Gene Symbol: BNI1
Description: formin BNI1
Alias: PPF3, SHE5, formin BNI1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Evangelista M, Pruyne D, Amberg D, Boone C, Bretscher A. Formins direct Arp2/3-independent actin filament assembly to polarize cell growth in yeast. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:260-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the formins Bni1 and Bnr1 of budding yeast stimulate the assembly of actin filaments that function as precursors to tropomyosin-..
  2. Xu Y, Moseley J, Sagot I, Poy F, Pellman D, Goode B, et al. Crystal structures of a Formin Homology-2 domain reveal a tethered dimer architecture. Cell. 2004;116:711-23 pubmed
    ..The tethered dimer architecture may allow formins to stair-step on the barbed end of an elongating nascent filament. ..
  3. Kono K, Saeki Y, Yoshida S, Tanaka K, Pellman D. Proteasomal degradation resolves competition between cell polarization and cellular wound healing. Cell. 2012;150:151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We define a protein-kinase-C-dependent mechanism that mediates the destruction of the formin Bni1 and the exocyst component Sec3...
  4. Miller R, Matheos D, Rose M. The cortical localization of the microtubule orientation protein, Kar9p, is dependent upon actin and proteins required for polarization. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:963-75 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis placed BNI1 in the KAR9 pathway for nuclear migration...
  5. Jaquenoud M, Peter M. Gic2p may link activated Cdc42p to components involved in actin polarization, including Bni1p and Bud6p (Aip3p). Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6244-58 pubmed
    ..We propose that at bud emergence, Gic2p functions as an adaptor which may link activated Cdc42p to components involved in actin organization and polarized growth, including Bni1p, Spa2p, and Bud6p. ..
  6. Fujiwara T, Tanaka K, Mino A, Kikyo M, Takahashi K, Shimizu K, et al. Rho1p-Bni1p-Spa2p interactions: implication in localization of Bni1p at the bud site and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:1221-33 pubmed
    ..Genetic analyses revealed that both the bni1 and spa2 mutations showed synthetic lethal interactions with mutations in the genes encoding components of the ..
  7. Tcheperegine S, Gao X, Bi E. Regulation of cell polarity by interactions of Msb3 and Msb4 with Cdc42 and polarisome components. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8567-80 pubmed
    ..Msb4 interact directly with Spa2, a scaffold protein of the "polarisome" that also interacts with the formin Bni1. Spa2 is required for the polarized localization of Msb3 and Msb4 at the bud tip...
  8. Pruyne D, Gao L, Bi E, Bretscher A. Stable and dynamic axes of polarity use distinct formin isoforms in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4971-89 pubmed
    ..By coupling different formin isoforms to unique cortical landmarks, yeast uses common cytoskeletal elements to maintain stable and dynamic axes in the same cell. ..
  9. Kamei T, Tanaka K, Hihara T, Umikawa M, Imamura H, Kikyo M, et al. Interaction of Bnr1p with a novel Src homology 3 domain-containing Hof1p. Implication in cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:28341-5 pubmed
    ..were localized at the bud neck, and both the bnr1 and hof1 mutations showed synthetic lethal interactions with the bni1 mutation...

More Information


  1. Sagot I, Klee S, Pellman D. Yeast formins regulate cell polarity by controlling the assembly of actin cables. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:42-50 pubmed
    ..A requirement for formins in constructing specific actin structures might be the basis for the diverse activities of formins in development. ..
  2. Gao L, Bretscher A. Analysis of unregulated formin activity reveals how yeast can balance F-actin assembly between different microfilament-based organizations. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1474-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cells must have a way of ensuring a proper balance between actin assembly pathways. ..
  3. Moseley J, Goode B. Differential activities and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae formin proteins Bni1 and Bnr1 by Bud6. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28023-33 pubmed
    ..the activities of carboxyl-terminal fragments of the only two formins expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bni1 and Bnr1...
  4. Segal M, Bloom K, Reed S. Bud6 directs sequential microtubule interactions with the bud tip and bud neck during spindle morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:3689-702 pubmed
    ..These data support a model whereby Bud6 sequentially cues microtubule capture events at the bud tip followed by capture events at the bud neck, necessary for correct spindle morphogenesis and polarity. ..
  5. Kohno H, Tanaka K, Mino A, Umikawa M, Imamura H, Fujiwara T, et al. Bni1p implicated in cytoskeletal control is a putative target of Rho1p small GTP binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1996;15:6060-8 pubmed
    ..This gene was identified as BNI1, known to be implicated in cytokinesis or establishment of cell polarity in S.cerevisiae...
  6. Chesarone M, Gould C, Moseley J, Goode B. Displacement of formins from growing barbed ends by bud14 is critical for actin cable architecture and function. Dev Cell. 2009;16:292-302 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we propose that formin displacement factors regulate filament length and are required in vivo to maintain proper actin network architecture and function. ..
  7. Mösch H, Fink G. Dissection of filamentous growth by transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1997;145:671-84 pubmed
    ..and we thereby identified 16 different genes, CDC39, STE12, TEC1, WHI3, NAB1, DBR1, CDC55, SRV2, TPM1, SPA2, BNI1, DFG5, DFG9, DFG10, BUD8 and DFG16, mutations that block filamentous growth...
  8. Ozaki Kuroda K, Yamamoto Y, Nohara H, Kinoshita M, Fujiwara T, Irie K, et al. Dynamic localization and function of Bni1p at the sites of directed growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:827-39 pubmed
    ..This dynamic localization of Bni1p coincided with the apparent site of bud growth. A bni1-disrupted cell showed a defect in directed growth to the pre-bud site and to the bud tip (apical growth), causing ..
  9. Yoshiuchi S, Yamamoto T, Sakane H, Kadota J, Mochida J, Asaka M, et al. Identification of novel mutations in ACT1 and SLA2 that suppress the actin-cable-overproducing phenotype caused by overexpression of a dominant active form of Bni1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2006;173:527-39 pubmed
  10. Chesarone Cataldo M, Guerin C, Yu J, Wedlich Soldner R, Blanchoin L, Goode B. The myosin passenger protein Smy1 controls actin cable structure and dynamics by acting as a formin damper. Dev Cell. 2011;21:217-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that Smy1 is part of a negative feedback mechanism that detects cable length and prevents overgrowth. ..
  11. Lee L, Klee S, Evangelista M, Boone C, Pellman D. Control of mitotic spindle position by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae formin Bni1p. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:947-61 pubmed
    ..This phenotype is similar to that previously observed in cells lacking the kinesin Kip3p and, in fact, BNI1 and KIP3 were found to be in the same genetic pathway...
  12. Moseley J, Sagot I, Manning A, Xu Y, Eck M, Pellman D, et al. A conserved mechanism for Bni1- and mDia1-induced actin assembly and dual regulation of Bni1 by Bud6 and profilin. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:896-907 pubmed
    ..Here, we define the active region of the yeast formin Bni1 FH2 domain and show that it dimerizes...
  13. Kadota J, Yamamoto T, Yoshiuchi S, Bi E, Tanaka K. Septin ring assembly requires concerted action of polarisome components, a PAK kinase Cla4p, and the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5329-45 pubmed
    ..Bni1p stimulates actin polymerization for the formation of actin cables. Point mutants of BNI1 that are specifically defective in actin cable formation also exhibited septin ring assembly defects in the absence ..
  14. Delgehyr N, Lopes C, Moir C, Huisman S, Segal M. Dissecting the involvement of formins in Bud6p-mediated cortical capture of microtubules in S. cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3803-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that both formins control Bud6p localisation. bni1 mutations advanced recruitment of Bud6p at the bud neck, ahead of spindle assembly, whereas bnr1Delta reduced Bud6p ..
  15. Otomo T, Tomchick D, Otomo C, Panchal S, Machius M, Rosen M. Structural basis of actin filament nucleation and processive capping by a formin homology 2 domain. Nature. 2005;433:488-94 pubmed
    ..Kinetic and/or thermodynamic differences in the conformational and binding equilibria can explain the variable activity of different FH2 domains as well as the effects of the actin-binding protein profilin on FH2 function. ..
  16. Gould C, Maiti S, Michelot A, Graziano B, Blanchoin L, Goode B. The formin DAD domain plays dual roles in autoinhibition and actin nucleation. Curr Biol. 2011;21:384-90 pubmed publisher
  17. Gao L, Bretscher A. Polarized growth in budding yeast in the absence of a localized formin. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that multiple mechanisms contribute to cable orientation and polarized growth, with localized formins and myosin II being two major contributors. ..
  18. Wang J, Neo S, Cai M. Regulation of the yeast formin Bni1p by the actin-regulating kinase Prk1p. Traffic. 2009;10:528-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding extends the roles of Prk1p in the regulation of actin dynamics to be associated with both anterograde and retrograde transport pathways, i.e. exocytosis and endocytosis, in yeast. ..
  19. Buttery S, Yoshida S, Pellman D. Yeast formins Bni1 and Bnr1 utilize different modes of cortical interaction during the assembly of actin cables. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1826-38 pubmed
    The budding yeast formins Bni1 and Bnr1 control the assembly of actin cables. These formins exhibit distinct patterns of localization and polymerize two different populations of cables: Bni1 in the bud and Bnr1 in the mother cell...
  20. Buttery S, Kono K, Stokasimov E, Pellman D. Regulation of the formin Bnr1 by septins anda MARK/Par1-family septin-associated kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4041-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In budding yeast strains in which the other formin, Bni1, is conditionally inactivated, the loss of Gin4 or Shs1 results in the loss of actin cables and cell death, similar ..
  21. Evangelista M, Blundell K, Longtine M, Chow C, Adames N, Pringle J, et al. Bni1p, a yeast formin linking cdc42p and the actin cytoskeleton during polarized morphogenesis. Science. 1997;276:118-22 pubmed
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae BNI1 gene product (Bni1p) is a member of the formin family of proteins, which participate in cell polarization, cytokinesis, and vertebrate limb formation...
  22. Tolliday N, VerPlank L, Li R. Rho1 directs formin-mediated actin ring assembly during budding yeast cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1864-70 pubmed
    ..The conserved Arp2/3 complex and a WASP-family protein mediate actin patch formation, whereas the yeast formins (Bni1 and Bnr1) promote assembly of actin cables. However, the mechanism of actin ring formation is currently unclear...
  23. Bettinger B, Clark M, Amberg D. Requirement for the polarisome and formin function in Ssk2p-mediated actin recovery from osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2007;175:1637-48 pubmed
    ..Formin (BNI1 or BNR1) and tropomyosin functions are also required for actin recovery but, unlike for Bud6p and Pea2p, these ..
  24. Yu L, Qi M, Sheff M, Elion E. Counteractive control of polarized morphogenesis during mating by mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3 and G1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1739-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In fus3 mutants, Ste5 is recruited to significantly more of the plasma membrane, whereas recruitment of Bni1 formin, Cdc24 guanine exchange factor, and Ste20 p21-activated protein kinase are inhibited...
  25. Yu J, Crevenna A, Bettenbühl M, Freisinger T, Wedlich Soldner R. Cortical actin dynamics driven by formins and myosin V. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bni1 drives elongation of randomly oriented actin cables in unpolarized cells, whereas both formins Bnr1 and Bni1 ..
  26. Paul A, Paul A, Pollard T, Pollard T. The role of the FH1 domain and profilin in formin-mediated actin-filament elongation and nucleation. Curr Biol. 2008;18:9-19 pubmed
    ..Because subunit addition promotes dissociation of FH2 domains from growing barbed ends, FH2 domains must pass through a state that is prone to dissociation during each cycle of actin subunit addition coupled to formin translocation. ..
  27. Loewen C, Young B, Tavassoli S, Levine T. Inheritance of cortical ER in yeast is required for normal septin organization. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:467-83 pubmed
    ..This perturbation leads to a delay in the transition through G2, activating the Saccharomyces wee1 kinase (Swe1) and the morphogenesis checkpoint. Thus, we identify a mechanism involved in sensing the distribution of ER. ..
  28. Robinson N, Guo L, Imai J, Toh e A, Matsui Y, Tamanoi F. Rho3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton and exocytosis, is a GTPase which interacts with Myo2 and Exo70. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3580-7 pubmed
    ..Rho3 did interact with Bni1, another effector of Rho1, but less efficiently than with Rho1...
  29. Courtemanche N, Pollard T. Determinants of Formin Homology 1 (FH1) domain function in actin filament elongation by formins. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7812-20 pubmed publisher
    ..FH1 domains of many other formins follow this organizational trend. This particular sequence architecture may optimize the efficiency of FH1-stimulated elongation. ..
  30. Graziano B, Jonasson E, Pullen J, Gould C, Goode B. Ligand-induced activation of a formin-NPF pair leads to collaborative actin nucleation. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:595-611 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeast Bud6 has an established role as an NPF for the formin Bni1, but whether it also directly regulates the formin Bnr1 has remained enigmatic...
  31. Sheu Y, Barral Y, Snyder M. Polarized growth controls cell shape and bipolar bud site selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5235-47 pubmed
    ..We found that the polarity genes SPA2, PEA2, BUD6, and BNI1 participate in a crucial step of bud morphogenesis, apical growth...
  32. Pring M, Evangelista M, Boone C, Yang C, Zigmond S. Mechanism of formin-induced nucleation of actin filaments. Biochemistry. 2003;42:486-96 pubmed
    A fragment of the yeast formin Bni1 containing the FH1FH2 domains increases the rate of filament nucleation from pure G-actin [Pruyne et al. (2002) Science 297, 612-615]...
  33. Sagot I, Rodal A, Moseley J, Goode B, Pellman D. An actin nucleation mechanism mediated by Bni1 and profilin. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:626-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, formin and profilin mediate actin nucleation by an Arp2/3-independent mechanism. These findings suggest that distinct actin nucleation mechanisms may underlie the assembly of different actin cytoskeletal structures. ..
  34. Matheos D, Metodiev M, Muller E, Stone D, Rose M. Pheromone-induced polarization is dependent on the Fus3p MAPK acting through the formin Bni1p. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:99-109 pubmed
    ..fus3 mutants exhibited multiple phenotypes similar to bni1 mutants, including defects in actin and cell polarization, as well as Kar9p and cytoplasmic microtubule ..
  35. Imamura H, Tanaka K, Hihara T, Umikawa M, Kamei T, Takahashi K, et al. Bni1p and Bnr1p: downstream targets of the Rho family small G-proteins which interact with profilin and regulate actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1997;16:2745-55 pubmed
    ..frame (YIL159W) which encodes another protein having the FH1 and FH2 domains and we have named this gene BNR1 (BNI1 Related). Bnr1p interacts with another Rho family member, Rho4p, but not with Rho1p...
  36. Zigmond S, Evangelista M, Boone C, Yang C, Dar A, Sicheri F, et al. Formin leaky cap allows elongation in the presence of tight capping proteins. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1820-3 pubmed
    ..The ability of FH1FH2 to dimerize probably allows the formin to walk processively with the barbed end as the filament elongates. ..
  37. Pruyne D, Evangelista M, Yang C, Bi E, Zigmond S, Bretscher A, et al. Role of formins in actin assembly: nucleation and barbed-end association. Science. 2002;297:612-5 pubmed
    ..This combination of properties suggests a direct role for formins in regulating nucleation and polarization of unbranched filamentous actin structures. ..
  38. Liu W, Santiago Tirado F, Bretscher A. Yeast formin Bni1p has multiple localization regions that function in polarized growth and spindle orientation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define an unexpected complexity in the mechanism of formin localization and function. ..
  39. Graziano B, DuPage A, Michelot A, Breitsprecher D, Moseley J, Sagot I, et al. Mechanism and cellular function of Bud6 as an actin nucleation-promoting factor. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4016-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the formins Bni1 and Bnr1 are required for the assembly of actin cables and polarized cell growth...
  40. Dong Y, Pruyne D, Bretscher A. Formin-dependent actin assembly is regulated by distinct modes of Rho signaling in yeast. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:1081-92 pubmed
    ..These results show that formin function is under the control of three distinct, essential Rho signaling pathways. ..
  41. Tu D, Graziano B, Park E, Zheng W, Li Y, Goode B, et al. Structure of the formin-interaction domain of the actin nucleation-promoting factor Bud6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E3424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The Saccharomyces cerevisiae formin Bni1 and its associated nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) Bud6 generate actin cables and mediate polarized cell ..
  42. Fujiwara T, Tanaka K, Inoue E, Kikyo M, Takai Y. Bni1p regulates microtubule-dependent nuclear migration through the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:8016-27 pubmed
    ..We have recently shown that Bni1p is one of the potential downstream target molecules of Rho1p. The BNI1 gene is implicated in cytokinesis and the establishment of cell polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but is not ..
  43. Malloy L, Wen K, Pierick A, Wedemeyer E, Bergeron S, Vanderpool N, et al. Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAAD)-causing mutation in actin affects formin regulation of polymerization. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28398-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant actin polymerization was inhibited by the FH1-FH2 fragment of the yeast formin, Bni1. This fragment strongly capped the filament rather than facilitating polymerization...
  44. Gorelik M, Stanger K, Davidson A. A Conserved residue in the yeast Bem1p SH3 domain maintains the high level of binding specificity required for function. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19470-7 pubmed publisher
  45. Logan M, Jones L, Eitzen G. Cdc42p and Rho1p are sequentially activated and mechanistically linked to vacuole membrane fusion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define unique activation mechanisms for Cdc42p and Rho1p, which may be linked to the vacuole membrane fusion mechanism. ..
  46. Richman T, Sawyer M, Johnson D. The Cdc42p GTPase is involved in a G2/M morphogenetic checkpoint regulating the apical-isotropic switch and nuclear division in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16861-70 pubmed
  47. Alioto S, Garabedian M, Bellavance D, Goode B. Tropomyosin and Profilin Cooperate to Promote Formin-Mediated Actin Nucleation and Drive Yeast Actin Cable Assembly. Curr Biol. 2016;26:3230-3237 pubmed publisher
    ..We addressed this question in S. cerevisiae, where tropomyosins (Tpm1 and Tpm2), profilin (Pfy1), and formins (Bni1 and Bnr1) are required for the assembly of an array of actin cables that facilitate polarized vesicle delivery and ..
  48. Chen H, Kuo C, Kang H, Howell A, Zyla T, Jin M, et al. Cdc42p regulation of the yeast formin Bni1p mediated by the effector Gic2p. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3814-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that an indirect mechanism linking Rho GTPases and formins via Rho effectors may provide finer spatiotemporal control for the formin-nucleated actin cytoskeleton. ..
  49. Richman T, Johnson D. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc42p GTPase is involved in preventing the recurrence of bud emergence during the cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8548-59 pubmed
  50. Yamamoto T, Mochida J, Kadota J, Takeda M, Bi E, Tanaka K. Initial polarized bud growth by endocytic recycling in the absence of actin cable-dependent vesicle transport in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1237-52 pubmed publisher
  51. Zanelli C, Valentini S. Pkc1 acts through Zds1 and Gic1 to suppress growth and cell polarity defects of a yeast eIF5A mutant. Genetics. 2005;171:1571-81 pubmed
    ..Additionally, PCL1 and BNI1, important regulators of yeast cell polarity, also suppress tif51A-1 temperature sensitivity...
  52. Annan R, Lee A, Reid I, Sayad A, Whiteway M, Hallett M, et al. A biochemical genomics screen for substrates of Ste20p kinase enables the in silico prediction of novel substrates. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8279 pubmed publisher
  53. Tripathi K, Matmati N, Zheng W, Hannun Y, Mohanty B. Cellular morphogenesis under stress is influenced by the sphingolipid pathway gene ISC1 and DNA integrity checkpoint genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;189:533-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, the checkpoint regulator Rad53 partially influences isc1? cell morphology in a dosage-dependent manner. ..
  54. Moffat J, Andrews B. Late-G1 cyclin-CDK activity is essential for control of cell morphogenesis in budding yeast. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:59-66 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a burst of late G1 cyclin-CDK activity is essential for establishing cell polarity and development of the cleavage apparatus. ..
  55. Lambert A, Perron M, Lavoie E, Pallotta D. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Arf3 protein is involved in actin cable and cortical patch formation. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007;7:782-95 pubmed
    ..arf3Delta cells show a random budding pattern. Overexpression of BNI1, GEA2 or SYP1, three genes involved in actin cytoskeleton formation, restores the normal axial budding pattern of ..
  56. Cepeda García C, Delgehyr N, Juanes Ortiz M, ten Hoopen R, Zhiteneva A, Segal M. Actin-mediated delivery of astral microtubules instructs Kar9p asymmetric loading to the bud-ward spindle pole. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2685-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, in a bud6 Delta bni1 Delta mutant or upon direct depolymerization of actin cables Kar9p symmetry increased...
  57. Fraschini R, Bilotta D, Lucchini G, Piatti S. Functional characterization of Dma1 and Dma2, the budding yeast homologues of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dma1 and human Chfr. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3796-810 pubmed
    ..Although their primary functions remain to be defined, our data suggest that Dma1 and Dma2 might be required to ensure timely MEN activation in telophase. ..
  58. Gandhi M, Goode B, Chan C. Four novel suppressors of gic1 gic2 and their roles in cytokinesis and polarized cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2006;174:665-78 pubmed
    ..Our analysis of the second pair of gic1 gic2 suppressors, VHS2 and MLF3, suggests that they regulate polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell growth and function in a pathway distinct from and parallel to GIC1 and GIC2. ..
  59. Courtemanche N, Lee J, Pollard T, Greene E. Tension modulates actin filament polymerization mediated by formin and profilin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, physical forces strongly influence actin assembly by formin Bni1p. ..
  60. Nelson B, Parsons A, Evangelista M, Schaefer K, Kennedy K, Ritchie S, et al. Fus1p interacts with components of the Hog1p mitogen-activated protein kinase and Cdc42p morphogenesis signaling pathways to control cell fusion during yeast mating. Genetics. 2004;166:67-77 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that Fus1p acts as a scaffold for the assembly of a cell surface complex involved in polarized secretion of septum-degrading enzymes and inhibition of HOG pathway signaling to promote cell fusion. ..
  61. Orii M, Kono K, Wen H, Nakanishi M. PP1-Dependent Formin Bnr1 Dephosphorylation and Delocalization from a Cell Division Site. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0146941 pubmed publisher
    ..Although budding yeast's two formins, Bni1 and Bnr1, are known to switch their subcellular localization at the division site prior to cytokinesis, the ..
  62. Gross S, Kinzy T. Improper organization of the actin cytoskeleton affects protein synthesis at initiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1974-89 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that eEF1A, other actin binding proteins, and actin mutants affect translation initiation through the actin cytoskeleton. ..