Gene Symbol: BFA1
Description: Bfa1p
Alias: IBD1, Bfa1p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Pereira G, Höfken T, Grindlay J, Manson C, Schiebel E. The Bub2p spindle checkpoint links nuclear migration with mitotic exit. Mol Cell. 2000;6:1-10 pubmed
    b>Bfa1p and Bub2p are spindle checkpoint proteins that likely have GTPase activation activity and are associated with the budding yeast spindle pole body (SPB)...
  2. Kim J, Luo G, Bahk Y, Song K. Cdc5-dependent asymmetric localization of bfa1 fine-tunes timely mitotic exit. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002450 pubmed publisher
    ..of the mitotic exit network (MEN) is Tem1, a GTPase, which is inhibited by the GTPase-activating protein (GAP), Bfa1/Bub2...
  3. Kim J, Jang S, Song K. Different levels of Bfa1/Bub2 GAP activity are required to prevent mitotic exit of budding yeast depending on the type of perturbations. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4328-40 pubmed publisher
    In budding yeast, Tem1 is a key regulator of mitotic exit. Bfa1/Bub2 stimulates Tem1 GTPase activity as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Lte1 possesses a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain likely for Tem1...
  4. Caydasi A, Kurtulmus B, Orrico M, Hofmann A, Ibrahim B, Pereira G. Elm1 kinase activates the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:975-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a novel function for Elm1 in the coordination of spindle positioning with cell cycle progression via its control of Kin4. ..
  5. Moore J, Chudalayandi P, Heil Chapdelaine R, Cooper J. The spindle position checkpoint is coordinated by the Elm1 kinase. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that Elm1 promotes the activity of the checkpoint kinase Kin4. These findings reveal a novel function for Elm1 in the SPC and suggest how checkpoint activity may be linked to cellular organization. ..
  6. Ro H, Song S, Lee K. Bfa1 can regulate Tem1 function independently of Bub2 in the mitotic exit network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5436-41 pubmed
    ..a growing body of evidence suggests that the Tem1 GTPase plays a critical role in mediating this pathway and that Bfa1 and Bub2 constitute a two-component GTPase-activating protein to negatively regulate Tem1...
  7. Gruneberg U, Campbell K, Simpson C, Grindlay J, Schiebel E. Nud1p links astral microtubule organization and the control of exit from mitosis. EMBO J. 2000;19:6475-88 pubmed
    ..of Nud1p is distinct from its role in cell-cycle control: Nud1p binds the spindle checkpoint control proteins Bfa1p and Bub2p to the SPB, and is part of the mitotic exit network (MEN) in which it functions upstream of CDC15 but ..
  8. Geymonat M, Spanos A, Walker P, Johnston L, Sedgwick S. In vitro regulation of budding yeast Bfa1/Bub2 GAP activity by Cdc5. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14591-4 pubmed a small GTPase, Tem1, which in turn is controlled by a two-component GTPase-activating protein (GAP) formed by Bfa1 and Bub2...
  9. Snead J, Sullivan M, Lowery D, Cohen M, Zhang C, Randle D, et al. A coupled chemical-genetic and bioinformatic approach to Polo-like kinase pathway exploration. Chem Biol. 2007;14:1261-72 pubmed
    ..Finally, an examination of Cdc5 binding by SPB-localized proteins expanded our knowledge of Cdc5 function at the SPB. ..

More Information


  1. D Aquino K, Monje Casas F, Paulson J, Reiser V, Charles G, Lai L, et al. The protein kinase Kin4 inhibits exit from mitosis in response to spindle position defects. Mol Cell. 2005;19:223-34 pubmed
  2. Geymonat M, Spanos A, Smith S, Wheatley E, Rittinger K, Johnston L, et al. Control of mitotic exit in budding yeast. In vitro regulation of Tem1 GTPase by Bub2 and Bfa1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28439-45 pubmed
    ..that mitotic exit network activity is determined by a GTP-binding protein, Tem1, and its putative regulators, Bub2, Bfa1, and Lte1. Here we describe the purification and in vitro activities of Tem1, Bub2, and Bfa1...
  3. Valerio Santiago M, Monje Casas F. Tem1 localization to the spindle pole bodies is essential for mitotic exit and impairs spindle checkpoint function. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:599-614 pubmed publisher
    ..Tem1 activity is inhibited until anaphase by Bfa1-Bub2...
  4. Geymonat M, Spanos A, de Bettignies G, Sedgwick S. Lte1 contributes to Bfa1 localization rather than stimulating nucleotide exchange by Tem1. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:497-511 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, we found that Lte1 can determine the subcellular localization of Bfa1 at spindle pole bodies (SPBs)...
  5. Höfken T, Schiebel E. Novel regulation of mitotic exit by the Cdc42 effectors Gic1 and Gic2. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:219-31 pubmed
    ..mitotic exit defect of cdc5-10 Deltalte1 Deltagic1 Deltagic2 cells was rescued by inactivation of the inhibiting Bfa1-Bub2 GTPase-activating protein...
  6. Kim J, Jeong J, Song K. The C-terminus of Bfa1p in budding yeast is essential to induce mitotic arrest in response to diverse checkpoint-activating signals. Genes Cells. 2004;9:399-418 pubmed
    ..In budding yeast, exit from mitosis is triggered by the activation of the small GTPase Tem1p. Bfa1p in association with Bub2p negatively regulates Tem1p in response to spindle damage, spindle misorientation, and ..
  7. Hu F, Wang Y, Liu D, Li Y, Qin J, Elledge S. Regulation of the Bub2/Bfa1 GAP complex by Cdc5 and cell cycle checkpoints. Cell. 2001;107:655-65 pubmed
    ..During most of the cell cycle, Tem1 function is antagonized by a GTPase-activating protein complex, Bfa1/Bub2. How the Bfa1/Bub2 complex is regulated is not well understood...
  8. Lee S, Jensen S, Frenz L, Johnson A, Fesquet D, Johnston L. The Bub2-dependent mitotic pathway in yeast acts every cell cycle and regulates cytokinesis. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:2345-54 pubmed
    ..This cell-cycle arrest depends upon inhibition of the G-protein Tem1 that appears to be regulated by Bfa1/Bub2, a two-component GTPase-activating protein, and the exchange factor Lte1...
  9. Wang Y, Hu F, Elledge S. The Bfa1/Bub2 GAP complex comprises a universal checkpoint required to prevent mitotic exit. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1379-82 pubmed
    ..In the spindle checkpoint pathway, this is accomplished through Bfa1/Bub2, a heteromeric GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that inhibits Clb degradation by keeping the G protein Tem1 ..
  10. Fraschini R, D Ambrosio C, Venturetti M, Lucchini G, Piatti S. Disappearance of the budding yeast Bub2-Bfa1 complex from the mother-bound spindle pole contributes to mitotic exit. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:335-46 pubmed
    ..and prevents mitotic exit by inhibiting the G protein Tem1 through the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Bub2/Bfa1. Bub2 and Bfa1 are found on both duplicated spindle pole bodies until anaphase onset, when they disappear from the ..
  11. Maekawa H, Priest C, Lechner J, Pereira G, Schiebel E. The yeast centrosome translates the positional information of the anaphase spindle into a cell cycle signal. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:423-36 pubmed
    ..Delay is achieved by maintaining the activity of the Bfa1-Bub2 guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein complex, an inhibitor of mitotic exit...
  12. Liang F, Wang Y. DNA damage checkpoints inhibit mitotic exit by two different mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5067-78 pubmed
    ..In contrast to previous data, the Rad53 pathway negatively regulates MEN independently of Cdc5, a Polo-like kinase essential for mitotic exit. Instead, a defective Rad53 pathway alleviates the inhibition of MEN by Bfa1.
  13. Bertazzi D, Kurtulmus B, Pereira G. The cortical protein Lte1 promotes mitotic exit by inhibiting the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:1033-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Key SPOC components are the kinase Kin4 and the Bub2-Bfa1 GAP complex that inhibit the mitotic exit-promoting GTPase Tem1...
  14. Alexandru G, Zachariae W, Schleiffer A, Nasmyth K. Sister chromatid separation and chromosome re-duplication are regulated by different mechanisms in response to spindle damage. EMBO J. 1999;18:2707-21 pubmed
    ..Blocking APCCdh1-mediated Clb2 proteolysis and chromosome re-duplication does not require Mad2 but a different protein, Bub2. Our data imply that Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 and Bub1 regulate APCCdc20, whereas Bub2 regulates APCCdh1. ..
  15. Jensen S, Geymonat M, Johnson A, Segal M, Johnston L. Spatial regulation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Lte1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4977-91 pubmed
    ..Tem1 is regulated by Bub2/Bfa1, a two-component GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and by Lte1, a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor...
  16. Pereira G, Manson C, Grindlay J, Schiebel E. Regulation of the Bfa1p-Bub2p complex at spindle pole bodies by the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc14p. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:367-79 pubmed
    ..Upon release, Cdc14p binds to the spindle pole body (SPB) via association with the Bfa1p-Bub2p GTPase activating protein complex, which is known to regulate the activity of the G protein Tem1p...
  17. Li R. Bifurcation of the mitotic checkpoint pathway in budding yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4989-94 pubmed
    The coordination of mitotic events is ensured through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BFA1 is required for this checkpoint in budding yeast because its disruption abolishes the mitotic arrest when spindle assembly is inhibited...
  18. Gryaznova Y, Koca Caydasi A, Malengo G, Sourjik V, Pereira G. A FRET-based study reveals site-specific regulation of spindle position checkpoint proteins at yeast centrosomes. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we monitored the interaction between SPB proteins and the SPOC component Bfa1 by FRET microscopy. We show that Bfa1 binds to the scaffold-protein Nud1 and the ?-tubulin receptor Spc72...
  19. Rawal C, Riccardo S, Pesenti C, Ferrari M, Marini F, Pellicioli A. Reduced kinase activity of polo kinase Cdc5 affects chromosome stability and DNA damage response in S. cerevisiae. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:2906-2919 pubmed
    ..Our data define the importance of regulating Cdc5 activity through T-loop phosphorylation to preserve genome integrity and respond to DNA damage. ..
  20. Wang Y, Ng T. Phosphatase 2A negatively regulates mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:80-9 pubmed
    ..All the evidence suggests the negative role of PP2A in mitotic exit. Finally, our genetic and biochemical data suggest that PP2A regulates the phosphorylation of Tem1, which acts at the very top of MEN pathway. ..
  21. Palani S, Meitinger F, Boehm M, Lehmann W, Pereira G. Cdc14-dependent dephosphorylation of Inn1 contributes to Inn1-Cyk3 complex formation. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3091-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Cdc14 counteracts Cdk1 phosphorylation of Inn1 to facilitate Inn1-Cyk3 complex formation and so promote cytokinesis. ..
  22. Ratsima H, Serrano D, Pascariu M, D Amours D. Centrosome-Dependent Bypass of the DNA Damage Checkpoint by the Polo Kinase Cdc5. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1422-1434 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results highlight a previously unappreciated role for centrosomes as key signaling centers for the suppression of cell-cycle arrest induced by persistent or unrepairable DNA damage. ..
  23. Kim N, Yoon H, Lee E, Song K. A new function of Skp1 in the mitotic exit of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Microbiol. 2006;44:641-8 pubmed
    ..complex essential for the timely degradation of cell cycle proteins by ubiquitination, physically interacts with Bfa1, which is a key negative regulator of the mitotic exit network (MEN) in response to diverse checkpoint-activating ..
  24. Juanes M, Twyman H, Tunnacliffe E, Guo Z, ten Hoopen R, Segal M. Spindle pole body history intrinsically links pole identity with asymmetric fate in budding yeast. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1310-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the pattern of SPB inheritance was also randomized. Spc72 differential recruitment imparting asymmetric aMT organization represents the most upstream determinant linking SPB historical identity and fate...
  25. Toda K, Naito K, Mase S, Ueno M, Uritani M, Yamamoto A, et al. APC/C-Cdh1-dependent anaphase and telophase progression during mitotic slippage. Cell Div. 2012;7:4 pubmed publisher
    ..For the prevention of mitotic slippage, concomitant inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 may be effective for tumor therapy with mitotic spindle poisons in humans. ..
  26. Geymonat M, Spanos A, Rittinger K. In Vitro Analysis of Tem1 GTPase Activity and Regulation by the Bfa1/Bub2 GAP. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1505:71-80 pubmed
    ..Tem1 activity is tightly controlled in mitosis by Bub2 and Bfa1 and is also regulated by the spindle orientation checkpoint that monitors the correct alignment of the mitotic ..
  27. Caydasi A, Micoogullari Y, Kurtulmus B, Palani S, Pereira G. The 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 functions in the spindle position checkpoint by breaking Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:2143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon spindle misalignment, phosphorylation of the SPOC component Bfa1 by Kin4 kinase engages the SPOC by changing the centrosome localization of Bfa1 from asymmetric (one centrosome) to ..
  28. Valerio Santiago M, de Los Santos Velázquez A, Monje Casas F. Inhibition of the mitotic exit network in response to damaged telomeres. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003859 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is also necessary to restrain exit from mitosis by maintaining Bfa1-Bub2, the inhibitor of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), in an active state...
  29. Park J, Park C, Sakchaisri K, Karpova T, Asano S, McNally J, et al. Novel functional dissection of the localization-specific roles of budding yeast polo kinase Cdc5p. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9873-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, SPB- and the bud-neck-localized Cdc5p control most of the critical Cdc5p functions and downregulation of Bfa1p and Swe1p at the respective locations are two critical factors that require Cdc5p.
  30. Kim J, Song K. The study of Bfa1p(E438K) suggests that Bfa1 control the mitotic exit network in different mechanisms depending on different checkpoint-activating signals. Mol Cells. 2006;21:251-60 pubmed
    ..The MEN is regulated by a small GTPase, Tem1p, which in turn is controlled by a two-component GAP, Bfa1p-Bub2p...
  31. Makanae K, Kintaka R, Makino T, Kitano H, Moriya H. Identification of dosage-sensitive genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the genetic tug-of-war method. Genome Res. 2013;23:300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in this study will provide basic knowledge about the physiology of chromosomal abnormalities and the evolution of chromosomal composition. ..
  32. Hwang H, Song K. IBD2 encodes a novel component of the Bub2p-dependent spindle checkpoint in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2002;161:595-609 pubmed
    ..b>Bfa1p is a spindle checkpoint regulator of budding yeast in the Bub2p checkpoint pathway for proper mitotic exit...
  33. Baro B, Rodriguez Rodriguez J, Calabria I, Hernaez M, Gil C, Queralt E. Dual Regulation of the mitotic exit network (MEN) by PP2A-Cdc55 phosphatase. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003966 pubmed publisher
    ..describe how the PP2A(Cdc55) phosphatase could act as a functional link between FEAR and MEN due to its action on Bfa1 and Mob1...
  34. Hanlon S, Norris D, Vershon A. Depletion of H2A-H2B dimers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae triggers meiotic arrest by reducing IME1 expression and activating the BUB2-dependent branch of the spindle checkpoint. Genetics. 2003;164:1333-44 pubmed
    ..Additionally, deletions of BUB2 or BFA1, components of one branch of the spindle checkpoint pathway, bypass the meiotic arrest...
  35. Scarfone I, Venturetti M, Hotz M, Lengefeld J, Barral Y, Piatti S. Asymmetry of the budding yeast Tem1 GTPase at spindle poles is required for spindle positioning but not for mitotic exit. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004938 pubmed publisher
    ..SPOC relies on the heterodimeric GTPase-activating protein Bub2/Bfa1 that inhibits the small GTPase Tem1, in turn essential for activating the mitotic exit network (MEN) kinase cascade ..
  36. Harper N, Al Greene N, Basrai M, Belanger K. Mutations affecting spindle pole body and mitotic exit network function are synthetically lethal with a deletion of the nucleoporin NUP1 in S. cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2008;53:95-105 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a novel functional connection between Nup1 and proteins comprising both the spindle pole body and early mitotic exit network. ..
  37. Darieva Z, Bulmer R, Pic Taylor A, Doris K, Geymonat M, Sedgwick S, et al. Polo kinase controls cell-cycle-dependent transcription by targeting a coactivator protein. Nature. 2006;444:494-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, polo kinase is required for the production of key mitotic regulators, in addition to previously defined roles in controlling other mitotic events. ..