Gene Symbol: ATG3
Description: Atg3p
Alias: APG3, AUT1, Atg3p
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Hong S, Kim B, Lee K, Kim S, Jeon H, Kim J, et al. Insights into noncanonical E1 enzyme activation from the structure of autophagic E1 Atg7 with Atg8. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:1323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..of the N-terminal domain of Atg7, revealing a unique protein fold and interactions with both autophagic E2 enzymes Atg3 and Atg10...
  2. Ichimura Y, Kirisako T, Takao T, Satomi Y, Shimonishi Y, Ishihara N, et al. A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation. Nature. 2000;408:488-92 pubmed
    ..protein that is activated by an E1 protein, Apg7 (refs 7, 8), and is transferred subsequently to the E2 enzymes Apg3/Aut1 (ref. 9). Apg7 activates two different ubiquitin-like proteins, Apg12 (ref...
  3. Nakatogawa H, Ishii J, Asai E, Ohsumi Y. Atg4 recycles inappropriately lipidated Atg8 to promote autophagosome biogenesis. Autophagy. 2012;8:177-86 pubmed publisher
  4. Noda N, Satoo K, Fujioka Y, Kumeta H, Ogura K, Nakatogawa H, et al. Structural basis of Atg8 activation by a homodimeric E1, Atg7. Mol Cell. 2011;44:462-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique N-terminal domain (NTD) of Atg7 is responsible for Atg3 (E2) binding, whereas its C-terminal domain is comprised of a homodimeric adenylation domain (AD) and ECTD...
  5. Hanada T, Satomi Y, Takao T, Ohsumi Y. The amino-terminal region of Atg3 is essential for association with phosphatidylethanolamine in Atg8 lipidation. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1078-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the amino (N)-terminal region of Atg3, an E2-like enzyme for Atg8, plays a crucial role in Atg8-PE conjugation...
  6. Yamada Y, Suzuki N, Hanada T, Ichimura Y, Kumeta H, Fujioka Y, et al. The crystal structure of Atg3, an autophagy-related ubiquitin carrier protein (E2) enzyme that mediates Atg8 lipidation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8036-43 pubmed
    b>Atg3 is an E2-like enzyme that catalyzes the conjugation of Atg8 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)...
  7. Ichimura Y, Imamura Y, Emoto K, Umeda M, Noda T, Ohsumi Y. In vivo and in vitro reconstitution of Atg8 conjugation essential for autophagy. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40584-92 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Escherichia coli cells coexpressed Atg8p, Atg7p (E1), and Atg3p (E2) allowed to form conjugate of Atg8p with endogenous PE...
  8. Kim J, Huang W, Klionsky D. Membrane recruitment of Aut7p in the autophagy and cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathways requires Aut1p, Aut2p, and the autophagy conjugation complex. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:51-64 pubmed
    ..These findings define a series of steps that results in the modification of Aut7p and its subsequent binding to the sequestering transport vesicles of the autophagy and cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathways. ..
  9. Hanada T, Noda N, Satomi Y, Ichimura Y, Fujioka Y, Takao T, et al. The Atg12-Atg5 conjugate has a novel E3-like activity for protein lipidation in autophagy. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37298-302 pubmed
    ..The Atg12-Atg5 conjugate promotes the transfer of Atg8 from Atg3 to the substrate, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), by stimulating the activity of Atg3...

More Information


  1. Kanki T, Wang K, Baba M, Bartholomew C, Lynch Day M, Du Z, et al. A genomic screen for yeast mutants defective in selective mitochondria autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4730-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we have named this gene ATG33. The new mutants identified in this analysis will provide a useful foundation for researchers interested in the study of mitochondrial homeostasis and quality control. ..
  2. Sakoh Nakatogawa M, Matoba K, Asai E, Kirisako H, Ishii J, Noda N, et al. Atg12-Atg5 conjugate enhances E2 activity of Atg3 by rearranging its catalytic site. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:433-9 pubmed publisher
    Two autophagy-related ubiquitin-like systems have unique features: the E2 enzyme Atg3 conjugates the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine, and the other ubiquitin-like protein conjugate Atg12-Atg5 promotes ..
  3. Sakakibara K, Eiyama A, Suzuki S, Sakoh Nakatogawa M, Okumura N, Tani M, et al. Phospholipid methylation controls Atg32-mediated mitophagy and Atg8 recycling. EMBO J. 2015;34:2703-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Amelioration of Atg32 expression and attenuation of Atg8-PMME conjugation markedly rescue mitophagy in opi3-null cells. We propose that proper regulation of phospholipid methylation is crucial for Atg32-mediated mitophagy. ..
  4. Zens B, Sawa Makarska J, Martens S. In vitro systems for Atg8 lipidation. Methods. 2015;75:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The assays enable the study of the biochemical mechanisms of action of the Atg8 lipidation machinery and to analyze the impact of mutations and post-translational modifications of the conjugation machinery on Atg8 lipidation. ..
  5. Hong S, Kim B, Kim J, Song H. Structure of the autophagic E2 enzyme Atg10. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012;68:1409-17 pubmed
    ..The core fold of yeast Atg10 is well conserved compared with those of Atg3 and other E2 enzymes...
  6. Mijaljica D, Prescott M, Devenish R. A late form of nucleophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40013 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the inhibition of LN in some mutants is accompanied by alterations in nuclear morphology. ..
  7. Yi C, Ma M, Ran L, Zheng J, Tong J, Zhu J, et al. Function and molecular mechanism of acetylation in autophagy regulation. Science. 2012;336:474-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We further identified the autophagy signaling component Atg3 as a substrate for Esa1...
  8. Jotwani A, Richerson D, Motta I, Julca Zevallos O, Melia T. Approaches to the study of Atg8-mediated membrane dynamics in vitro. Methods Cell Biol. 2012;108:93-116 pubmed publisher
    ..We then describe methods to study Atg8-PE mediated membrane tethering and fusion, two functions implicated in Atg8's role in autophagosome maturation. ..
  9. Schlumpberger M, Schaeffeler E, Straub M, Bredschneider M, Wolf D, Thumm M. AUT1, a gene essential for autophagocytosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:1068-76 pubmed
    ..The AUT1 gene, essential for autophagy, was isolated by complementation of the sporulation deficiency of a diploid aut1-1 ..
  10. Komatsu M, Tanida I, Ueno T, Ohsumi M, Ohsumi Y, Kominami E. The C-terminal region of an Apg7p/Cvt2p is required for homodimerization and is essential for its E1 activity and E1-E2 complex formation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9846-54 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Apg7p forms a homodimer via the C-terminal region and that the C-terminal region is essential for both the activity of the E1 enzyme for Apg12p and Apg8p as well as the formation of an E1-E2 complex for Apg8p. ..
  11. Kaiser S, Mao K, Taherbhoy A, Yu S, Olszewski J, Duda D, et al. Noncanonical E2 recruitment by the autophagy E1 revealed by Atg7-Atg3 and Atg7-Atg10 structures. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:1242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cascades, in which a homodimeric E1 enzyme, Atg7, directs the UBLs Atg8 and Atg12 to their respective E2 enzymes, Atg3 and Atg10...
  12. Kario E, Amar N, Elazar Z, Navon A. A new autophagy-related checkpoint in the degradation of an ERAD-M target. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:11479-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a new conduit for the selective vacuolar/lysosomal removal of ERAD misfolded proteins by an autophagy-related machinery acting concomitantly with the proteasome. ..
  13. Lu K, Psakhye I, Jentsch S. Autophagic clearance of polyQ proteins mediated by ubiquitin-Atg8 adaptors of the conserved CUET protein family. Cell. 2014;158:549-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus propose that CUET proteins play a critical and ancient role in autophagic clearance of cytotoxic protein aggregates. ..
  14. Ngu M, Hirata E, Suzuki K. Visualization of Atg3 during autophagosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:8146-53 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Atg3 is an E2-like enzyme that catalyzes the conjugation reaction between Atg8 and PE...
  15. Sakoh Nakatogawa M, Kirisako H, Nakatogawa H, Ohsumi Y. Localization of Atg3 to autophagy-related membranes and its enhancement by the Atg8-family interacting motif to promote expansion of the membranes. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:744-9 pubmed publisher
    The E2 enzyme Atg3 conjugates the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to drive autophagosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  16. Popelka H, Uversky V, Klionsky D. Identification of Atg3 as an intrinsically disordered polypeptide yields insights into the molecular dynamics of autophagy-related proteins in yeast. Autophagy. 2014;10:1093-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we characterized the autophagy protein Atg3 from yeast and human along with 2 variants to show that Atg3 is an IDPRs-containing protein and that disorder/order ..
  17. Yamaguchi M, Noda N, Nakatogawa H, Kumeta H, Ohsumi Y, Inagaki F. Autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8) family interacting motif in Atg3 mediates the Atg3-Atg8 interaction and is crucial for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Atg3 is an E2-like enzyme that conjugates Atg8 with phosphatidylethanolamine...
  18. Maeda Y, Oku M, Sakai Y. A defect of the vacuolar putative lipase Atg15 accelerates degradation of lipid droplets through lipolysis. Autophagy. 2015;11:1247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence for a novel link between autophagic flux and LD dynamics integrated with Atg15 activity. ..
  19. Yamazaki Sato H, Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E. The carboxyl terminal 17 amino acids within Apg7 are essential for Apg8 lipidation, but not for Apg12 conjugation. FEBS Lett. 2003;551:71-7 pubmed
    ..Mutant Apg7DeltaC17 protein is still able to interact with Apg8, Apg12 and Apg3, and forms a homodimer, indicating that the deletion of the carboxyl terminal 17 amino acids has little effect on ..