Gene Symbol: ATG13
Description: serine/threonine protein kinase regulatory subunit ATG13
Alias: APG13, serine/threonine protein kinase regulatory subunit ATG13
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Cheong H, Yorimitsu T, Reggiori F, Legakis J, Wang C, Klionsky D. Atg17 regulates the magnitude of the autophagic response. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3438-53 pubmed
    ..Atg17 interacts with both Atg1 and Atg13, via two coiled-coil domains, and these interactions facilitate its inclusion in the Atg1 complex.
  2. Funakoshi T, Matsuura A, Noda T, Ohsumi Y. Analyses of APG13 gene involved in autophagy in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 1997;192:207-13 pubmed
    ..that overexpression of APG1 under control of the GAL1 promoter suppressed the autophagy-defective phenotype of apg13-1 mutant...
  3. Pan X, Roberts P, Chen Y, Kvam E, Shulga N, Huang K, et al. Nucleus-vacuole junctions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are formed through the direct interaction of Vac8p with Nvj1p. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2445-57 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of Nvj1p caused the profound proliferation of NV junctions. We conclude that Vac8p and Nvj1p are necessary components of a novel interorganelle junction apparatus. ..
  4. Cheong H, Nair U, Geng J, Klionsky D. The Atg1 kinase complex is involved in the regulation of protein recruitment to initiate sequestering vesicle formation for nonspecific autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:668-81 pubmed
    ..The Atg1 C terminus mediates an interaction with Atg13 and Atg17, facilitating a structural role of Atg1 that is needed to efficiently organize an initial step of PAS ..
  5. Kawamata T, Kamada Y, Kabeya Y, Sekito T, Ohsumi Y. Organization of the pre-autophagosomal structure responsible for autophagosome formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2039-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The Atg1 kinase complex (Atg1-Atg13) is also essential for recruitment of Atg proteins to the PAS...
  6. Tang F, Peng Y, Nau J, Kauffman E, Weisman L. Vac8p, an armadillo repeat protein, coordinates vacuole inheritance with multiple vacuolar processes. Traffic. 2006;7:1368-77 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a major role of Vac8p is to spatially separate multiple functions thereby enabling vacuole inheritance to occur concurrently with other vacuolar processes. ..
  7. He C, Baba M, Cao Y, Klionsky D. Self-interaction is critical for Atg9 transport and function at the phagophore assembly site during autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model in which Atg9 multimerization facilitates membrane flow to the PAS for phagophore formation. ..
  8. Kraft C, Kijanska M, Kalie E, Siergiejuk E, Lee S, Semplicio G, et al. Binding of the Atg1/ULK1 kinase to the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 regulates autophagy. EMBO J. 2012;31:3691-703 pubmed publisher
    ..The Atg1/ULK1 kinase is an essential component of the core autophagy machinery possibly activated by binding to Atg13 upon starvation...
  9. Cao Y, Cheong H, Song H, Klionsky D. In vivo reconstitution of autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:703-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo reconstitution enables the study of autophagy within the context of the complex regulatory networks that control this process, an analysis that is not possible with an in vitro system. ..

More Information


  1. Stjepanovic G, Davies C, Stanley R, Ragusa M, Kim D, Hurley J. Assembly and dynamics of the autophagy-initiating Atg1 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12793-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex consists of the protein kinase Atg1, the TORC1 substrate Atg13, and the trimeric Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 scaffolding subcomplex...
  2. Kamada Y, Funakoshi T, Shintani T, Nagano K, Ohsumi M, Ohsumi Y. Tor-mediated induction of autophagy via an Apg1 protein kinase complex. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1507-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have also found that Apg13, which binds to and activates Apg1, is hyperphosphorylated in a Tor-dependent manner, reducing its affinity to ..
  3. Cao Y, Nair U, Yasumura Yorimitsu K, Klionsky D. A multiple ATG gene knockout strain for yeast two-hybrid analysis. Autophagy. 2009;5:699-705 pubmed
    ..We also probed a new interaction using the MKO Y2H strain, and our results suggest that Atg29 and Atg31 interact independently of other known Atg proteins, and this interaction may mediate the interaction between Atg17 and Atg29. ..
  4. Kijanska M, Dohnal I, Reiter W, Kaspar S, Stoffel I, Ammerer G, et al. Activation of Atg1 kinase in autophagy by regulated phosphorylation. Autophagy. 2010;6:1168-78 pubmed
    ..assembly site (PAS), or the proper assembly of the multisubunit Atg1 kinase complex and binding to its activator Atg13. However, mutation of either one of these sites results in a loss of Atg1 kinase activity and its function in ..
  5. Yeasmin A, Waliullah T, Kondo A, Kaneko A, Koike N, Ushimaru T. Orchestrated Action of PP2A Antagonizes Atg13 Phosphorylation and Promotes Autophagy after the Inactivation of TORC1. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166636 pubmed publisher
    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) phosphorylates autophagy-related Atg13 and represses autophagy under nutrient-rich conditions...
  6. Kabeya Y, Kamada Y, Baba M, Takikawa H, Sasaki M, Ohsumi Y. Atg17 functions in cooperation with Atg1 and Atg13 in yeast autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2544-53 pubmed
    ..Two-hybrid analyses and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that Atg17 physically associates with Atg1-Atg13 complex, and this binding was enhanced under starvation conditions...
  7. Bahrami A, Lin M, Ren X, Hurley J, Hummer G. Scaffolding the cup-shaped double membrane in autophagy. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017;13:e1005817 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusion of a small number of vesicles followed by Atg17-guided membrane shape-remodeling thus emerges as a viable route to phagophore formation. ..
  8. Stephan J, Yeh Y, Ramachandran V, Deminoff S, Herman P. The Tor and PKA signaling pathways independently target the Atg1/Atg13 protein kinase complex to control autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that in addition to Atg1, PKA directly phosphorylates Atg13, a conserved regulator of Atg1 kinase activity...
  9. Nakatogawa H, Ohbayashi S, Sakoh Nakatogawa M, Kakuta S, Suzuki S, Kirisako H, et al. The autophagy-related protein kinase Atg1 interacts with the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 via the Atg8 family interacting motif to facilitate autophagosome formation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28503-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that in addition to its essential function in the initial stage, Atg1 also associates with the isolation membrane to promote its maturation into the autophagosome. ..
  10. Scott S, Nice D, Nau J, Weisman L, Kamada Y, Keizer Gunnink I, et al. Apg13p and Vac8p are part of a complex of phosphoproteins that are required for cytoplasm to vacuole targeting. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25840-9 pubmed
    ..The Vac8 and Apg13 proteins are required for the import of aminopeptidase I (API) through the Cvt pathway...
  11. Kanki T, Wang K, Baba M, Bartholomew C, Lynch Day M, Du Z, et al. A genomic screen for yeast mutants defective in selective mitochondria autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4730-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we have named this gene ATG33. The new mutants identified in this analysis will provide a useful foundation for researchers interested in the study of mitochondrial homeostasis and quality control. ..
  12. Yeh Y, Shah K, Chou C, Hsiao H, Wrasman K, Stephan J, et al. The identification and analysis of phosphorylation sites on the Atg1 protein kinase. Autophagy. 2011;7:716-26 pubmed
    ..In all, these studies identified a number of potential sites of regulation within Atg1 and will serve as a framework for future work with this enzyme. ..
  13. Eapen V, Haber J. DNA damage signaling triggers the cytoplasm-to-vacuole pathway of autophagy to regulate cell cycle progression. Autophagy. 2013;9:440-1 pubmed publisher
    ..GARP genes can be mimicked by hyperactivation of the Cvt pathway by overexpressing an unphosphorylatable form of ATG13 or by adding the TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin...
  14. Jao C, Ragusa M, Stanley R, Hurley J. A HORMA domain in Atg13 mediates PI 3-kinase recruitment in autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5486-91 pubmed publisher
    Autophagy-related 13 (Atg13) is a key early-acting factor in autophagy and the major locus for nutrient-dependent regulation of autophagy by Tor. The 2...
  15. Chew L, Lu S, Liu X, Li F, Yu A, Klionsky D, et al. Molecular interactions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atg1 complex provide insights into assembly and regulatory mechanisms. Autophagy. 2015;11:891-905 pubmed publisher
    The Atg1 complex, which contains 5 major subunits: Atg1, Atg13, Atg17, Atg29, and Atg31, regulates the induction of autophagy and autophagosome formation...
  16. Maeda Y, Oku M, Sakai Y. A defect of the vacuolar putative lipase Atg15 accelerates degradation of lipid droplets through lipolysis. Autophagy. 2015;11:1247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence for a novel link between autophagic flux and LD dynamics integrated with Atg15 activity. ..
  17. Kamber R, Shoemaker C, Denic V. Receptor-Bound Targets of Selective Autophagy Use a Scaffold Protein to Activate the Atg1 Kinase. Mol Cell. 2015;59:372-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulatory logic is a key similarity between selective autophagy and bulk autophagy, which is initiated by a distinct Atg1 activation mechanism during starvation. ..
  18. Wang Z, Wilson W, Fujino M, Roach P. Antagonistic controls of autophagy and glycogen accumulation by Snf1p, the yeast homolog of AMP-activated protein kinase, and the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85p. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5742-52 pubmed
    ..A genetic screen revealed that two genes involved in autophagy, APG1 and APG13, may be regulated by SNF1...
  19. Yeh Y, Shah K, Herman P. An Atg13 protein-mediated self-association of the Atg1 protein kinase is important for the induction of autophagy. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28931-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we show that Atg13, an evolutionarily conserved regulator of Atg1, promotes the formation of a specific Atg1 self-interaction in the ..
  20. Fujioka Y, Suzuki S, Yamamoto H, Kondo Kakuta C, Kimura Y, Hirano H, et al. Structural basis of starvation-induced assembly of the autophagy initiation complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Starvation-induced dephosphorylation of Atg13 is required for the formation of the Atg1-Atg13-Atg17-Atg29-Atg31 complex (Atg1 complex), a prerequisite for PAS ..
  21. Yamamoto H, Fujioka Y, Suzuki S, Noshiro D, Suzuki H, Kondo Kakuta C, et al. The Intrinsically Disordered Protein Atg13 Mediates Supramolecular Assembly of Autophagy Initiation Complexes. Dev Cell. 2016;38:86-99 pubmed publisher
    ..assembly of the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS), in which multiple Atg1 complexes (composed of Atg1, Atg13, and the Atg17-Atg29-Atg31 subcomplex) are initially engaged...
  22. Mijaljica D, Prescott M, Devenish R. A late form of nucleophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40013 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the inhibition of LN in some mutants is accompanied by alterations in nuclear morphology. ..
  23. Kamada Y, Yoshino K, Kondo C, Kawamata T, Oshiro N, Yonezawa K, et al. Tor directly controls the Atg1 kinase complex to regulate autophagy. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1049-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism by which TORC1 controls autophagy and the direct target of TORC1 activity remain unclear. Atg13 is an essential regulatory component of autophagy upstream of the Atg1 kinase complex, and here we show that yeast ..
  24. Torggler R, Papinski D, Brach T, Bas L, Schuschnig M, Pfaffenwimmer T, et al. Two Independent Pathways within Selective Autophagy Converge to Activate Atg1 Kinase at the Vacuole. Mol Cell. 2016;64:221-235 pubmed publisher
    ..approach (iPass) that combines genetic deletion with chemically induced dimerization to evaluate the roles of Atg13 and cargo receptors in Atg1 kinase activation and selective autophagy progression...
  25. Suzuki K, Akioka M, Kondo Kakuta C, Yamamoto H, Ohsumi Y. Fine mapping of autophagy-related proteins during autophagosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2534-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The PAS scaffold proteins (Atg13 and Atg17) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I were localized to a position at the junction between the IM ..
  26. Rao Y, Perna M, Hofmann B, Beier V, Wollert T. The Atg1-kinase complex tethers Atg9-vesicles to initiate autophagy. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10338 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction is inhibited by the two regulatory subunits Atg31 and Atg29. Engagement of the Atg1-Atg13 subcomplex restores the Atg9-binding and membrane-tethering activity of Atg17...