Gene Symbol: ATG1
Description: serine/threonine protein kinase ATG1
Alias: APG1, AUT3, CVT10, serine/threonine protein kinase ATG1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Nair U, Jotwani A, Geng J, Gammoh N, Richerson D, Yen W, et al. SNARE proteins are required for macroautophagy. Cell. 2011;146:290-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, multiple SNARE-mediated fusion events are likely to be involved in autophagosome biogenesis. ..
  2. Kraft C, Kijanska M, Kalie E, Siergiejuk E, Lee S, Semplicio G, et al. Binding of the Atg1/ULK1 kinase to the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 regulates autophagy. EMBO J. 2012;31:3691-703 pubmed publisher
    ..The Atg1/ULK1 kinase is an essential component of the core autophagy machinery possibly activated by binding to Atg13 upon ..
  3. Kanki T, Wang K, Baba M, Bartholomew C, Lynch Day M, Du Z, et al. A genomic screen for yeast mutants defective in selective mitochondria autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4730-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we have named this gene ATG33. The new mutants identified in this analysis will provide a useful foundation for researchers interested in the study of mitochondrial homeostasis and quality control. ..
  4. Cheong H, Yorimitsu T, Reggiori F, Legakis J, Wang C, Klionsky D. Atg17 regulates the magnitude of the autophagic response. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3438-53 pubmed
    ..One set of proteins that seems to function in this regard includes a complex that contains the Atg1 kinase...
  5. Kim J, Kamada Y, Stromhaug P, Guan J, Hefner Gravink A, Baba M, et al. Cvt9/Gsa9 functions in sequestering selective cytosolic cargo destined for the vacuole. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:381-96 pubmed
    ..Cvt9 oligomers peripherally associate with a novel, perivacuolar membrane compartment and interact with Apg1, a Ser/Thr kinase essential for both the Cvt pathway and autophagy. In P...
  6. Motley A, Nuttall J, Hettema E. Pex3-anchored Atg36 tags peroxisomes for degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 2012;31:2852-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Pex3 recruits the pexophagy receptor Atg36. This reinforces the pivotal role played by Pex3 in coordinating the size of the peroxisome pool, and establishes its role in pexophagy in S. cerevisiae...
  7. Kijanska M, Dohnal I, Reiter W, Kaspar S, Stoffel I, Ammerer G, et al. Activation of Atg1 kinase in autophagy by regulated phosphorylation. Autophagy. 2010;6:1168-78 pubmed
    ..b>Atg1 is an essential part of the core autophagic machinery, which triggers induction of autophagy and the Cvt pathway...
  8. Mao K, Wang K, Zhao M, Xu T, Klionsky D. Two MAPK-signaling pathways are required for mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Slt2 also affects the recruitment of mitochondria to the phagophore assembly site (PAS), a critical step in the packaging of cargo for selective degradation...
  9. Cheong H, Nair U, Geng J, Klionsky D. The Atg1 kinase complex is involved in the regulation of protein recruitment to initiate sequestering vesicle formation for nonspecific autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:668-81 pubmed
    ..We found that protein complexes containing the Atg1 kinase have two roles for PAS formation during nonspecific autophagy...

More Information


  1. Kawamata T, Kamada Y, Kabeya Y, Sekito T, Ohsumi Y. Organization of the pre-autophagosomal structure responsible for autophagosome formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2039-50 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that these Atg proteins function as a ternary complex, because Atg29 and Atg31 bind to Atg17. The Atg1 kinase complex (Atg1-Atg13) is also essential for recruitment of Atg proteins to the PAS...
  2. Suzuki K, Akioka M, Kondo Kakuta C, Yamamoto H, Ohsumi Y. Fine mapping of autophagy-related proteins during autophagosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2534-44 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, Atg1, Atg8 and the Atg16-Atg12-Atg5 complex were present at both the VICS and the cup-shaped IM...
  3. Yamamoto H, Kakuta S, Watanabe T, Kitamura A, Sekito T, Kondo Kakuta C, et al. Atg9 vesicles are an important membrane source during early steps of autophagosome formation. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:219-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide conclusive linkage between the cytoplasmic Atg9 vesicles and autophagosomal membranes and offer new insight into the requirement for Atg9 vesicles at the early step of autophagosome formation...
  4. Cao Y, Cheong H, Song H, Klionsky D. In vivo reconstitution of autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:703-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo reconstitution enables the study of autophagy within the context of the complex regulatory networks that control this process, an analysis that is not possible with an in vitro system. ..
  5. Monastyrska I, He C, Geng J, Hoppe A, Li Z, Klionsky D. Arp2 links autophagic machinery with the actin cytoskeleton. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1962-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that proteins of the Arp2/3 complex regulate Atg9 transport for specific types of autophagy. ..
  6. Funakoshi T, Matsuura A, Noda T, Ohsumi Y. Analyses of APG13 gene involved in autophagy in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 1997;192:207-13 pubmed
    ..Among them, APG1 encodes a novel Ser/Thr protein kinase whose kinase activity is essential for autophagy...
  7. Yorimitsu T, Klionsky D. Atg11 links cargo to the vesicle-forming machinery in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:1593-605 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Atg11 plays an integral role in connecting cargo molecules with components of the vesicle-forming machinery. ..
  8. Matsuura A, Tsukada M, Wada Y, Ohsumi Y. Apg1p, a novel protein kinase required for the autophagic process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 1997;192:245-50 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the APG1 gene, involved in the autophagic process in yeast, encodes a novel type of Ser/Thr protein kinase...
  9. Abeliovich H, Zhang C, Dunn W, Shokat K, Klionsky D. Chemical genetic analysis of Apg1 reveals a non-kinase role in the induction of autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:477-90 pubmed
    ..b>Apg1 is one of the proteins required for the direct signal transduction cascade that modifies membrane dynamics...
  10. Kamada Y, Yoshino K, Kondo C, Kawamata T, Oshiro N, Yonezawa K, et al. Tor directly controls the Atg1 kinase complex to regulate autophagy. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1049-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Atg13 is an essential regulatory component of autophagy upstream of the Atg1 kinase complex, and here we show that yeast TORC1 directly phosphorylates Atg13 at multiple Ser residues...
  11. Suzuki K, Kirisako T, Kamada Y, Mizushima N, Noda T, Ohsumi Y. The pre-autophagosomal structure organized by concerted functions of APG genes is essential for autophagosome formation. EMBO J. 2001;20:5971-81 pubmed
    ..The Apg1p protein kinase complex functions in the late stage of autophagosome formation. Here, we present the classification of Apg proteins into three groups that reflect each step of autophagosome formation. ..
  12. Yeh Y, Wrasman K, Herman P. Autophosphorylation within the Atg1 activation loop is required for both kinase activity and the induction of autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2010;185:871-82 pubmed publisher be highly regulated and multiple signaling pathways are known to target a complex of proteins that contains the Atg1 protein kinase...
  13. Ma J, Bharucha N, Dobry C, Frisch R, Lawson S, Kumar A. Localization of autophagy-related proteins in yeast using a versatile plasmid-based resource of fluorescent protein fusions. Autophagy. 2008;4:792-800 pubmed
    ..membrane protein Atg9p at the pre-autophagosomal structure upon overexpression of ATG11 and upon deletion of ATG1. Collectively, this plasmid-based resource of yeast gene-vYFP fusions provides an initial toolkit for a variety of ..
  14. Kamada Y, Funakoshi T, Shintani T, Nagano K, Ohsumi M, Ohsumi Y. Tor-mediated induction of autophagy via an Apg1 protein kinase complex. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1507-13 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the protein kinase activity of Apg1 is enhanced by starvation or rapamycin treatment...
  15. Zou S, Chen Y, Liu Y, Segev N, Yu S, Liu Y, et al. Trs130 participates in autophagy through GTPases Ypt31/32 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Traffic. 2013;14:233-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic studies showed that the effect of the Trs130 mutation was downstream of Atg5 and upstream of Atg1, Atg13, Atg9 and Atg14 on the autophagic pathway...
  16. Mijaljica D, Prescott M, Devenish R. A late form of nucleophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40013 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the inhibition of LN in some mutants is accompanied by alterations in nuclear morphology. ..
  17. Ho K, Chang H, Huang W. Mutation at the cargo-receptor binding site of Atg8 also affects its general autophagy regulation function. Autophagy. 2009;5:461-71 pubmed
    ..Our observation paves the road for a more comprehensive understanding on how Atg8 coordinates cargo sorting and vesicle formation in selective autophagic pathways. ..
  18. Sánchez Wandelmer J, Kriegenburg F, Rohringer S, Schuschnig M, Gómez Sánchez R, Zens B, et al. Atg4 proteolytic activity can be inhibited by Atg1 phosphorylation. Nat Commun. 2017;8:295 pubmed publisher
    ..How these two cleavage steps are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation by Atg1 inhibits Atg4 function, an event that appears to exclusively occur at the site of autophagosome biogenesis...
  19. Oliveira A, Ludwig C, Zampieri M, Weisser H, Aebersold R, Sauer U. Dynamic phosphoproteomics reveals TORC1-dependent regulation of yeast nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis. Sci Signal. 2015;8:rs4 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identified the TORC1 substrates Sch9 and Atg1 as candidate kinases that phosphorylate Amd1 and Hom3, respectively.
  20. Zimmermann C, Santos A, Gable K, Epstein S, Gururaj C, Chymkowitch P, et al. TORC1 inhibits GSK3-mediated Elo2 phosphorylation to regulate very long chain fatty acid synthesis and autophagy. Cell Rep. 2013;5:1036-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal a function for TORC1 and GSK3 in the regulation of VLCFA synthesis that has important implications for autophagy and cell homeostasis. ..
  21. Lefevre S, Van Roermund C, Wanders R, Veenhuis M, van der Klei I. The significance of peroxisome function in chronological aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aging Cell. 2013;12:784-93 pubmed publisher
  22. Aguilar Lopez J, Laboy R, Jaimes Miranda F, Garay E, DeLuna A, Funes S. Slm35 links mitochondrial stress response and longevity through TOR signaling pathway. Aging (Albany NY). 2016;8:3255-3271 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here suggest that Slm35 plays an important role connecting mitochondrial function with cytosolic responses and cell adaptation to stress and aging. ..
  23. Wilson Zbinden C, Dos Santos A, Stoffel Studer I, van der Vaart A, Hofmann K, Reggiori F, et al. Autophagy competes for a common phosphatidylethanolamine pool with major cellular PE-consuming pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2015;199:475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..defects of mcd4-174 and mcd4-P301L mutants are suppressed by deletion of essential autophagy genes such as ATG1 or ATG7...
  24. Fujioka Y, Suzuki S, Yamamoto H, Kondo Kakuta C, Kimura Y, Hirano H, et al. Structural basis of starvation-induced assembly of the autophagy initiation complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Starvation-induced dephosphorylation of Atg13 is required for the formation of the Atg1-Atg13-Atg17-Atg29-Atg31 complex (Atg1 complex), a prerequisite for PAS assembly...
  25. Yamamoto H, Fujioka Y, Suzuki S, Noshiro D, Suzuki H, Kondo Kakuta C, et al. The Intrinsically Disordered Protein Atg13 Mediates Supramolecular Assembly of Autophagy Initiation Complexes. Dev Cell. 2016;38:86-99 pubmed publisher
    ..formation in yeast entails starvation-induced assembly of the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS), in which multiple Atg1 complexes (composed of Atg1, Atg13, and the Atg17-Atg29-Atg31 subcomplex) are initially engaged...
  26. Kamber R, Shoemaker C, Denic V. Receptor-Bound Targets of Selective Autophagy Use a Scaffold Protein to Activate the Atg1 Kinase. Mol Cell. 2015;59:372-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that in yeast certain receptor-bound targets activate Atg1, the kinase that controls autophagosome formation...
  27. Yen W, Shintani T, Nair U, Cao Y, Richardson B, Li Z, et al. The conserved oligomeric Golgi complex is involved in double-membrane vesicle formation during autophagy. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:101-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, mutations in the COG genes resulted in the mislocalization of Atg8 and Atg9, which are critical components involved in autophagosome formation...
  28. Nakatogawa H, Ohbayashi S, Sakoh Nakatogawa M, Kakuta S, Suzuki S, Kirisako H, et al. The autophagy-related protein kinase Atg1 interacts with the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 via the Atg8 family interacting motif to facilitate autophagosome formation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28503-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Atg1 is a serine/threonine kinase that functions in the initial step of autophagosome formation and is also efficiently ..
  29. Wang Z, Wilson W, Fujino M, Roach P. Antagonistic controls of autophagy and glycogen accumulation by Snf1p, the yeast homolog of AMP-activated protein kinase, and the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85p. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5742-52 pubmed
    ..A genetic screen revealed that two genes involved in autophagy, APG1 and APG13, may be regulated by SNF1...
  30. Chew L, Lu S, Liu X, Li F, Yu A, Klionsky D, et al. Molecular interactions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atg1 complex provide insights into assembly and regulatory mechanisms. Autophagy. 2015;11:891-905 pubmed publisher
    The Atg1 complex, which contains 5 major subunits: Atg1, Atg13, Atg17, Atg29, and Atg31, regulates the induction of autophagy and autophagosome formation...
  31. Rao Y, Perna M, Hofmann B, Beier V, Wollert T. The Atg1-kinase complex tethers Atg9-vesicles to initiate autophagy. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10338 pubmed publisher
    ..This process depends on the regulated activation of the Atg1-kinase complex. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear...
  32. Stjepanovic G, Davies C, Stanley R, Ragusa M, Kim D, Hurley J. Assembly and dynamics of the autophagy-initiating Atg1 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12793-8 pubmed publisher
    The autophagy-related 1 (Atg1) complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a central role in the initiation of autophagy following starvation and TORC1 inactivation...
  33. Maeda Y, Oku M, Sakai Y. A defect of the vacuolar putative lipase Atg15 accelerates degradation of lipid droplets through lipolysis. Autophagy. 2015;11:1247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence for a novel link between autophagic flux and LD dynamics integrated with Atg15 activity. ..
  34. Yorimitsu T, He C, Wang K, Klionsky D. Tap42-associated protein phosphatase type 2A negatively regulates induction of autophagy. Autophagy. 2009;5:616-24 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, inactivation of PP2A stimulated autophagy and overexpression of a catalytic subunit of PP2A blocked rapamycin-induced autophagy. Our data support a model in which autophagy is negatively regulated by the Tap42-PP2A pathway. ..
  35. Tal R, Winter G, Ecker N, Klionsky D, Abeliovich H. Aup1p, a yeast mitochondrial protein phosphatase homolog, is required for efficient stationary phase mitophagy and cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5617-24 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Aup1p may be part of a signal transduction mechanism that marks mitochondria for sequestration into autophagosomes. ..
  36. Torggler R, Papinski D, Brach T, Bas L, Schuschnig M, Pfaffenwimmer T, et al. Two Independent Pathways within Selective Autophagy Converge to Activate Atg1 Kinase at the Vacuole. Mol Cell. 2016;64:221-235 pubmed publisher the scaffold protein Atg11 and, in turn, to the autophagic machinery, including the central autophagy kinase Atg1. Here we show how selective autophagy is tightly regulated in space and time to prevent aberrant Atg1 kinase ..
  37. Nakatogawa H, Ishii J, Asai E, Ohsumi Y. Atg4 recycles inappropriately lipidated Atg8 to promote autophagosome biogenesis. Autophagy. 2012;8:177-86 pubmed publisher
  38. Kabeya Y, Kamada Y, Baba M, Takikawa H, Sasaki M, Ohsumi Y. Atg17 functions in cooperation with Atg1 and Atg13 in yeast autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2544-53 pubmed
    ..Two-hybrid analyses and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that Atg17 physically associates with Atg1-Atg13 complex, and this binding was enhanced under starvation conditions...
  39. Cao Y, Nair U, Yasumura Yorimitsu K, Klionsky D. A multiple ATG gene knockout strain for yeast two-hybrid analysis. Autophagy. 2009;5:699-705 pubmed
    ..We also probed a new interaction using the MKO Y2H strain, and our results suggest that Atg29 and Atg31 interact independently of other known Atg proteins, and this interaction may mediate the interaction between Atg17 and Atg29. ..
  40. Stephan J, Yeh Y, Ramachandran V, Deminoff S, Herman P. The Tor and PKA signaling pathways independently target the Atg1/Atg13 protein kinase complex to control autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These pathways appear to target a complex of proteins that contains the Atg1 protein kinase...
  41. He C, Baba M, Cao Y, Klionsky D. Self-interaction is critical for Atg9 transport and function at the phagophore assembly site during autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model in which Atg9 multimerization facilitates membrane flow to the PAS for phagophore formation. ..
  42. Wang J, Menon S, Yamasaki A, Chou H, Walz T, Jiang Y, et al. Ypt1 recruits the Atg1 kinase to the preautophagosomal structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9800-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that activated Ypt1 recruits the putative membrane curvature sensor Atg1 to the PAS, bringing it into proximity to its binding partner Atg17...
  43. Papinski D, Schuschnig M, Reiter W, Wilhelm L, Barnes C, Maiolica A, et al. Early steps in autophagy depend on direct phosphorylation of Atg9 by the Atg1 kinase. Mol Cell. 2014;53:471-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The Atg1/ULK1 kinase is essential for this process; however, little is known about its targets and the means by which it ..
  44. Matsui A, Kamada Y, Matsuura A. The role of autophagy in genome stability through suppression of abnormal mitosis under starvation. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003245 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data establish the role of autophagy in genome stability through modulation of cell division under conditions that repress cell growth. ..
  45. Cheong H, Klionsky D. Dual role of Atg1 in regulation of autophagy-specific PAS assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Autophagy. 2008;4:724-6 pubmed
    ..We found that Atg1, Atg13 and Atg17 play a similar role for PAS formation under autophagy-inducing conditions as seen for Atg11 during ..
  46. Yeh Y, Shah K, Chou C, Hsiao H, Wrasman K, Stephan J, et al. The identification and analysis of phosphorylation sites on the Atg1 protein kinase. Autophagy. 2011;7:716-26 pubmed
    ..The Atg1 protein kinase is a key element of this control as a number of signaling pathways target this enzyme and its ..
  47. Robert T, Vanoli F, Chiolo I, Shubassi G, Bernstein K, Rothstein R, et al. HDACs link the DNA damage response, processing of double-strand breaks and autophagy. Nature. 2011;471:74-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Rpd3, Hda1 and Gcn5 control chromosome stability by coordinating the ATR checkpoint and double-strand-break processing with autophagy. ..
  48. Kario E, Amar N, Elazar Z, Navon A. A new autophagy-related checkpoint in the degradation of an ERAD-M target. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:11479-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a new conduit for the selective vacuolar/lysosomal removal of ERAD misfolded proteins by an autophagy-related machinery acting concomitantly with the proteasome. ..
  49. Straub M, Bredschneider M, Thumm M. AUT3, a serine/threonine kinase gene, is essential for autophagocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3875-83 pubmed
    ..b>aut3-1 mutant cells which exhibit a block in the autophagic process have been isolated previously...
  50. Eapen V, Haber J. DNA damage signaling triggers the cytoplasm-to-vacuole pathway of autophagy to regulate cell cycle progression. Autophagy. 2013;9:440-1 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that nuclear events such as DNA damage can have profound effects on cytoplasmic processes and further expand the burgeoning connections between DNA damage and autophagy. ..
  51. Lipatova Z, Segev N. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005390 pubmed publisher
  52. Umekawa M, Klionsky D. Ksp1 kinase regulates autophagy via the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) pathway. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16300-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study therefore identifies Ksp1 as a new component that functions as part of the PKA and TORC1 signaling network to control the magnitude of autophagy. ..
  53. Pfaffenwimmer T, Reiter W, Brach T, Nogellova V, Papinski D, Schuschnig M, et al. Hrr25 kinase promotes selective autophagy by phosphorylating the cargo receptor Atg19. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:862-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that the Atg34 cargo receptor is regulated in a similar manner, suggesting a conserved mechanism. ..
  54. Mao K, Chew L, Inoue Aono Y, Cheong H, Nair U, Popelka H, et al. Atg29 phosphorylation regulates coordination of the Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 complex with the Atg11 scaffold during autophagy initiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, single-particle electron microscopy analysis of the Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 complex reveals an elongated structure with Atg29 located at the opposing ends. ..
  55. van der Vaart A, Griffith J, Reggiori F. Exit from the Golgi is required for the expansion of the autophagosomal phagophore in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2270-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that the Golgi complex plays a crucial role in supplying the lipid bilayers necessary for the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles possibly through a new class of transport carriers or a new mechanism. ..
  56. Alemu E, Lamark T, Torgersen K, Birgisdottir A, Larsen K, Jain A, et al. ATG8 family proteins act as scaffolds for assembly of the ULK complex: sequence requirements for LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39275-90 pubmed publisher
    Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradation system conserved among eukaryotes. The mammalian Atg1 homologues, Unc-51 like kinase (ULK) 1 and 2, are multifunctional proteins with roles in autophagy, neurite outgrowth, and vesicle ..
  57. Jensen L, Carroll M, Hall M, Harvey C, Beese S, Culotta V. Down-regulation of a manganese transporter in the face of metal toxicity. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2810-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that manganese starvation is sensed within the lumen of the secretory pathway, whereas manganese toxicity is sensed within an extra-Golgi/cytosolic compartment of the cell. ..
  58. Yeh Y, Shah K, Herman P. An Atg13 protein-mediated self-association of the Atg1 protein kinase is important for the induction of autophagy. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28931-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Atg1 protein kinase appears to be a key site of this control and is targeted by multiple signaling pathways to ensure ..