins exhibit similar localization patterns, and ..
  15. Pavlov D, Muhlrad A, Cooper J, Wear M, Reisler E. Severing of F-actin by yeast cofilin is pH-independent. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:533-42 pubmed
    ..The pH-independent severing by cofilin was confirmed using actin labeled at Cys374 with Oregon Green 488 maleimide. The depolymerization of actin by cofilin was faster at high pH. ..
  16. Lambert A, Perron M, Lavoie E, Pallotta D. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Arf3 protein is involved in actin cable and cortical patch formation. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007;7:782-95 pubmed
    ..b>BUD6 is a polarity gene and GEA2 is involved in retrograde transport and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton...
  17. Sheu Y, Barral Y, Snyder M. Polarized growth controls cell shape and bipolar bud site selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5235-47 pubmed
    ..We found that the polarity genes SPA2, PEA2, BUD6, and BNI1 participate in a crucial step of bud morphogenesis, apical growth...
  18. Haarer B, Helfant A, Nelson S, Cooper J, Amberg D. Stable preanaphase spindle positioning requires Bud6p and an apparent interaction between the spindle pole bodies and the neck. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:797-807 pubmed
    ..Regulators of this process include Bud6p (also referred to as the actin-interacting protein Aip3p) and Kar9p, which function to promote contacts between ..
  19. Annan R, Lee A, Reid I, Sayad A, Whiteway M, Hallett M, et al. A biochemical genomics screen for substrates of Ste20p kinase enables the in silico prediction of novel substrates. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8279 pubmed publisher
    ..experimental and computational approach for identifying kinase substrates by confirming the in vitro phosphorylation of polarisome components Bni1p and Bud6p, thus suggesting a mechanism by which Ste20p effects polarized growth.
  20. Cepeda García C, Delgehyr N, Juanes Ortiz M, ten Hoopen R, Zhiteneva A, Segal M. Actin-mediated delivery of astral microtubules instructs Kar9p asymmetric loading to the bud-ward spindle pole. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2685-95 pubmed publisher
    ..to Myo2p-based transport along actin cables generated by the formins Bni1p and Bnr1p and the polarity determinant Bud6p. Initially, Kar9p labels both poles but progressively singles out the bud-ward pole...
  21. Yoshiuchi S, Yamamoto T, Sakane H, Kadota J, Mochida J, Asaka M, et al. Identification of novel mutations in ACT1 and SLA2 that suppress the actin-cable-overproducing phenotype caused by overexpression of a dominant active form of Bni1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2006;173:527-39 pubmed
    ..act1-301, which resulted in an E117K substitution, interacted genetically with mutations in profilin (PFY1) and BUD6, suggesting that Act1-301p was not fully functional in formin-mediated polymerization...
  22. Basmaji F, Martin Yken H, Durand F, Dagkessamanskaia A, Pichereaux C, Rossignol M, et al. The 'interactome' of the Knr4/Smi1, a protein implicated in coordinating cell wall synthesis with bud emergence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;275:217-30 pubmed
    ..The second group comprised four proteins (Bud6, Act1, Cin8 and Jnm1) implicated in the establishment of cell polarity and bud integrity during mitosis...
  23. Graziano B, Jonasson E, Pullen J, Gould C, Goode B. Ligand-induced activation of a formin-NPF pair leads to collaborative actin nucleation. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:595-611 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeast Bud6 has an established role as an NPF for the formin Bni1, but whether it also directly regulates the formin Bnr1 has ..
  24. Johnson C, Kweon H, Sheidy D, Shively C, Mellacheruvu D, Nesvizhskii A, et al. The yeast Sks1p kinase signaling network regulates pseudohyphal growth and glucose response. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004183 pubmed publisher
    ..this analysis, we report a set of novel phosphorylation sites and highlight Sks1p-dependent phosphorylation in Bud6p, Itr1p, Lrg1p, Npr3p, and Pda1p...
  25. Bettinger B, Clark M, Amberg D. Requirement for the polarisome and formin function in Ssk2p-mediated actin recovery from osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;175:1637-48 pubmed
    ..Our work also shows that Ssk2p requires the polarisome proteins Bud6p and Pea2p to promote efficient, polarized actin reassembly but that this requirement can be bypassed by ..
  26. Nelson S, Sanson A, Park H, Cooper J. A novel role for the GTPase-activating protein Bud2 in the spindle position checkpoint. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36127 pubmed publisher
    ..Tem1 is a Ras-like protein and is the critical regulator of mitotic exit, sitting atop the mitotic exit network (MEN). Tem1 is a likely target for Bud2, supported by genetic analyses that exclude other Ras-like proteins. ..
  27. Li X, Ferro Novick S, Novick P. Different polarisome components play distinct roles in Slt2p-regulated cortical ER inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..components playing distinct roles: Spa2p and Pea2p are required for Slt2p retention at the bud tip, whereas Bni1p, Bud6p, and Sph1p affect the level of Slt2p activation...
  28. Neller J, Dünkler A, Rösler R, Johnsson N. A protein complex containing Epo1p anchors the cortical endoplasmic reticulum to the yeast bud tip. J Cell Biol. 2015;208:71-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis therefore identifies Epo1p as a novel and important component of the polarisome that promotes cER tethering at sites of polarized growth. ..
  29. Park E, Graziano B, Zheng W, Garabedian M, Goode B, Eck M. Structure of a Bud6/Actin Complex Reveals a Novel WH2-like Actin Monomer Recruitment Motif. Structure. 2015;23:1492-1499 pubmed publisher
    In budding yeast, the actin-binding protein Bud6 cooperates with formins Bni1 and Bnr1 to catalyze the assembly of actin filaments...