Gene Symbol: BEM1
Description: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding protein BEM1
Alias: SRO1, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding protein BEM1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Gao X, Sperber L, Kane S, Tong Z, Tong A, Boone C, et al. Sequential and distinct roles of the cadherin domain-containing protein Axl2p in cell polarization in yeast cell cycle. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2542-60 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that Axl2p plays sequential and distinct roles in the regulation of cellular morphogenesis in yeast cell cycle. ..
  2. Bose I, Irazoqui J, Moskow J, Bardes E, Zyla T, Lew D. Assembly of scaffold-mediated complexes containing Cdc42p, the exchange factor Cdc24p, and the effector Cla4p required for cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of Cdc24p. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7176-86 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Bem1p acts to concentrate polarity establishment proteins at a discrete site, facilitating polarization and promoting Cdc24p phosphorylation at specific times during the cell cycle. ..
  3. Gladfelter A, Moskow J, Zyla T, Lew D. Isolation and characterization of effector-loop mutants of CDC42 in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1239-55 pubmed
    ..The availability of partial function alleles of CDC42 in a genetically tractable system serves as a useful starting point for genetic approaches to identify such novel effectors. ..
  4. Brown J, Jaquenoud M, Gulli M, Chant J, Peter M. Novel Cdc42-binding proteins Gic1 and Gic2 control cell polarity in yeast. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2972-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gic1p and Gic2p define a novel class of Cdc42p targets that are specifically required for cytoskeletal polarization in vivo. ..
  5. Park H, Bi E, Pringle J, Herskowitz I. Two active states of the Ras-related Bud1/Rsr1 protein bind to different effectors to determine yeast cell polarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4463-8 pubmed of proteins, which includes a Rho-like GTPase (Cdc42), its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Cdc24), and Bem1, is necessary for organization of the actin cytoskeleton and for cell polarization...
  6. Lyons D, Mahanty S, Choi K, Manandhar M, Elion E. The SH3-domain protein Bem1 coordinates mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade activation with cell cycle control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4095-106 pubmed
    ..b>Bem1 localizes near the cortical actin cytoskeleton and is essential for polarized growth during mating...
  7. Bender L, Lo H, Lee H, Kokojan V, Peterson V, Bender A. Associations among PH and SH3 domain-containing proteins and Rho-type GTPases in Yeast. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:879-94 pubmed
  8. Matsui Y, Matsui R, Akada R, Toh e A. Yeast src homology region 3 domain-binding proteins involved in bud formation. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:865-78 pubmed
    ..involved in the maintenance of cell polarity for bud formation, and the rho3 defect is suppressed by a high dose of BEM1. Mutational analysis revealed that the second SH3 domain from the NH2 terminus (SH3-2) of Bem1p is important for ..
  9. Peterson J, Zheng Y, Bender L, Myers A, Cerione R, Bender A. Interactions between the bud emergence proteins Bem1p and Bem2p and Rho-type GTPases in yeast. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:1395-406 pubmed
    ..interact with Bem1p, we screened for mutations that display synthetic lethality with a mutant allele of the BEM1 gene and for genes whose products display two-hybrid interactions with the Bem1 protein...

More Information


  1. Nern A, Arkowitz R. A GTP-exchange factor required for cell orientation. Nature. 1998;391:195-8 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the association of an exchange factor and the betagamma subunit of a hetero-trimeric G protein links receptor-mediated activation to oriented cell growth. ..
  2. Butty A, Pryciak P, Huang L, Herskowitz I, Peter M. The role of Far1p in linking the heterotrimeric G protein to polarity establishment proteins during yeast mating. Science. 1998;282:1511-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gbetagamma to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient. ..
  3. Adamo J, Moskow J, Gladfelter A, Viterbo D, Lew D, Brennwald P. Yeast Cdc42 functions at a late step in exocytosis, specifically during polarized growth of the emerging bud. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:581-92 pubmed
    ..Rather, we suggest that Cdc42 acts as an allosteric regulator of the vesicle docking and fusion apparatus to provide maximal function at sites of polarized growth. ..
  4. Matsui Y, Toh e A. Yeast RHO3 and RHO4 ras superfamily genes are necessary for bud growth, and their defect is suppressed by a high dose of bud formation genes CDC42 and BEM1. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:5690-9 pubmed
    ..Two of them were identical with CDC42 and BEM1, bud site assembly genes involved in the process of bud emergence...
  5. Mack D, Nishimura K, Dennehey B, Arbogast T, Parkinson J, Toh e A, et al. Identification of the bud emergence gene BEM4 and its interactions with rho-type GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4387-95 pubmed
    ..Models for the role of Bem4p include that it serves as a chaperone or modulates the interaction of these GTPases with one or more of their targets or regulators. ..
  6. Ayscough K, Stryker J, Pokala N, Sanders M, Crews P, Drubin D. High rates of actin filament turnover in budding yeast and roles for actin in establishment and maintenance of cell polarity revealed using the actin inhibitor latrunculin-A. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:399-416 pubmed
    ..Finally, transient actin depolymerization caused many cells to abandon one bud site or mating projection and to initiate growth at a second site. Thus, actin filaments are also required for maintenance of an axis of cell polarity. ..
  7. Zheng Y, Bender A, Cerione R. Interactions among proteins involved in bud-site selection and bud-site assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:626-30 pubmed
    ..The SH3 domain-containing bud-site assembly protein Bem1 also binds directly to Cdc24, and we show here that this interaction is inhibited by Ca2+...
  8. Butty A, Perrinjaquet N, Petit A, Jaquenoud M, Segall J, Hofmann K, et al. A positive feedback loop stabilizes the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24 at sites of polarization. EMBO J. 2002;21:1565-76 pubmed
    ..The adaptor protein Bem1 localizes to sites of polarized growth where it interacts with Cdc42, Cdc24 and the PAK-like kinase Cla4...
  9. Leeuw T, Fourest Lieuvin A, Wu C, Chenevert J, Clark K, Whiteway M, et al. Pheromone response in yeast: association of Bem1p with proteins of the MAP kinase cascade and actin. Science. 1995;270:1210-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, the association of Bem1p with Ste20p and Ste5p may contribute to the conveyance of spatial information that regulates polarized rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during yeast mating. ..
  10. Yamaguchi Y, Ota K, Ito T. A novel Cdc42-interacting domain of the yeast polarity establishment protein Bem1. Implications for modulation of mating pheromone signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29-38 pubmed
    ..A multidomain protein Bem1 interacts not only with Cdc42 but also with Cdc24 and the effectors of Cdc42, including the p21-activated kinase ..
  11. Bender A, Pringle J. Use of a screen for synthetic lethal and multicopy suppressee mutants to identify two new genes involved in morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:1295-305 pubmed
    ..The new mutations defined two genes, BEM1 and BEM2; both the bem1 and bem2 mutations are temperature sensitive and are only partially suppressed by MSB1...
  12. Liu P, Sharrock R. Directed dimerization: an in vivo expression system for functional studies of type II phytochromes. Plant J. 2013;75:915-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental approach developed here of directed assembly of defined protein dimer combinations in vivo may be applicable to other systems. ..
  13. Leberer E, Chenevert J, Leeuw T, Harcus D, Herskowitz I, Thomas D. Genetic interactions indicate a role for Mdg1p and the SH3 domain protein Bem1p in linking the G-protein mediated yeast pheromone signalling pathway to regulators of cell polarity. Mol Gen Genet. 1996;252:608-21 pubmed
    ..The same genetic screen identified BEM1, which encodes an SH3 domain protein required for polarized morphogenesis in response to pheromone, and a novel ..
  14. Gulli M, Jaquenoud M, Shimada Y, Niederhauser G, Wiget P, Peter M. Phosphorylation of the Cdc42 exchange factor Cdc24 by the PAK-like kinase Cla4 may regulate polarized growth in yeast. Mol Cell. 2000;6:1155-67 pubmed
    ..GEF for Cdc42, from the nucleus to the polarization site, where it is stably maintained by binding to the adaptor Bem1. Locally activated Cdc42 then polarizes the cytoskeleton in a manner dependent on its effectors Bni1 and the PAK-..
  15. Gorelik M, Davidson A. Distinct peptide binding specificities of Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domains can be determined by modulation of local energetics across the binding interface. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, this modulation of local binding energetics can explain the distinct and highly nuanced binding specificities of these two domains. ..
  16. Nern A, Arkowitz R. A Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma protein complex required for yeast orientation during mating. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:1187-202 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that formation of a Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma complex functions as a landmark for orientation of the cytoskeleton during growth towards an external signal. ..
  17. McCusker D, Denison C, Anderson S, Egelhofer T, Yates J, Gygi S, et al. Cdk1 coordinates cell-surface growth with the cell cycle. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:506-15 pubmed
    ..A mutant form of a Cdc24-associated protein that fails to undergo Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation causes defects in bud growth. These results provide a direct link between Cdk1 activity and the control of polarized cell growth...
  18. Tripathi K, Matmati N, Zheng W, Hannun Y, Mohanty B. Cellular morphogenesis under stress is influenced by the sphingolipid pathway gene ISC1 and DNA integrity checkpoint genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;189:533-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, the checkpoint regulator Rad53 partially influences isc1? cell morphology in a dosage-dependent manner. ..
  19. Kozubowski L, Saito K, Johnson J, Howell A, Zyla T, Lew D. Symmetry-breaking polarization driven by a Cdc42p GEF-PAK complex. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1719-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide mechanistic insight into an evolutionarily conserved pattern-forming positive-feedback pathway. ..
  20. Laan L, Koschwanez J, Murray A. Evolutionary adaptation after crippling cell polarization follows reproducible trajectories. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..We evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 1000 generations without the important polarity gene BEM1. Initially the bem1∆ lineages rapidly increase in fitness and then slowly reach >90% of the fitness of ..
  21. Zajac A, Sun X, Zhang J, Guo W. Cyclical regulation of the exocyst and cell polarity determinants for polarized cell growth. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:1500-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that a cyclical regulatory network contributes to the establishment and maintenance of polarized cell growth in yeast. ..
  22. Yu J, Lemmon M. All phox homology (PX) domains from Saccharomyces cerevisiae specifically recognize phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:44179-84 pubmed
    ..Our results establish that PtdIns-3-P, and not other phosphoinositides, is the target of all PX domains in S. cerevisiae and suggest a role for PX domains in assembly of multiprotein complexes at specific membrane surfaces. ..
  23. Ito T, Matsui Y, Ago T, Ota K, Sumimoto H. Novel modular domain PB1 recognizes PC motif to mediate functional protein-protein interactions. EMBO J. 2001;20:3938-46 pubmed
    ..This domain-swapping experiment demonstrates that Bem1p function requires interaction with Cdc24p, in which the PB1 domain and the PC motif participate as responsible modules. ..
  24. Williams D, Novick P. Analysis of SEC9 suppression reveals a relationship of SNARE function to cell physiology. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5449 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, Sro7p acts to promote SNARE complex formation. Finally, Sec9p function and SNARE complex formation are tightly coupled to the physiological state of the cell. ..
  25. Zanelli C, Valentini S. Pkc1 acts through Zds1 and Gic1 to suppress growth and cell polarity defects of a yeast eIF5A mutant. Genetics. 2005;171:1571-81 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data strongly support the correlated involvement of Pkc1 and eIF5A in establishing actin polarity, which is essential for bud formation and G1/S transition in S. cerevisiae. ..
  26. van Drogen Petit A, Zwahlen C, Peter M, Bonvin A. Insight into molecular interactions between two PB1 domains. J Mol Biol. 2004;336:1195-210 pubmed
    ..Recently, a new protein-protein interaction domain termed PB1 (Phox and Bem1) was identified, which is conserved throughout evolution and present in diverse proteins functioning in signal ..
  27. Gorelik M, Stanger K, Davidson A. A Conserved residue in the yeast Bem1p SH3 domain maintains the high level of binding specificity required for function. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19470-7 pubmed publisher
  28. Aguilar R, Longhi S, Shaw J, Yeh L, Kim S, SchOn A, et al. Epsin N-terminal homology domains perform an essential function regulating Cdc42 through binding Cdc42 GTPase-activating proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4116-21 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the epsins contribute to regulation of specific Cdc42 signaling pathways in yeast cells. These data support a model in which the epsins function as spatial and temporal coordinators of endocytosis and cell polarity. ..
  29. Witte K, Strickland D, Glotzer M. Cell cycle entry triggers a switch between two modes of Cdc42 activation during yeast polarization. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Cdc42•GTP which is thought to self sustain by recruiting a complex containing Cla4, a Cdc42-binding effector, Bem1, a scaffold, and Cdc24, a Cdc42 GEF...
  30. Ogura K, Tandai T, Yoshinaga S, Kobashigawa Y, Kumeta H, Ito T, et al. NMR structure of the heterodimer of Bem1 and Cdc24 PB1 domains from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biochem. 2009;146:317-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Bem1 and Cdc24 of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae interact with each other through PB1-PB1 heterodimer formation to regulate the establishment of cell polarity...
  31. Meitinger F, Khmelinskii A, Morlot S, Kurtulmus B, Palani S, Andrés Pons A, et al. A memory system of negative polarity cues prevents replicative aging. Cell. 2014;159:1056-1069 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work thus established CRMs as negative polarity cues that prevent Cdc42 reactivation to sustain the fitness of replicating cells. ..
  32. Xu H, Wickner W. Bem1p is a positive regulator of the homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27158-66 pubmed
    ..from bem1Delta strains showed a strong reduction in the rate of lipid mixing when compared with vacuoles from the BEM1 parent...
  33. Woods B, Kuo C, Wu C, Zyla T, Lew D. Polarity establishment requires localized activation of Cdc42. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Cdc42 activation must be localized for successful polarity establishment, supporting local activation rather than local delivery as the dominant mechanism in this system. ..
  34. France Y, Boyd C, Coleman J, Novick P. The polarity-establishment component Bem1p interacts with the exocyst complex through the Sec15p subunit. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:876-88 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, helps to coordinate the secretory pathway and polarized bud growth. ..
  35. Wu C, Chiou J, Minakova M, Woods B, Tsygankov D, Zyla T, et al. Role of competition between polarity sites in establishing a unique front. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..By manipulating polarity protein dynamics, we show that resolution of multi-cluster intermediates occurs through a greedy competition between clusters to recruit and retain polarity proteins from a shared intracellular pool. ..
  36. Gronemeyer T, Chollet J, Werner S, Glomb O, Bäuerle A, Johnsson N. A Split-Ubiquitin Based Strategy Selecting for Protein Complex-Interfering Mutations. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:2809-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Applied to the exemplary interaction between the PB domains of the yeast proteins Bem1 and Cdc24, we performed two independent selections...
  37. Fitch P, Gammie A, Lee D, de Candal V, Rose M. Lrg1p Is a Rho1 GTPase-activating protein required for efficient cell fusion in yeast. Genetics. 2004;168:733-46 pubmed
    ..Higher dosage of three genes, BEM1, LRG1, and FUS1, partially suppressed the fus2Delta cell fusion defect...
  38. Liu D, Novick P. Bem1p contributes to secretory pathway polarization through a direct interaction with Exo70p. J Cell Biol. 2014;207:59-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in Exo70p that disrupt its interaction with Bem1, without impairing its interactions with other known binding partners, lead to the loss of actin-independent ..
  39. Tiedje C, Holland D, Just U, Höfken T. Proteins involved in sterol synthesis interact with Ste20 and regulate cell polarity. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3613-24 pubmed
    ..Lack of CBR1 produced no detectable phenotype, whereas the deletion of CBR1 in the absence of NCP1 was lethal. Using a conditional lethal mutant we demonstrate that both proteins have overlapping functions in bud morphology. ..
  40. Rapali P, Mitteau R, Braun C, Massoni Laporte A, Unlü C, Bataille L, et al. Scaffold-mediated gating of Cdc42 signalling flux. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    Scaffold proteins modulate signalling pathway activity spatially and temporally. In budding yeast, the scaffold Bem1 contributes to polarity axis establishment by regulating the GTPase Cdc42...
  41. Fujimura Kamada K, Hirai T, Tanaka K. Essential role of the NH2-terminal region of Cdc24 guanine nucleotide exchange factor in its initial polarized localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:2-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These Cdc24-ts mutant proteins did not interact with Bem1 at the COOH-terminal PB1 domain, suggesting a lack of exposure of the PB1 domain in the mutant proteins...
  42. Amarnath S, Kawli T, Mohanty S, Srinivasan N, Nanjundiah V. Pleiotropic roles of a ribosomal protein in Dictyostelium discoideum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30644 pubmed publisher
    ..cDNA that encodes the ribosomal protein S4 (DdS4) rescues mutations in the cell cycle genes cdc24, cdc42 and bem1. The products of these genes affect morphogenesis in yeast via a coordinated moulding of the cytoskeleton during ..
  43. Kuo C, Savage N, Chen H, Wu C, Zyla T, Lew D. Inhibitory GEF phosphorylation provides negative feedback in the yeast polarity circuit. Curr Biol. 2014;24:753-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a mechanism for negative feedback and suggest that the function of negative feedback via GEF inhibition is to buffer the level of Cdc42 at the polarity site. ..
  44. Liao Y, He F, Gong T, Bi E, Gao X. Msb1 interacts with Cdc42, Boi1, and Boi2 and may coordinate Cdc42 and Rho1 functions during early stage of bud development in budding yeast. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66321 pubmed publisher
    ..cdc24 and cdc42 mutants at restrictive temperature, while deletion of MSB1 showed synthetic lethality with cdc24, bem1, and bem2 mutations. However, the mechanism of how Msb1 regulates Cdc42 function remains poorly understood...
  45. Shimada Y, Wiget P, Gulli M, Bi E, Peter M. The nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24p may be regulated by auto-inhibition. EMBO J. 2004;23:1051-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results support a two-step molecular mechanism for the site-specific activation of Cdc24p, which involves Rsr1p/Bud1p and the adaptor protein Bem1p. ..
  46. Aksnes H, Osberg C, Arnesen T. N-terminal acetylation by NatC is not a general determinant for substrate subcellular localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61012 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, all organelle-localized substrates indicated undisrupted structures, thus suggesting that absence of NatC acetylation does not have a vast effect on organelle morphology in yeast. ..
  47. Bouquin N, Johnson A, Morgan B, Johnston L. Association of the cell cycle transcription factor Mbp1 with the Skn7 response regulator in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3389-400 pubmed
    ..Thus, Skn7 and Mbp1 seem to form a transcription factor independent of MBF. Genetic data suggest that this new transcription factor could be involved in the bud-emergence process. ..
  48. Lamson R, Winters M, Pryciak P. Cdc42 regulation of kinase activity and signaling by the yeast p21-activated kinase Ste20. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2939-51 pubmed
    ..In total, our observations indicate that Cdc42 converts Ste20 to an active form, while pathway stimuli regulate the ability of this active Ste20 to trigger signaling through a particular pathway. ..
  49. Hertveldt K, Robben J, Volckaert G. Whole genome phage display selects for proline-rich Boi polypeptides against Bem1p. Biotechnol Lett. 2006;28:1233-9 pubmed
    ..Target Bem1p was a doubly-tagged recombinant, Bem1([Asn142-Ile551]), which strongly interacts in ELISA with a C-terminal 75 amino acids polypeptide from Cdc24p ..
  50. Winters M, Pryciak P. Interaction with the SH3 domain protein Bem1 regulates signaling by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae p21-activated kinase Ste20. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:2177-90 pubmed
    ..Another factor that functions with Ste20 and Cdc42 is the protein Bem1. Bem1 has two SH3 domains, but target ligands for these domains have not been described...
  51. Wang Y, Chen W, Simpson D, Elion E. Cdc24 regulates nuclear shuttling and recruitment of the Ste5 scaffold to a heterotrimeric G protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13084-96 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that Cdc24 mediates site-specific localization of Ste5 to a heterotrimeric G protein and may therefore ensure localized activation of the associated MAPK cascade. ..
  52. Oehlen L, Cross F. Potential regulation of Ste20 function by the Cln1-Cdc28 and Cln2-Cdc28 cyclin-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:25089-97 pubmed
  53. Takaku T, Ogura K, Kumeta H, Yoshida N, Inagaki F. Solution structure of a novel Cdc42 binding module of Bem1 and its interaction with Ste20 and Cdc42. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:19346-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Bem1 is a scaffold protein essential for the establishment of cell polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  54. Tanaka K, Tatebayashi K, Nishimura A, Yamamoto K, Yang H, Saito H. Yeast osmosensors Hkr1 and Msb2 activate the Hog1 MAPK cascade by different mechanisms. Sci Signal. 2014;7:ra21 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, activation of Hog1 by Msb2 required the scaffold protein Bem1 and the actin cytoskeleton...
  55. Roumanie O, Peypouquet M, Thoraval D, Doignon F, Crouzet M. Functional interactions between the VRP1-LAS17 and RHO3-RHO4 genes involved in actin cytoskeleton organization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2002;40:317-25 pubmed
    ..In addition, other observations lead us to propose that Rvs167p may act as a linking protein between the two cellular elements. ..
  56. Jorgensen P, Nelson B, Robinson M, Chen Y, Andrews B, Tyers M, et al. High-resolution genetic mapping with ordered arrays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. Genetics. 2002;162:1091-9 pubmed
    ..In principle, SGAM should be applicable to the analysis of multigenic traits. Large-scale construction of ordered mutations in other model organisms would broaden the application of this approach. ..
  57. Li R. Bee1, a yeast protein with homology to Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein, is critical for the assembly of cortical actin cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:649-58 pubmed
    ..Thus, Bee1 protein may be a crucial component of a cytoskeletal complex that controls the assembly and organization of actin filaments at the cell cortex. ..
  58. Kawasaki R, Fujimura Kamada K, Toi H, Kato H, Tanaka K. The upstream regulator, Rsr1p, and downstream effectors, Gic1p and Gic2p, of the Cdc42p small GTPase coordinately regulate initiation of budding in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Cells. 2003;8:235-50 pubmed
    ..We propose that Gic1/2p may stabilize or maintain a complex consisting of Cdc42p-GTP and its effectors at the budding site, which are assembled by the action of the Rsr1p-Cdc24p system. ..
  59. Höfken T, Schiebel E. Novel regulation of mitotic exit by the Cdc42 effectors Gic1 and Gic2. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:219-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Gic1 bound directly to Bub2 and prevented binding of the GTPase Tem1 to Bub2. We propose that in anaphase the Cdc42-regulated Gic proteins trigger mitotic exit by interfering with Bfa1-Bub2 GTPase-activating protein function. ..